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Autumn Seminar. Retos del gas no convencional. D. José María Moreno Villaluenga

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Autumn Seminar. Retos del gas no convencional. D. José María Moreno Villaluenga

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Autumn Seminar. Retos del gas no convencional. D. José María Moreno Villaluenga

  1. 1. AUTUMN SEMINAR RETOS DEL GAS NO CONVENCIONAL “Shale Gas” Aspectos tecnológicos y económicos José María Moreno Villaluenga Madrid, 9 de octubre de 2014
  2. 2. “Shale Gas” Aspectos tecnológicos y económicos José María Moreno Villaluenga Madrid, 09 de octubre 2014
  3. 3. 2 ¿Porque no convencionales? Permeabilidad : la propiedad de una roca para permitir el movimiento de fluidos entre sus poros (típicamente medida en darcies o milidarcies). Porosidad: es el porcentaje de espacio poroso o vacío del volumen de la roca que puede contener fluidos. El porcentaje medido entre 0 y 1, o en porcentaje entre 0% y 100%. Los hidrocarburos son fluidos confinados en las rocas porosas del subsuelo Hidrocarburos No Convencionales son aquellos con parámetros bajos en sus condiciones estáticas o dinámicas Esto significa que son hidrocarburos con alta viscosidad, y/o baja movilidad, y/o hidrocarburos localizados en rocas con muy baja porosidad y/o permeabilidad Viscosidad : Es la propiedad de un fluido o mezcla de fluidos que indica la resistencia al flujo de poro a poro (Normalmente medida en poises o centipoises (cp) ) Movilidad . Es el ratio entre la permeabilidad y la viscosidad. (La productividad de un pozo es directamente proporcional al producto de la movilidad por la potencia. LightOilHeavyOilBitumen Good porosity Low porosity Tight porosity GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN Connected pores give a rock permeability GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN
  4. 4. 3 Recursos No Convencionales Actuales (Hay tecnología comercial para desarrollar esta inmensa cantidad de hidrocarburos no convencionales) TIGHT OIL (SHALE OIL) - Natural liquid hydrocarbons produced from reservoirs that have very low porosities and permeabilities. OIL SHALE - Rock with high percentage of organic matter (kerogen) that has not reach the oil window. HEAVY OIL - Heavy oil is a crude oil that is found in a liquid state in the ground, has the ability to flow into a wellbore, and has a specific gravity greater than 890 kg/m3 (API gravity of less than 25º). OIL SANDS - Speight (1991) defines bitumen as a liquid hydrocarbon with an API gravity of <10o and a viscosity of >10,000 cp. Crude bitumen is a viscous mixture of hydrocarbons, which in its natural state will not flow to a well. bitumen heavy oil OIL SAND = bitumen + sand heavy oil UNCONVENTIONALOIL UNCONVENTIONALGAS COALBED METHANE Coalbed methane (CBM) or coalbed gas is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. SHALE GAS Shale gas is natural gas produced from shale. TIGHT GAS Natural gas produced from reservoirs that have very low porosities and permeabilities.
