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Future value of data Final report - Draft summary lr 15 dec 2018

Throughout 2018 a series of 30 workshops were undertaken around the world exploring the key topic of the future value of data. Engaging with around 1000 experts in 25 countries, this major research project has looked at the key issues driving change for how we see data value and their implications for the next ten years - globally and locally.

This is the draft PPT summary of the research findings and will be followed up in the New Year with a detailed Future Agenda global synthesis report plus regional versions in multiple languages.

If you have any comments or questions on this summary, the research or its future use, please do not hesitate to get in touch with either or or via twitter @futureagenda and @thevalueofdata

Future value of data Final report - Draft summary lr 15 dec 2018

  1. 1. The Future Value of Data – DRAFT SUMMARY Insights From Multiple Expert Discussions Around The World 15 December 2018
  2. 2. Context Based on insights from 30 expert workshops, this summary shares global and regional views on the shifts likely to take place around the ‘value of data’ over the next decade - and identifies areas that could drive change. Open Data Barometer — Internet Penetration — ICT Development Index (2017) — Level of Privacy Regulation: DLA Piper Heavy Robust Moderate LimitedC Top 3 Challenges O Top 3 Opportunities E Top 3 Emerging Issues Future Value of Data Key Insights: 2018 COUNTRY ICT Development Index (2017) Australia Canada Chile China Colombia Cote D’Ivoire Denmark Germany India Indonesia Japan Kenya Mexico Nigeria Philippines Senegal Singapore South Africa Spain Sweden Thailand UAE UK USA Open Data Barometer (2016) Internet Penetration % (2016) 8.24 7.77 6.57 8.61 5.36 3.14 8.71 8.39 3.03 4.33 8.43 2.91 5.16 2.60 4.67 2.66 8.05 4.96 7.79 8.41 5.67 7.21 8.65 8.18 81 89 47 20 52 11 71 70 43 38 75 40 73 21 55 9 53 34 73 70 28 26 100 82 88 91 82 89 62 27 97 84 30 25 93 26 64 26 56 26 81 54 81 90 48 91 95 76 London 01 OCT 2018 C Rising Cyber Security Threats Rise of the Machines Fake Data O Open Data Digital Taxation Data Ownership E Hidden Environmental Costs Data Marketplaces Declining Significance of Privacy Host: Imperial College / Royal College of Art Johannesburg 17 MAY 2018 C Digital Literacy / Inclusion Cyber Security Threats Fake Data O Open Data Data Governance Public Good / Human Rights E Data Ethics Data Sovereignty Privatisation of Data Host: Facebook / IBM Research London 13 SEP 2018 C Data Ethics Partial Inclusion Rise of Machines O Contextual Data Sharing Data Ownership Open Data E Transparency Power and Agency Data Bias Host: Mastercard Copenhagen 29 AUG 2018 C Fake Data Rise of the Machines Digital Literacy O Data Ownership Open Data Data as an Asset E Data Marketplaces Democracy and Data Low Trust in Poor Data Host: DTU Executive School of Business Toronto 12 NOV 2018 C Digital Literacy Data Bias Informed Consent O Open Data Individual Custodians Public Good E Data Ethics Rise of Machines Data Imperialism Host: York University Toronto 09 NOV 2018 C Rising Security Threats Digital Literacy Fake Data O Open Data Individual Custodians Decentralised Secure Data E Data Localisation Informed Consent Data Ethics Host: Lassonde School of Engineering Dakar 26 / 27 JUL 2018 C Data Capital Digital Skills Fake Data O Tax for Development Digital Skills Digital Education E Data Imperialism Human Capital Latent Regulation Host: CRES / Facebook Abidjan 30 JUL 2018 C Cyber Security Data Imperialism Data Ownership O Data Ethics AI and Humanity Skills and Education E Data Inequality Regulation and Control Democracy and Data Host: Africa Content Group / Facebook / UVCI Mexico City 13 NOV 2018 C Data Ethics Rise of the Machines Security Threats O International Bodies Decentralised Secure Data Establishing Accountability E Human Rights Future of Work Algorithmic Discretion Host: CECIED / Escuela Libre de Derecho / Facebook Bogotá 08 NOV 2018 C Digital Literacy Rising Security Threats Democracy and Government O Positive Value of Data Data Ownership Trust in Data Use E Data and Public Policy Data Ethics Talent for a Digital Economy Host: Facebook / Universidad Externado de Colombia Abidjan 29 JUL 2018 C Fake Data Digital Literacy Data Ownership O A Public Good Individual Custodians Common Vocabulary