Abubakari Fostering youth employment in the agrifood sector


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Abubakari Fostering youth employment in the agrifood sector

  1. 1. FOSTERING SUSTAINABLE ENGAGEMENT OF THE YOUTH IN THE AGRI-FOOD SECTOR: Opportunities and challenges for youth employment in Ghana1 Abdul-Halim Abubakari, 2M.R. McDonald, 2D. Ceplis, 1K.G. Mahunu, 2J. Owen, 1I.A. Idun, 1P. Kumah, 2M. Pritchard, 1G. Nyarko and 1F. Appiah 1 Ghana Institute of Horticulturists, 2Canadian Society for Horticultural Science
  2. 2. Outline of presentation Background, demography of youth and the agri-food sector Ghana Institute of Horticulturists (GhIH) project on youth training and mentoring in the agri-food sector Lessons and opportunities for the engagement of the youth in the agri-food sector
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONThe youth and agriculture in Ghana In a country of 25.2 million, youth, aged 15 to 35 years, comprise 33% of Ghana’s population {Ghana Living Standards Survey; (GLSS, 2008)}. 56% of Ghana’s work force is engaged in agriculture, mostly as small-holders. Many are youth, rural or peri-urban and who have no formal education Of the 227,533 square kilometres of land in Ghana, 17.5% are arable lands while 9.2% are in permanent crops. (CIA 2012)
  4. 4. The agri-food sectorThe agri-food sector in Ghana consists of three main groups ofproducers.Large group of small-holder primary producersSmall group of semi-skilled and medium-scale farmersLarge scale producers (Companies or individual)Education, skills training and access to funds are critical insupporting young farmers to move beyond primary level
  5. 5. The GhIH projectSince 2001, the Ghana Institute of Horticulturists (GhIH) hassupported two key groups of youth in Ghana: Young rural small scale vegetable producers in the Upper West Region (UWR) Students enrolled in post-secondary institutions offering horticultural studies Baseline studies in 2000 showed the need for intervention
  6. 6. GhIH Project “Reach”Dry season gardening project GhIH Project sites in the Upper West Region GhIH Northern Zone GhIH Northern GhIH Zone Northern Zone GhIH Middle GhIH Zone Middle Zone South- GhIH Eastern Eastern Zone Zone GhIH South-Eastern GhIH South- Zone Western Zone GhIH South- Western Zone
  7. 7. Objectives of the project Improving household income and food security through increase production and marketing of vegetables. Building farmers’ capacity to implement successful environmental practices. Engaging the youth and women farmers as active participants and beneficiaries of horticultural interventions Strengthening GhIH to impact positively on the national regulatory framework on horticultural development in GhanaThis paper discusses the methodologies and results achieved byGhIH in skills training and youth mentoring
  8. 8. METHODOLOGYGhIH trains young farmers on the principles of horticulture andGood Agricultural Practices (GAP) using Farmer Field Schools(FFS), Training of Trainers (ToT), and on-farm demonstrations.GhIH mentor young horticultural professionals throughnetworking, conferences, communication and professionalexchangesGhIH partners with the Canadian Society for HorticulturalScience (CSHS), through the Support of Agriculture Institute ofCanada (AIC), via CIDA (support ended in 2011)Survey of farmers provided data for this presentation
  9. 9. GhIH trains young rural farmers on the principles of horticultural production
  10. 10. Farmers and students learn the principles of entrepreneurship and value chain development
  11. 11. RESULTSTable 1. Profile of youth beneficiaries of GhIH project Location Direct beneficiaries Indirect beneficiaries District Village Name of group No. males No. females Total Total no. no. Wa East Busa Busa Water User’s Association 25 33 58 200 Behii Behii Water User’s Association 6 3 9 70 Wa Siiru Siiru Water User’s Association - - - 70 Lawra Babile Babile Water User’s 18 5 23 70 Association Nandom 7 5 12 50 Nandom Water User’s Association Karni Karni Karni Water User’s 7 20 27 133 Association Piina 4 1 5 83 Piina Water User’s Association Total 67 67 134 676Source: GhIH survey, 2010
