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Miss Blackmore's DME Presentation!


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Decision Making Exercise for OCR C Bristol Project

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Miss Blackmore's DME Presentation!

  1. 1. © 2008 Okehampton College This booklet is designed to be used alongside the resource booklet that you will have in the exam (you have a photocopied version). It will be used in lesson time to prepare you as much as possible for the expectations of the real exam. Name: Based on resources shared at 1
  2. 2. Adjectives (Descriptions) bustling busy dirty dispersed detached derelict diverse empty exciting few friendly linear local many modern new nucleated noisy old quiet regeneration redevelop semi-detached sprawl spread out terraced vibrant congested © 2008 Okehampton College Features (Nouns) administrative centre central business district city commercial area conurbation countryside district dwelling hamlet house housing estate industrial park inner city megalopolis neighbourhood new town out of town shopping centre port residential area resort retail park shanty towns shopping centre suburbs town traffic village Geographical Keywords community commuters comparison goods convenience goods density facilities function hierarchy infrastructure inhabitants location land use model rural population residents settlement services site situation sphere of influence urban Essential DME words suburbanisation filtering reurbanisation CBD decay relocation regeneration redevelopment hub decentralisation mall gentrification social housing Green-belt anchor Other words... 2
  3. 3. List the land uses shown on Resource 1a: Using and with reference to Resource 1a describe... Why CBDs are located centrally? The features of a typical UK CBD TEST YOURSELF AT: What do city centres look like? © 2008 Okehampton College 1 2 3 3
  4. 4. © 2008 Okehampton College Refer to Resource 1b Explain the bid-rent curve 4 Resource 1b is entitled “Land values across a British city pre-1970s”. In the space below, draw the graph for a British city in 2008: Explain the graph that you have drawn 5 6 4
  5. 5. © 2008 Okehampton College Transport Leisure Retail Housing A vibrant hub? Business Other Using Resource 1 , identify all the different land-uses in the vibrant city centre and fill in the diagram below. Add examples from Exeter. 5
  6. 6. © 2008 Okehampton College Pollution Noise Water Air Visual Nuisance People move out Algae blooms Looks unpleasant Health problems Looks unpleasant People move out The Dead Heart? Using Resource 2 – a) Identify the problems of the city centre – label them onto each part of the spider diagram. b) For each part identify the consequences for the area (pollution has been done for you). 6
  7. 7. List the problems shown on Resource 2: Using and with reference to Resource 2, describe the contributory factors of: Transport Congestion Housing Demand (Brownfield vs Greenfield sites) Spatial Inequalities (services – rich/poor) Counter-urbanisation (the outward movement of people and services) © 2008 Okehampton College 1 2 3 4 5 7
  8. 8. Spatial Inequalities (services – rich/poor) With specific reference to Resource 2, explain how this is an example of a “downward spiral”? TEST YOURSELF AT: <ul><li>CREATING SUSTAINABLE CITIES IN MEDCS </li></ul><ul><li>Many people are working towards trying to make cities more sustainable . A sustainable city offers a good quality of life to current residents but doesn't reduce the opportunities for future residents to enjoy a good quality of life. A sustainable city will grow at a sustainable rate and use resources in a sustainable way. </li></ul><ul><li>Key features of a sustainable city </li></ul><ul><li>resources and services in the city are accessible to all </li></ul><ul><li>public transport is seen as a vehicle alternative to cars </li></ul><ul><li>public transport is safe and reliable </li></ul><ul><li>walking and cycling is safe </li></ul><ul><li>areas of open space are safe, accessible and enjoyable </li></ul><ul><li>wherever possible, renewable resources are used instead of non-renewable resources </li></ul><ul><li>waste is seen as a resource and recycled wherever possible </li></ul><ul><li>new homes are energy efficient </li></ul><ul><li>there is access to affordable housing </li></ul><ul><li>community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues such as crime and security </li></ul><ul><li>cultural and social amenities are accessible to all </li></ul><ul><li>inward investment is made to the CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the town or city you live in, or a city that is near where you live. Could it be more sustainable? </li></ul><ul><li>Do people walk, cycle or use public transport rather than cars? Are there enough safe open spaces, services and cultural amenities for everyone? Is there enough investment in the city centre? Is there a strong sense of community? Is waste recycled? Is there affordable housing for everyone? Are homes energy-efficient? Do they use renewable energy? </li></ul>© 2008 Okehampton College 6 7 8