E Data Imperialism Global vs Local Digital Taxation Host: UVCI San Francisco 30 OCT 2018 C Digital Literacy Data Bias China vs. The US O Responsible Sharing Democracy and Government GDPR Setting Standards E The Nature of the Firm Data Ethics Data Imperialism Host: Facebook / Orange Silicon Valley Washington DC 02 NOV 2018 C Digital Literacy Data Bias Cyber Security Threats O Open Data Data Ethics Trust in Data Use E Future of Work Fake Data Data Imperialism Host: Brookings Institution / Facebook Pretoria 21 MAY 2018 C Data Literacy Fake Data Regulation O Data Governance Digital Taxation Human Rights and Data E Data Decolonisation Government as Custodian Data Bias Host: Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria Abuja 13 JUL 2018 C Cyber Security Digital Equality Fake Data O Digital Literacy Data for Public Good Transparency and Democracy E Data Governance Digitisation of Culture Educating Government Host: Facebook / Ibadan School of Government and Public Policy Bangkok 23 MAY 2018 C Cyber Threats Data Literacy Data Politics O Data Governance Access Inequality Open Data E Data Ownership Data Ethics Digital Taxation Host: Facebook Hong Kong 20 SEP 2018 C Data Regulation Data Sovereignty Rising Security Threats O Shared Understanding AI Supporting People Demarginalisation E Data Morals Transparency Establishing Accountability Host: Facebook / HKU Women’s Studies Research Centre Dubai 30 APR 2018 C Data Ethics Cyber Security Threats Informed Consent O Data Ownership Open Data Blockchain E Data Sovereignty Trust in Data Use Data Liability Host: DMCC Nairobi 04 JUL 2018 C Cyber Security Data Literacy Identifying Truth O Monetisation of Data Understanding of Value Data for Public Services E Cultural Diversity Empowering National Identity Data Regulation Host: CIPIT / Facebook / KICTAnet Bengaluru 10 JAN 2018 C Informed Consent Privacy Harms Individual Custodianship O Machine Learning India Setting Standards Social Value of Data E Data Ethics Data Sovereignty Data Liability Host: Carnegie India / Facebook Santiago 16 NOV 2018 C Rise of the Machines Democracy and Governance Data Bias O Public Understanding Establishing Accountability Open Data E Transparency Data Ethics Data Politics Host: Facebook / Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Tokyo 23 APR 2018 C Cyber Security Threats Fake Data Trust in Data Use O Open Data Metadata Value Digital Skills E Data Liability Data Marketplaces Digital Taxation Host: NISTEP / RISTEX Singapore 27 APR 2018 C Data Ethics / Principles Data Sovereignty Cyber Security Threats O Democracy and Data Data Education Open Data E Data Marketplaces Data Liability Privatisation of Data Host: Facebook / Lee Kwan Yew School of Public Policy Manila 24 SEP 2018 C Data Silos Information Warfare Fake Data O Personal Data Monetisation Open Data Data Governance E Data Rights Data (In)visibility Data Humans Host: Ateneo Law School / DICT / Facebook Jakarta 17 MAY 2018 C Fake Data Data Literacy Data Imperialism O Data for Development Digital Taxation Access to Data and Analytics E Data Sovereignty Data Ethics Data Bias Host: Facebook Sydney 21 MAY 2018 C Data Ethics Data Ownership Rise of AI O Open Data Common Approach Social Impact E Data Liability / Negligence Informed Consent Data Literacy Host: TAL Stockholm 18 JUN 2018 C Digital Literacy Rising Cyber Security Data Ethics O Open Data Data Marketplaces Broader Collaboration E Data and Democracy Data Liability Privatisation of Data Host: ISPIM / TACIT Frankfurt 08 NOV 2018 C Cyber Security Threats Data Liability Data Bias O Personal Choice New Business Models Transparent Algorithms E Data Ethics Social Impact Data Capital Host: Cognizant Lagos 10 JUL 2018 C Data Collection Data Ethics Data Inequality O Data Regulation Infrastructure Development Data Literacy E Data Ownership Fake Data Data Ethics Host: Facebook / Ibadan School of Government and Public Policy Madrid 22 FEB 2018 C Ulterior Motives Joined Up Regulation Democracy and Data O Data Ownership Data Ethics Education and Social Contract E Data-ism Data Liability Data Sovereignty Host: Facebook
  3. 3. Project Partners This global research programme was undertaken in partnership with 30 different organisations that (co)hosted the varied workshops. We thank them and all the participants who gave their time and insight.
