The role of indigenous gums and resins in pastoralist livelihood security and climate change adaptation in Garba Tula area...
Background    80% of Kenya land mass     ASALs (Northern Kenya     contributing the bulk)    Hot and dry climate, errati...
Importance of dry lands     • Support livelihoods of 25% of     rural population     • Support more than 70% of     livest...
Multiple stresses/challenges     • High incidences of poverty     • Frequent drought     • 1999-2001 drought: loss of 26% ...
Climate change    • Exacerbate problems posed by climate variability    • Prolonged and severe drought, floods    • Resour...
Objectives    •      Critically examine the role of gums and resins in livelihood security          and climate change ada...
Gums and resins     • Exudates from stems and     branches of Acacia, Commiphora     and Boswelia species     • Acacia-Com...
Methodology    • Study area (4 villages)     Malka daka     Belgesh     Barambate     Biliqo    •Data collection     ...
Findings     Income and livelihood characteristics      52% derive financial benefits from     livestock keeping      Gu...
Findings Cont..     Resource availability      Average collection per month: 38 Kg      Collection from single tree 40g-...
Findings (cont)     Currently communities not considering domestication     65%- gums and resins resource declining (rec...
Findings (cont)Income from gums and resins               Income from livestock and gums and resins 7000 6000 5000 4000    ...
Findings (cont)     Operational cost    Monetary: Average of Ksh 990 per month: Subsistence and equipment    Kind: 15 mins...
Collectors     Data indicate:     Poor people. People with no     livestock or few number      Herders as they go on the...
Market and value chain    Collectors sell:     Directly to traders in major centres (who are involved in multiple    trad...
Constraints faced by collectors    • Lack of capital (subsistence)-inefficient collection    • Travel far distance in sear...
Constraints faced by traders    • Market dominated by few “cartels”    • Supply does not meet the demand    • Lack of oper...
Recommendations    • Financing the collectors to facilitate their operational activities    • Capacity building of the col...
Thank youYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st...
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Mahadi The role of indigenous gums and resins in pastoralist livelihood security and climate change adaptation in Garba Tula area of Northern Kenya

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Mahadi The role of indigenous gums and resins in pastoralist livelihood security and climate change adaptation in Garba Tula area of Northern Kenya