  5. 5. 4 Recursos No Convencionales Futuros (actualmente no hay tecnología comercial para desarrollar esta inmensa cantidad de hidrocarburos no convencionales) Methane clathrate, also called methane hydrate, methane ice or "fire ice" is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice. Originally thought to occur only in the outer regions of the Solar System where temperatures are low and water ice is common, significant deposits of methane clathrate have been found under sediments on the ocean floors of Earth. Methane clathrate burning Methane clathrate structure FUTURE UNCONVENTIONALGAS Bitumen carbonates are bitumen bearing carbonates which in its natural state will not flow to a well FUTUREUNCONVENTIONALOIL Bitumen carbonate core
  6. 6. 5 • Es gas contenido en esquistos de grano muy fino ricos en materia orgánica. • El gas se genera y se almacena “in situ” en tres formas gas absorbido (en la materia orgánica), gas libre (en fracturas o poros) y gas disuelto en los fluidos de formación. • Como formaciones de alto contenido orgánico y baja permeabilidad requieren fracturación (natural o inducida) para producir cantidades comerciales de gas. Definición de Shale Gas
  7. 7. 6 SHALE GAS VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATIONS SHALE TOTAL GAS STORAGE CAPACITY ADSORBED GAS STORAGE CAPACITY Adsorbed Gas Within Existing Kerogen (The gas accumulated on the surface of a solid material) FREE GAS STORAGE CAPACITY Gas In Available Pores DISSOLVED GAS STORAGE CAPACITY Dissolved Gas Within Existing Mobile Oils/Condensates GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN GRAIN Grain of Kerogen Adsorbed gas molecules
  8. 8. 7 La permeabilidad de la roca
  9. 9. 8 Shale Gas Elementos estructurales del yacimiento Tight Sand Reservoir Spectrum CoalShale Organic Content, wt. % 1000 25 50 75 Tight Sand Reservoir Spectrum CoalShale Organic Content, wt. % 1000 25 50 75 Gas Filled Porosity (Compression) Water Filled Porosity Gas Filled Micropores (Adsorption) Gas Filled Porosity (Compression) Water Filled Porosity Gas Filled Porosity (Compression) Water Filled Porosity Gas Filled Micropores (Adsorption) Gas Filled Micropores (Adsorption) SHALE GAS
  10. 10. 9 Tecnologías que hacen posible el desarrollo de hidrocarburos Tight y Shale  Desarrollada específicamente para entender el alcance y la eficiencia de los trabajos de estimulación hidráulica y el monitoreo de minas y túneles.  Existente desde hace 15 años.  Existente desde hace 70 años.  Incrementa el área de contacto entre la roca y el pozo. Perforación Horizontal  Existente desde hace más de 60 años pero que recientemente se aplica a este tipo de rocas con desarrollos de equipamiento adaptado a las necesidades.  Incrementa el volumen de roca capaz de fluir al área del pozo. Micro-sísmica Tecnología de estimulación hidráulica La investigación y el desarrollo tecnológico durante décadas ha permitido la optimización de la técnica para su compatibilidad con el entorno y la reducción de los costos de producción.
  11. 11. 10 Generalidades de la Tecnología para desarrollar hidrocarburos Tight y Shale La técnica se adapta a las condiciones geológicas del terreno: la profundidad de perforación, los materiales utilizados y su cantidad, así como el tipo de abertura dependerán de las características de la roca. 1. Consiste en la perforación de un pozo, construido con un revestimiento metálico de alto aislamiento y protegido en el espacio anular por cemento para asegurar la impermeabilidad. 2. La perforación se realiza a gran profundidad hasta alcanzar la capa de pizarra. Se trata de rocas profundas ubicadas a más de 2.500 metros de profundidad. 3. Luego, se introduce agua con arena a presión para generar una serie de aberturas temporales que permiten que el fluido atrapado en los poros de la roca pueda fluir hacia el pozo. 4. Este proceso tiene una duración media de entre tres (3) y cinco (5) días en total. Una vez que la operación de fractura termina, el pozo se considera completado y listo para producir petróleo y/o gas. ¿Cómo funciona la fracturación?
  12. 12. 11 Pozos - Construcción y Terminación El diseño de los pozos incluye múltiples barreras de acero y cemento para proteger acuíferos y facilitar operaciones de estimulación, producción y abandono final.
