Higher education views community as essential for
supporting collaborative learning and discourse that is
necessary for higher levels of learning
The Holy See describes the school as a community in
terms of the different relationships therein
(Miller, 2006); the student-teacher relationship is that
which must be most cherished and fostered.
OF I NQUIRY
Community of Inquiry Framework (Garrison, 2007)
S OCIAL P RESENCE
The ability to establish personal relationships
purposed to inquiry through effective
communication, open communication and group
Less essential if learning activities are not
collaborative in nature.
S OCIAL E LEMENT
Developing a community through social presence
Discourse must occur for transformational
learning – dialogue in which different points of
view are examined critically.
Imitation and witness since “modern man listens
more willingly to witnesses than to teachers, and
if he does listen to teachers, it is because they are
witnesses” - Pope Paul VI (Miller, 2006).
C OGNITIVE P RESENCE
Exploration, construction, resolution and
confirmation of understanding through
collaboration and reflection in a community of
Appropriate direction and task design allow for
online collaboration to move past exploration of
a thought to practical construction of knowledge,
resolving issues, and confirming understanding
by acting on resolutions (see Experiential
P RACTICAL I NQUIRY M ODEL
Practical Inquiry Model (Garrison, 2007)
T EACHING P RESENCE
Design, facilitation and direct instruction are
necessary since interaction and discourse are
essential for higher-order learning but cannot occur
without structure (design) and leadership (facilitation
and direction), especially in an online community.
Social presence is sometimes neither necessary nor
desired among more academically-focused students;
however, teaching presence is extremely important in
terms of direction and design of collaborative
practical activities for a community of inquiry.
A PPLICATIONS O NLINE
Social Presence – Discussion Boards, Course Lounge:
“developing relationships” online, synchronous
session (Blackboard Collaborate, Skype, GoogleHangouts) to meet-and-greet.
Cognitive Presence – Blogs, Discussion Boards:
“discourse purposed to reflection and transformation”
Teaching Presence – Announcements, presence on
Discussion Board threads and Blog
comments, detailed feedback on Assignments and via
Email or Phone Calls.
Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of
inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching
presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous
Learning Networks, 11(1), 61-72.
Miller, J. M. (2006). The Holy See's Teaching on
Catholic Schools. Manchester, NH: Sophia