  1. 1. The role of indigenous gums and resins in pastoralist livelihood security and climate change adaptation in Garba Tula area of Northern KenyaInternational Conference On The Future Of The Agrifood Sector In Africa 19th- 21st March 2012, Accra, Ghana Yasin Mahadi: Future Agricultures Consortium Early Career Fellow yasinmahadi@gmail.com
  2. 2. Background  80% of Kenya land mass ASALs (Northern Kenya contributing the bulk)  Hot and dry climate, erratic rainfall 150-750 mm  Sparse vegetation  Arable agriculture marginal  Area under developed: infrastructure and human capitalYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana
  3. 3. Importance of dry lands • Support livelihoods of 25% of rural population • Support more than 70% of livestock population • About 10 Million people living in ASALs – depend on livestock for livelihood • Rich biodiversity (90% of gazetted national parks and game reserves) • Pastoral areas: In Kenya 80% of eco-tourism interest liesYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 2
  4. 4. Multiple stresses/challenges • High incidences of poverty • Frequent drought • 1999-2001 drought: loss of 26% of livestock • Survey by Aklilu and Wekesa, 2002 after the drought: estimated loss of Kshs 5.8 billion • Violent conflict and cattle rustling • Economic and political marginalisation • Inappropriate development policies • Environmental degradationYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 3
  5. 5. Climate change • Exacerbate problems posed by climate variability • Prolonged and severe drought, floods • Resource use conflicts • Cattle raids • Accelerate rate of land degradation • Reduce livestock and crop productivity (huge investment required) •Woody vegetation can provide opportunity for economic development and safety netYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 4
  6. 6. Objectives • Critically examine the role of gums and resins in livelihood security and climate change adaptation among the pastoralists of Garba Tula area of northern Kenya • Investigate whether additional income from harvesting indigenous gums and resins is used to support livestock-keeping systems or invested into other economic activities and trade • Investigate the existing policy and value chain on gums and resins and the extent to which it favours sustainable harvesting and economically viable enterprises. • Explore the opportunities that exist for value addition, disabling cartels and domestication of the gums and resins yielding tree speciesYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 5
  7. 7. Gums and resins • Exudates from stems and branches of Acacia, Commiphora and Boswelia species • Acacia-Commiphora woodland- major vegetation type in study area  Gum arabic: Acacia senegal; Acacia seyal  Hagar/Hur (Opoponax): Commiphora holtziana  Frankincense : Boswelia neglecta  Myrrh : Commiphora myrrhaYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 6
  8. 8. Methodology • Study area (4 villages)  Malka daka  Belgesh  Barambate  Biliqo •Data collection  Household survey questionnaires  Key respondent interviews (Traders, NGOs and CBOs)  Focus group discussionsYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 7
  9. 9. Findings Income and livelihood characteristics  52% derive financial benefits from livestock keeping  Gums and resins collection and sell: 59%  Other minor activities include: • Charcoal • Selling poles • Collection of precious stones • Trading :ShopsYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 8
  10. 10. Findings Cont.. Resource availability  Average collection per month: 38 Kg  Collection from single tree 40g- 2kg  Majority involved in tapping, damage trees to enhance productivity  Collection done after 2 days- 1 week after the cut  Older trees produce more gums and resins Trees abundantYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 9
  11. 11. Findings (cont)  Currently communities not considering domestication  65%- gums and resins resource declining (recent years)  Community consider hagar from their area as the best in East Africa  No restriction on the harvest  Community members consider harvesting of gums and resins as environmentally friendly (no adverse effect on tree)Young people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 10
  12. 12. Findings (cont)Income from gums and resins Income from livestock and gums and resins 7000 6000 5000 4000 Livestock Gums and resins 3000 2000 1000 0 Biliqo Malka Daka Belgesh Barambate
  13. 13. Findings (cont) Operational cost Monetary: Average of Ksh 990 per month: Subsistence and equipment Kind: 15 mins-20 hours; Travel as far 80 km Income from gums and resins:  Buy subsistence (70%)  Pay school fees (24%)  Buy livestock/Restocking (22%)  Buy salt and drugs for livestockYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 12
  14. 14. Collectors Data indicate: Poor people. People with no livestock or few number  Herders as they go on the herding business  Opportunists: cashing on emerging opportunities in addition to their normal livelihood activitiesYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 13
  15. 15. Market and value chain Collectors sell:  Directly to traders in major centres (who are involved in multiple trades)  Agents placed at major centres by traders (cartel)  Traders who go round buying from collectors at designated areas  More energetic young traders are emerging Price dynamics  Collectors: 60-100  Agents: 100-120  Traders: 180-280  Exporters: 350-450Young people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 14
  16. 16. Constraints faced by collectors • Lack of capital (subsistence)-inefficient collection • Travel far distance in search of gums and resins • No established market/reliable buyers • Lack of sound market information to guide opportunities, trends, prices •Trees producing less (drought) • Transport • Not knowledgeable on way to increase production • Tree damage by camels mostly owned by the intruders “somalis” from Northern Eastern Kenya • InsecurityYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 15
  17. 17. Constraints faced by traders • Market dominated by few “cartels” • Supply does not meet the demand • Lack of operational capital • Lack of storage facility (hagar loose weight if kept for long) • Certificate of origin (foresters don’t issue) • Police officers ask for bribe during transportation (attribute gums and resins to explosive manufacturing) • No issuing of permit-NEMA office not The Camcoopportunities and providingleader in to there GroupGarbatulla identifying in is an international solutions carbon risk. This statement will be changeable by the user. The above heading will be static with new headings supplied by the administratorYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 16
  18. 18. Recommendations • Financing the collectors to facilitate their operational activities • Capacity building of the collectors: training on tapping and storage methods • Market and value chain development: reliable information on market trends • Value addition and practices that are compliant with the statutory standards in international markets • Sensitizing communities on the importance of gums and resins: alternative and complimentary enterprise • Attract private sector investment • Formation of collector groups • Maintaining peace and putting in place conflict resolution mechanismsYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 17
  19. 19. Thank youYoung people farming & food | International conference on the future of the agrifood sector in Africa | 19th-21st March 2012, Accra Ghana 18

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