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Ndiaye Agricultural non family workers (Sourga) in Senegal River Valley


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Ndiaye Agricultural non family workers (Sourga) in Senegal River Valley

  1. 1. Amadou NDIAYE Presentation
  2. 2. Agricultural Non-family Workers (Sourga) in Senegal River Valley• Navetanat phenomenon: - Colonial system: Introduction of groundnut - Seasonal worker : Rainy season - In 1970s : Regression (Economic crisis and dry climat)• Sourga phenomenon : Niayes Zone and Senegal River Valley (later 1990s) - Sourga in Niayes Zone : Seasonals workers  stay: Cold season  paid as sharecropping - Senegal River Valley : what about the phenomenom?
  3. 3. Objectives• General objective : Determine status, relationships and perpectives of the Sourga in the Senegal River Valley• Specifiques objectives :- Describe the Senegal Valley cropping system- Identify the type profile of Sourga in the River Valley- Characterize the relationship between Sourga and employer
  4. 4. Results (1/7): The Valley system of production (General system)• The plots (Irrigation Facilities) : 102 525 ha in a potential of 240 000 ha en 2010• 3 seasons of cropping: Rainy season (July- November) Cold season (November to February) and Warm season (February to June).• Two types of productions :- Food production (rice and corn): Rainy /Warm season- Vegetable production: Cold season (tomato, onions), Warm season (sweet potatoes), Rainy (watermelon and cabidge)
  5. 5. Results (2/7): The Valley system of production (farming system)• Financing system- A founding bank system : tomato mainly- Divers sources of financing : Profit in the tomato, Livestock commercialisation, Perdium, Migrant, Micro- finance system.• Inputs: extension system (state, NGO) and weekly market• Commercialisation: informal marketing system (except tomato)• Garanty : No agricultural insurance, No Fund of natural disasters
  6. 6. Result (3/7): The sourga status (1/4)• Agand training: 18 to 45 old, No training• Origin : South side (peanut basin and casamance) and neighboring countries (Gambia and 2 Guinea)• Stay : Seasonal (agricultural campaign) or Years• Housing : Rented room in village Huts built in the field• Activities and workload: Ploughing, Weeding, Planting, Irrigation, Harvesting, Monitoring, Protection
  7. 7. Result (4/7): The sourga status (2/4) Sourga as Permanently worker• Ratio : 3 sourga for a parcel of 0.5 ha• The remuneration of the sourga : - in-kind : many forms of sharecropping - Cash: average 35000 FCFA/month• Payment period: - End of the campaign - Cash advance
  8. 8. Result (5/7): The sourga status (3/4)Sourga Temporary workers for Points operations:- Rice: Herbicide treatment: 2 S/ha/ for day Caretaking of birds: 1 S/ha for a month Harvesting and Threshing: 10 S/day/ha- Onion: Transplanting: 25 S/ day Harvest: 22 S/ ha/day- Tomato: Transplanting: 14 S/ha/ day Harvest: 12 S (5 passages needed)
  9. 9. Result (6/7): The sourga status (3/4)Terms and conditions Activities AmountsPer day and person The rice crop 2700 FCFA Hoeing tomato Transplanting (onion and tomato)Operation point/ ha Transplanting (tomato and onion) 22000 F.CFA Sarclo hoeing (tomato and onion) 25000 F.CFASustainable operation/ha Weed control, irrigation, harvesting 145000 FCFA Caretaking against birds 35000 FCFA/ha
  10. 10. Result (7/7): Sourga and employer relations : Informal contract- Concerns: Time of work , start date and the end of the contract, Field activities, Producers commitments- Benefits for the Sourga: Period of high intensity of labor / contract renegotiation after each campaign- Problems for the sourga: Non-payment of the Sourga, Eternal working force, No Social security support- Threatens: Availability of labor (student of Koranical schools), Proximity of big agribusiness
  11. 11. Discussions/ conclusion/ perspectives• Possibilty of production for any time of the year• Informal farming system with one consumption unit (family) and several unit of production: NECESSITY of Recruiting Sourga for cropping• Enermous employment potential : 588 000 sourga 98 000 Ha (without temporaries sourga)• Salary amount: 35000 frs per month (without period of high labour intensity)• But informal and no guaranted phenomenon
  12. 12. Discussions/ conclusion/perspectives• Medium term: improve employment with combinaison of : - Professionalization of farmers - Formalization of farms - Involvement of the Labor Inspectorate (fomalisation of contract)• Short term : allow sourga to defend their interests with- Good organization- and outreach• Straight away : Good knowledge of the phenomenon