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©
SHALE GAS & TIGHT OIL
BARCELONA, 1 Febrero 2016
Alvaro F. Racero
Francisco Hernández Ortiz
©
The Hydrocarbon System
2
Main processes and elements
www. Petroleum Support.com
Processes Elements
177o C
49o C
Hydrocar...
©
The pores of the rocks
3
Pores are spaces within the rock with the ability of contain fluids
PORE size of millimetre sca...
©
The fluids of the hydrocarbon systems
4
From a source rock with a specific organic matter content,
the different hydroca...
©
What are Unconventional Hydrocarbons?
5
UNCONVENTIONAL HYDROCARBONS are hydrocarbons with low quality in their static an...
©
What are Unconventional Hydrocarbons?
6
Shale Oil / Gas
Reservoir = Shale rocks (with high percentage of organic
matter)...
©
Technologies
7
• Massive use of fracking and new completions design have not been possible until around the middle of th...
©
Technologies
8
Proppant function
Source: web pages of different companies, agencies and service companies of the industry
©
Technologies
9
Proppant and flowback
To the well
From the
well
Flowback
after
treatment
Flowback
before
treatment
Proppa...
©
Technologies
10
The hydraulic fracturing operation and the equipment
Additives
Manifold
Water
storage
Proppant
storage
B...
©
The Paradigm Change
11
The Emerging Plays in USA
Source:EnergyInformationAdministrationbasedondatafromvariouspublishedst...
©
Oil Price effect
12
©
THANK YOU
©
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Shale gas and tight oil

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Barcelona, 1 de Febrero de 2016

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Shale gas and tight oil

  1. 1. © SHALE GAS & TIGHT OIL BARCELONA, 1 Febrero 2016 Alvaro F. Racero Francisco Hernández Ortiz
  2. 2. © The Hydrocarbon System 2 Main processes and elements www. Petroleum Support.com Processes Elements 177o C 49o C Hydrocarbon system is compounded by a set of processes and elements that interact between them with the final result of the creation of a hydrocarbon accumulation
  3. 3. © The pores of the rocks 3 Pores are spaces within the rock with the ability of contain fluids PORE size of millimetre scale (visible by the human eye) PORE size close to 0,1 mm (limit of the resolution of the human eye) Comparative scale of pore sizes of the rocks and hydrocarbon molecules Source: web pages of different companies, agencies and service companies of the industry Milímetro Micrómetro Nanómetro .
  4. 4. © The fluids of the hydrocarbon systems 4 From a source rock with a specific organic matter content, the different hydrocarbons are generated in the subsurface Light OilHeavy Oil and Bitumen Gas source rock Source: web pages of different companies, agencies and service companies of the industry
  5. 5. © What are Unconventional Hydrocarbons? 5 UNCONVENTIONAL HYDROCARBONS are hydrocarbons with low quality in their static and/or dynamic related parameters. It means that unconventional hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons with high viscosity, and/or low mobility, and/or hydrocarbons located in rocks with very low porosity, and/or very low permeability. Mobility = The ratio of permeability to viscosity (well productivity is directly proportional to the mobility-thickness product) Permeability = The ability, or measurement of a rock's ability, to transmit fluids from pore to pore (typically measured in darcies or millidarcies) Connected pores give a rock permeability GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN Hydrocarbons are compounds of hydrogen and carbon that can be found in the pore space of the subsurface rocks LightOil Viscosity = A property of fluids and slurries that indicates their resistance to flow from pore to pore (typically measured in poise or (cp) centipoise) HeavyOil BitumenGas Porosity = The percentage of pore volume or void space, or that volume within the rock that can contain fluids (typically measured between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%) High porosity Low porosity Tight porosity GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN Some parameters implicated in a possible definition Source: web pages of different companies, agencies and service companies of the industry
  6. 6. © What are Unconventional Hydrocarbons? 6 Shale Oil / Gas Reservoir = Shale rocks (with high percentage of organic matter) that have very low porosities and permeabilities Reservoir is the same to source rock Fracture technologies must be applied for an economic production of the hydrocarbon Tight Oil / Gas Reservoir is different to source rock Reservoir = Clastic/Carbonate rocks with low porosity and/or permeability Rock with small and not connected pores = Tight Source: web pages of different companies, agencies and service companies of the industry Rock with an extremely small grain size and with a high percentage of organic matter content = Shale
  7. 7. © Technologies 7 • Massive use of fracking and new completions design have not been possible until around the middle of the last decade. • Cost of the massive fracking is around the 60% of the total cost of the well and is necessary for the obtention of commercial flows. Fractures Shale Gas Bed The shale gas bed is fractured because the pressure applied from the wellbore Depth(meters) 2.134 meters 0 meters Depth(feet) Fracking operations Fracking operations Fresh water Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing Technical Analysis - E&P Business Development – EMD of E&P (May 2014)
  8. 8. © Technologies 8 Proppant function Source: web pages of different companies, agencies and service companies of the industry
  9. 9. © Technologies 9 Proppant and flowback To the well From the well Flowback after treatment Flowback before treatment Proppant (fracture support) Ceramic proppant (artificial manufacture) Source: web pages of different companies, agencies and service companies of the industry Natural sand Proppant sand bags Resin coated proppant Synthetic proppant Ceramic proppant Bauxite proppant Different classes of proppant Technical Analysis - E&P Business Development – EMD of E&P (May 2014)
  10. 10. © Technologies 10 The hydraulic fracturing operation and the equipment Additives Manifold Water storage Proppant storage Blender trucks Water storageProppant storage Manifold Wellhead Blender Trucks Hydraulic fracturing treatment, Woodford Shale, Canadian County, Oklahoma, for which Halliburton provided 52,000 hhp. Source: JPT, December 2010
  11. 11. © The Paradigm Change 11 The Emerging Plays in USA Source:EnergyInformationAdministrationbasedondatafromvariouspublishedstudies.UpdatedMay2011
  12. 12. © Oil Price effect 12
  13. 13. © THANK YOU ©

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