  13. 13. 12 Phase 1 Phase 2 High Low Resource Concentration Pilot Projects Comparación entre un desarrollo convencional y no convencional Convencional No Convencional Área 10’s a 100’s de Kms Área 100’s de 1000’s de Kms Desarrollo 5 a 20 pozos Desarrollo de 100’s a 1000’s de pozos (perforación intensiva) Altos márgenes en producción Bajos márgenes en producción Potencial de recuperación de líquidos de GN Reducido potencial de recuperación de líquidos de GN El desarrollo de un sector del yacimiento impacta en la depletación media del yacimiento (comunicación entre pozos) impactando en la recuperación final. Un plan integral de desarrollo es necesario. Los yacimientos de Tight y shale gas pueden ser desarrollados modularmente, ya que no hay un impacto en la presión media del yacimiento (baja comunicación entre pozos). Plan de desarrollo flexible Focalizado en las áreas mas proliferas. Desarrollo modular Obtener ventaja de la escalación • Cada fase puede ser mejor que la anterior • Mejora de la eficacia en costo con el tiempo Obtener ventajas de la novedades tecnológicas • Incorporación de nuevas tecnologías
  14. 14. 13 Premisas para desarrollo Shale Oil / Shale Gas Para un desarrolloPara un pozo 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 GasFlowRate(MMscfd) Years -80% after 2 years 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 GasFlowRate(MMscfd) Years 40 Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Cumulative Este tipo de desarrollos se caracteriza por una baja productividad y recuperación final por pozo (2 a 6 BCF en gas y 150 a 300 Kbls en petróleo) lo que obliga conceptualmente a lo siguiente: •Gran número de pozos (cientos a miles). •1 pozo productor por cada 80 acres (0,32 Km2). •Sondeos horizontales. •Secciones horizontal de +/- 3000 ft (1000mts). •8 a 16 sondeos por emplazamiento. •Técnicas de fracturación hidráulica multi-etapa; 6 a 8 etapas y aumentando rápidamente a 12, 20, 30 etapas. •Altas necesidades de agua. Media de 20.000 m3 por pozo (perforación + fracturación)
  15. 15. 14© BD - Technical Analysis - Facilities - January 2011 Desarrollo Conceptual West Doe Sour Gas Plant (98.5 MMscfd) Source: Equinox [Online] Module with Satellite Minimum Plant Module with Satellite Minimum Plant Module with Central Treatment Plant EXPORT Module with Satellite Minimum Plant
  16. 16. 15 Desarrollo Conceptual Disminución del impacto ambiental con pozos desviados desde una misma locación El patrón de pozos se ajusta a las características del terreno y el área de drenaje
  17. 17. 16 Ejemplo de un desarrollo de Shale Gas • Curva tipo basada en 7 MMscf/d (primer día) y 5.2 MMscf/d (primer mes) con una recuperación final de 3 Bcf (+/- 85 MMm3) de recuperación por pozo. • Área de desarrollo 25000 acres (100 Km2). • 300 pozos, son necesarios con un espaciamiento de 80 acres para recuperar 865 Bcf (24.400 MMm3). • Esquema de perforación basado en 4 equipos de perforación y 6 pozos por año y equipo. Se precisan 13 años para desarrollar el área Well Type Forecast 1 10 100 1000 10000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time (Months) Rate(Mscf/d) Production Profile - 3 Bscf - No Predrilling 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 Year GasDailyRate(MMscf/d)
  18. 18. 17 Optimizando la economía del proyecto • Donde se hace el pozo? • Cuanto volumen se estimula (SRV)? • Que longitud tiene el pozo? • Cual es el número de fracturas y su espaciamiento? • Cual es al conductividad y conectividad de esas fracturas? Cómo se produce el yacimiento? Geología y Geo tectónica Propiedades de la roca. Tipo de fluido a producir Presión de subsuelo. Tipo de fluido de fractura Tipo de material de sosten “Receta” del tratamiento de fractura Caudales de extracción. Mantenimiento de pozo. Monitoreo Factor clave de Éxito Parámetros a Considerar
  19. 19. 18 • El primer factor a considerar es la recuperación final por pozo. Las nuevas tendencias en pozos con una mayor sección horizontal y un mayor numero de etapas de fractura están elevando la recuperación media por pozo de los clásicos 3 Bcf a +/- 5 Bcf por pozo. • El segundo componente es el coste del pozo incluida, la fracturación, cuyo valor es normalmente el 50% del valor del pozo. • El tercer elemento lógicamente es el precio del gas en $/MMBTU, y de los productos asociados líquidos del gas natural (GLP´s y GN). Valoración económica de tres ejes
  20. 20. 19 Gracias por su atención

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