Seed Policy Dynamics: Lessons From Kenya


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A look at the history of seed policy making in Kenya

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Seed Policy Dynamics: Lessons From Kenya

  1. 1. Seed Policy Dynamics: Lessons From Kenya Presentation to the Regional Dialogue on Strengthening African Seed Systems: Technical, Economic and Policy Challenges Jacaranda Hotel, Nairobi - 14th July 2014 Kenneth O. Ayuko Deputy Director Policy Development State Department of Agriculture Kenya 1
  2. 2. Agriculture Policy Reforms: Historical Perspectives • Kenya’s agriculture system has evolved through socio- political dynamics and reforms since the 1920s. • Several policy frameworks and strategies developed over time to guide agricultural development in Kenya. Era Focus •Pre-Colonial Traditional/shifting cultivation and pastoralism •Colonial •Settler agriculture/White highlands/Raw material for European(British economy)/African labour •Gradual introduction of Africans to commercial farming (Devonshire White Paper 1923) •Set stage for major cash crop development by Africans (Sywnnerton Plan - Plan to Intesify African Agriculture in Kenya) 2
  3. 3. 1. Agriculture Sector Reforms: Historical PerspectivesEra Focus •Post independence Acceleration of Africanization of Kenyan Agriculture  Control Command •Control of agriculture through ordinances and Acts •Era of Produce Marketing Boards  Liberalization •Breton Woods prescriptions for reduced Govt Participation in business •Structural adjustment and introduction of private sector participation  Liberalized Economy •Greater private sector participation along commodity value chains •Deepening of institutional and legal reforms •Market driven agricultural economy •Shift focus from production to commodity value
  4. 4. The Seed Policy Debate: Development of the Kenyan Seed System Characteristics of the seed sector  Dichotomy of sectors: >>> formal and informal  Regulatory framework anchored in Seed and Plant Varieties Act (Cap. 326 of the Laws of Kenya)  Cereals especially maize >> most visible of the formal sector seed system  Informal seed sector substantial but figures not verified >>> paradox  Perceived to be over-regulated 4
  5. 5. Background to Seed Industry Policy and Regulatory Reforms National Seed Policy published and launched September 2010.  Objective >>> transform the seed sector and enhance its ability to provide adequate high quality seed to the farmers of Kenya.  exploit potential of improved varieties and technologies for increased agricultural productivity  create an effective regulatory framework  improve infrastructure for seed industry growth  support dual participation of public and private sectors  harmonize regional policies and regulations to support cross border seed trade  conform with international conventions and treaties
  6. 6. Purpose To review of the legal framework governing the seed industry through amendments to the Seeds and Plant Varieties Act, Cap 326 in order to; Introduce necessary reforms in the seeds sub-sector Harmonize with the current national policy environment and international convention Promote a modern and competitive seed industry Facilitate regional trade in seed
  7. 7. Objectives of the Seeds and Plant Varieties Act ammendments Specifically the amendments cover the following areas:- Review of the Plant Variety Protection (PVP) provisions to conform with UPOV 1991 to which Kenya is a party ; Strengthen industry self-regulation by allowing authorization and registration of private seed inspectors and seed testing services to supplement the services offered by the KEPHIS;
  8. 8. 8 Objectives of the Seeds and Plant Varieties Act ammendments Deter malpractices in the industry through stiffer penalties and creation of new offences; Provide for legal anchorage for a National Plant Genetic Resources Centre to serve as a repository for germplasm for plants for food and Agriculture; Broaden the Seed Tribunal jurisdiction to; Cover seed certification Cover compensation arising from seed production and sale Provide for enforcement of Tribunal decisions
  9. 9. 9 Consequential steps to the Seeds and Plant Varieties Act ammendments New regulations to effect the ammendment  Seed and Plant Varieties Act (Seed Regulations)  Seed and Plant Varieties Act (National Performance Trials Regulations)  Seed and Plant Varieties Act (Plant Breeders Rights Regulations) Not without controversy  On the drawing board; Seed and Plant Varieties Act (Plant Genetic Resources Conservation and Benefits Sharing); Intended to domesticate the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA)
  10. 10. Origins of Agriculture
  11. 11. Shukhria 11