  4. 4. THREE MAIN SECTIONS 3 | Conclusions • Summary Implications • Potential Actions • Questions 2 | Our Key Insights • Top 20 Global Issues • Key Implications 1 | Setting the Scene • Value • Data • Trust Future Value of Data 01 02 03
  6. 6. A Value for Data The promises and possibilities of big data have led many organisations to believe that ‘more is better’ - many have rushed to grab as much of it as possible. However, understanding where its real value lies is, as yet, unclear.
  7. 7. Data Metaphors The language used to describe the value of data is full of misleading metaphors. Is it the new oil, a currency, like water or the periodic table? Data can be like all of these, depending on context, as well as having unique qualities of it’s own.
  8. 8. How to Look at Value Many agree we should take a more holistic view than simply considering the economic value of data. But how should we deal with shared data, GDP, APRU and ownership versus access? Would a multi-capital approach work?
  9. 9. Personal Data Value Personal data can be volunteered, observed or inferred. It can be used in different contexts. This makes attaching a precise value impossible. However stolen personal data is traded on the dark web, so relative value can be agreed.
  10. 10. Machine Data Most future data will come from M2M and the IoT but there is little consensus on who owns this and how it should be valued. Many are proposing competing approaches for different sectors - connected cars, smart cities and buildings.
  11. 11. A Data Value Chain Some are advocating that we should also look at different types of data in appropriate ways, recognising the increasing value of data as it progresses through a value chain from creation to consumption and monetisation. CREATION STORAGE PROCESSING CONSUMPTION MONETISATION DATA VALUE CHAIN Source: Visconti et al (2017)
  12. 12. Trust vs Trustworthy, Truth and Transparency Organisations aim to build, retain or drive trust in data use to support brand loyalty. However this is increasingly about being ‘trustworthy’ which is focused on being credible, truthful and more transparent.
  13. 13. Ten Questions The core issue of “what is the future value of data?” has many facets. It is clear that there is not just one question to be address but multiple. This project has explored what we see as ten pivotal questions. 1. Can we agree how to meaningfully value data in the future from an economic point of view? 2. Is it possible to achieve this across a broader view of social, societal and other contexts? 3. If data is shared does this increase or decrease its value? 4. Does value change with its ownership? 5. What makes one data set more valuable than another? 6. Do we see global collaborative alignment on the future of data or will it be fragmented? 7. Does greater privacy add to or detract from the value of an individual’s data? 8. Who should govern future data value and how? 9. Which, if any, companies are leading today, and who may in the future? 10. How will governments best use regulation to mange the changes in the next decade?
  15. 15. Digital Literacy Having a better understanding of how data is acquired and used drives the data economy. A more informed society increases public confidence while a shared language for data overcomes misunderstanding and aids decision-making.
  16. 16. Informed Consent Consent is ambiguous, misunderstood and increasingly impractical. Rethinking our view of what consent is designed to achieve in key areas drives a new approach - with an associated shift of responsibilities.
  17. 17. Data as an Asset If data is considered to be an asset, then it is rigorously monitored and organisations are obliged to account for what they own or access. They are legally required to declare their data portfolio and are taxed on this.
  18. 18. Data Liability Data is a liability and organisations are responsible for its safekeeping. For some the costs and risks of securing data outweighs its benefits. For others it creates opportunity for new business models and policies.
  19. 19. Data as a Capital Data is added as a 7th capital in the multi-capital model that underpins Integrated Reporting: If data is seen as distinct, then it may require separate reporting by companies, regions and governments alike. Data capital
  20. 20. Data Marketplaces Transparent, interactive, multi-dimensional data market places become a reality. In addition to price and time, multi-party, sector-focused markets define and trade data where value includes the context of customer, access and use.
