Exporters seem to be in charge of GlobalGAP compliance. They have very strong linkages with financial institutions, input suppliers and farmer groups.
Kangai Opportunities and challenges for youth’s participation in horticultural production in the face of global gap standards in Kenya
Opportunities and challenges for youth’sparticipation in horticultural production in the face of GlobalGAP standards in Kenya Kangai, E1. and Mburu, J2. 1 Early Career Fellow, FAC. 2 University of Nairobi
Outline• Background• The problem and justification• Study methodology• Results and discussion• Conclusion and recommendations 2
Background • Focused on GlobalGAP standards in horticulture • Main export market is Europe • Emerging markets- Asia, USA, Japan, S.A • Smallholders supply >70% of export vegetables Statement of the problem • Ageing farmers—60 years on average, Youth unemployment • Enforcement of GlobalGAP presented various challenges for continued participation in export markets
Background continuedObjective of the studyTo analyse the opportunities and challenges for youths’ participation in horticulture following implementation of GlobalGAP standardsMethodologyStudy area6 districts in Central & Eastern provincesResearch design: Literature review, Community level surveys and Household survey -117 youths in horticulture
Conceptual FrameworkFigure 1: Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework EXOGENOUS VARIABLES Patterns of Physical/material ACTION DOMAIN interaction Conditions: Land, Activities Social networks, capital GlobalGAP compliance Business relations Horticulture production, and Acquaintances Community attributes; Market access Evaluation Norms, moral values, criteria Culture Actors Youths, Actors Market players, government, financiers OUTCOMES Rules in use Youths, Exporters, and extension Opportunities Formal and informal government, rules ChallengesSource: Adapted from Kirsten and Vink (2005) and Ostrom (2010).
Results and discussionVariable of interest N MeanAge (Years) 103 26Years of schooling 101 8.6Years of experience 81 5.8growing export crops Average years in group 86 3.2Total acres of land owned 12 1.07Total cultivated family land 90 1. 25(acres)Total cultivated rented-in 44 1. 07land (acres) Export crop income per 59 739 season (US $)Amount of credit obtained 34 146(US $)
Results continuedTrend of entry into horticulture-1.8% between 2001-2005; 1.1% between 2006-2010Credit: 80% access informal sources only, 42.9% in form of input credit from exporters-Most youths access US$ 26.7 per seasonCompliance status: 34% compliant, 33% pursuing compliance
Results & discussion continuedKey: Strong link Moderate Weak link
Results & discussion continued Youth perception on effects of compliance:Activities undertaken to improveknowledge on GlobalGAP -High cost of production -Improved livelihoods -Better farm hygiene Sources of new knowledge -Exporters and groups play a key role in knowledge transfer and learning
Results & discussion continuedChallenges OpportunitiesLow outreach of financiers in rural Subsidized and guaranteedareas, Low group cohesion credit, risk capitalResource constraints s.a. land Exporters’ technological packageLow literacy levels Innovations in ICT support servicesNon-binding contracts Emerging markets-Asia, S.A, JapanLimited awareness of the need for Envisaged development ofcompliance to food safety standards irrigation infrastructurePoor enforcement of standardsLack of appropriate skillsPoor coordination of youth programs
Conclusion & policy recommendations• Resource constraints, un-coordination & limited awareness of the need to comply impede GlobalGAP compliance• Land policy should aim at improving land tenure agreements• Financial partners should design lending models which maximize on social capital• Need for a platform/database to continuously capture data on youth initiatives in agriculture• Youth need localized and youth friendly extension service delivery, practical approach in learning• A need to harmonize activities of government agencies involved in horticulture and match resources to roles• Need for stakeholders to continuously address factors that limit profitability of the sector to make it attractive to the youth
Acknowledgement• IDRC• CMAAE/University of Nairobi• Future Agricultures Consortium• Youths