  12. 12. Table 2. Main crops grown by youth in GhIH project communities Gender Major crop Male Female Total %Amaranthus sp (Alefu) 0 1 2Phaseolus vulgaris (Bean leaves) 0 1 2Brassica oleracea var capitata (Cabbage) 1 0 2Solanum melongena (White eggplant) 0 1 2Capsicum spp (Sweet Green Pepper) 1 0 2Arachis hypogaea (Groundnut) 1 1 4Zea mays (Maize) 1 0 2Pennisetum glaucum (Millet) 0 1 2Abelmoscus esculentus (Okro) 2 5 14Allium cepa (Onion) 1 4 10Onion intercropped with Okro 0 1 2Capsicum annum (Hot pepper) 6 1 14Lycopersicum esculentum (Tomato) 15 6 42Total GhIH survey, 2010Source: 28 22 100
  13. 13. Table 3. Impact of the GhIH project on nutrition, employment and rural developmentImpact of GhIH project on farmers No. male No. female PercentageFood and nutrition security 11 4 10Income, employment & livelihood 54 61 77Environment 3 0 2Rural community development 6 1 4.5No response 3 7 6.5Total 77 73 100Source: GhIH survey, 2010
  14. 14. Table 4. Income levels young farmer trainees resulting from increased vegetable production Gender Income level (Ghana Cedis) No income 1-100 101-500 501-1000 1001-2000 Male 2 2 30 18 4 Female 0 6 26 10 2 Total 2 8 56 28 6Source: GhIH survey, 2010 Majority of the young farmers have per capita About 1/3 of the farmers have per income equivalent or little higher than the capita income above the national regional average. See Table 5 average. See table 5
  15. 15. Table 5. Mean annual per capita household income in Ghana, GLSS, 2008 Region Mean annual household Mean annual per capita income (Ghana Cedis) income (Ghana Cedis) Western 1,222 393 Central 1,310 464 Greater Accra 1,529 544 Volta 913 272 Eastern 1,145 379 Ashanti 1,149 410 Brong Ahafo 1,202 443 Northern 1,452 296 Upper East 616 124 Upper West 606 106 Ghana 1,217 397Source: GLSS, 2010 Regional average per National average per capita income capita income
  16. 16. Table 6. Challenges facing young rural farmers in the GhIH project Challenges facing farmers No. male No. female PercentageAccess to agricultural inputs, 10 8 12.0Start up funds and market 8 6 9.3Environment & water management 12 4 10.7Investment in time, skills and effort 30 30 40.0No major problem 9 13 14.7No response 7 13 13.3Total 76 74 100Source: GhIH survey, 2010
  17. 17. Table 8. Income estimates for household processing their own food (GLSS, 2008) Agricultural item Estimated no. of households Estimated value of sales (Gh cedis) processing items in the last 12 months Cassava flour 58,510 50,000 Cooking oil 82,249 130,000 Flour from other grains 15,926 30,000 Gari 20,804 100,000 Groundnut paste 10,270 10,000 Home brewed drink 32,448 30,000 Husked/polished rice 4,984 No data Maize flour 283,008 320,000 Processed fish 76,617 290,000 Processed meat 2,905 10,000 Shea butter 7,938 10,000 Cassava dough 76,416 70,000 Corn dough 9,582 20,000 Others (e.g. Vegetables*) 1,244 No dataSource: GLSS, 2008 All 682,901 1,050,000
  18. 18. Opportunities for youth employment in the agri-food sectorIncreasing domestic demand for safe and nutrition food as aresult of increasing awareness created by NGO’s in the agri-foodsectorIncreasing demand in the international market for non-traditional agriculture commodities such as pepper and sheabutterContinue national and donor support for capacity building invalue addition and enterprise training
  19. 19. Lessons from GhIH project for the implementation of national youth policy in the agri-food sectorBuilding on viable farmer groups with strong involvement of theyouth results in better adoption of GAPTraining on GAP and Value addition can increase market accessIntervention linked to Universities in Ghana have proven to becost effective and more sustainableStrong partnership with the MoFA and community leaders iscritical for project sustainabilityFinancing of innovative youth enterprises is the biggest challengeconstraining sustainable employment of the youth in the sector
  20. 20. CONCLUSIONFostering engagement of the youth in the agri-food sector requirescomprehensive and long term agricultural interventions through: Using PTD methods to work directly with the beneficiaries, and partnering with MoFA, other government departments, and community leaders Support of public Universities and research institutions Harmonising NGO’s interventions with national youth policies Improved agricultural finance is central to youth engagementThe strategies, opportunities and challenges presented above need to beconsidered in implementing policies for sustaining the employment of theyouth in the agri-food sector.
  21. 21. Thanks foryour attention