  21. 21. Open vs Private Data Momentum around open data grows across several sectors but is constrained by competition, the privatisation of public data and increased security concerns. This limits the potential of ‘data for good’ as well as wider sharing and use.
  22. 22. Biased, Poor and Fake Data As we seek more accurate data to inform decisions, concern about biased, poor and fake data grows. Cleaning and validating data is an escalating social, political and commercial battleground.
  23. 23. Owners vs. Custodians The debate about data ownership and access moves on to custodianship. New governance models are developed to respond to this and the responsibility of data holders evolves beyond safety, use and monetisation.
  24. 24. Ownership of Machine Data In the absence of an agreed approach, debates on who has what rights to which data build. Questions on title, possession, control and usage of data throughout supply chains lead to sectors taking different views on sharing value.
  25. 25. Decentralization vs Centralization Rising costs of cyber attacks lead many to invest in better data protection - but there is little clarity around most effective approach. Debate on the benefit of decentralization of data at global, regional and local levels continues.
  26. 26. Data Sovereignty More governments push back against Big Tech to fight for control of data. Limiting the flow of data is seen as protecting citizens rights and the economy – so sharing is restricted to within specific (potentially overlapping) systems.
  27. 27. Data Localisation Nations demand copies of all citizen and machine data in regional data centres. Multiple government bodies and local companies gain access to previously ‘proprietary’ data that is increasingly difficult to monitor and monetise.
  28. 28. Governance, Government and Democracy Rising concerns around the use of data access, mining and analysis to influence public opinion lead to calls for better governance and accountability. Policy makers seek a more joined-up approach to data regulation.
  29. 29. Global vs Regional vs Local Regulation There is widespread ambition for global standards to manage data policies. Few believe that self-regulation is an effective approach but, equally, there is no consensus around which organisations are capable of stepping up to the task.
  30. 30. The Future of Privacy There is a strong belief by some in the right to data privacy and to security. However, many see that privacy is a contradictory and outdated concept. Some argue that security is impossible without increased monitoring.
  31. 31. A Question of Ethics As ethics scales within the digital mainstream, many struggle to define and agree a universal, global cross-industry approach. Different sectors initially set their own standards that eventually align around some common principles.
  32. 32. Organisational Responsibility The management of data needs a 21st not a 17th century approach to business. As digital becomes the norm for most organisations, clear accountability for increasingly automated decisions is a growing source of differentiation.
  34. 34. Summary Implications The report conclusion will bring together global and regional implications with some potential actions that need to be taken. It ends with questions for individuals, companies and governments.
  35. 35. Future Agenda, 84 Brook Street, London W1K 5EH +44 203 0088 141 | | @futureagenda

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Throughout 2018 a series of 30 workshops were undertaken around the world exploring the key topic of the future value of data. Engaging with around 1000 experts in 25 countries, this major research project has looked at the key issues driving change for how we see data value and their implications for the next ten years - globally and locally. This is the draft PPT summary of the research findings and will be followed up in the New Year with a detailed Future Agenda global synthesis report plus regional versions in multiple languages. If you have any comments or questions on this summary, the research or its future use, please do not hesitate to get in touch with either or or via twitter @futureagenda and @thevalueofdata


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