  9. 9. © 2008 Okehampton College Extension Task: Could Exeter be described as a vibrant hub? Use map evidence in your answer. Add named examples from the local area to the spider diagram on page . 9
  10. 10. © 2008 Okehampton College An out of town shopping centre is a large group of shops built either on a site on the edge of the urban area or on the site of a former large industrial area. Such centres usually have large car parks, a pedestrianised and air-conditioned environment. Resource 3 & 4 Use resource 3 to plot the locations of the out of town shopping centres with a BLUE circle. 1 Plot the following cities with a RED triangle. Newcastle Sheffield Glasgow London Manchester Edinburgh Birmingham Bristol Leeds 2 10
  11. 11. What do most of these sites have in common? © 2008 Okehampton College Match the out of town shopping centre with its site.   Metrocentre Agricultural land (farm) Bluewater Steel works Merry Hill Heavy Industry Lakeside Waterfront industry Meadowhall Sewage works Trafford Centre Chalk quarry Cribbs Causeway Ship canal docks Braehead Steel works White Rose Centre Chalk quarry 3 4 Explain the advantages of the location of out of town shopping centres for businesses. 5 Look at Resource 4   Annotate this image with reasons why Oxford Street, a city centre shopping centre, is not in the top ten shopping centres. 6 11
  12. 12. © 2008 Okehampton College Look at the views on shopping malls. List those people for and those against shopping malls. 8 Use the information in resources 3 and 4 to explain why office developments are being located next to out of town shops at Solstice Park. 9 Rank the advantages of shopping malls with the most important for you at the top and the least important at the bottom. Compare your list with the person next to you. 7 12 FOR AGAINST
  13. 13. Which of these sites, A, B or C, would be the best location for an out of town A B retail and office development? Give reasons for your choice. 9 Useful resources: BBC Bitesize website, page 4 of urban renewal (Merry Hill). © 2008 Okehampton College 13
  14. 14. © 2008 Okehampton College How sustainable are out of town shopping centres?   The top five shopping centres in Britain in terms of profitability per square metre (i.e. they make the most money) are all out of town malls.   There are lots of reasons why these malls are so attractive to businesses, entertainment and people but what problems have they caused? Why are they not sustainable?   Use Resources 3 to 5 in your booklet to complete the following table.   Imagine you are each of these stakeholders. What problems might the out of town shopping centres cause for you? 14 Stakeholders Why is an out of town shopping centre not a sustainable option for you? Socially sustainable Economically sustainable Environmentally sustainable A pensioner without a car A shopkeeper in the nearby High Street An environmentalist A small cinema owner in the nearby town A resident in the rural-urban fringe near to the out of town shopping centre A mother with two small children who lives in the nearby town
  15. 15. © 2008 Okehampton College City centres vs out of town shopping centres Organise the statements above into the following table. 15 Good public transport links. Higher rates of pollution. High Crime Rate. Limited open space. Shops spread out. Low crime rates. Pay for parking and limited space for parking. Free parking. Limited opening hours. Good disabled access. Higher number of empty shops and office spaces. Longer opening hours. Smaller shop spaces. Good access to main roads. Pedestrianised areas. Landscaped grounds with room for expansion. Smaller range of goods. Larger shop space. Traffic congestion. Many different facilities under one roof e.g. Food court and cinema.
  16. 16. © 2008 Okehampton College The effects of building out of town shopping centres Resource 5 Complete the table 1 Describe the changes in the type of shops found in Dudley high street Which groups of people are likely to still be shopping in the town centre? 2 3 16 Shops which left Dudley town centre Shops which replaced them
  17. 17. © 2008 Okehampton College How will they benefit from these changes? What are the disadvantages of these changes for them? Which of the following stakeholders, would be in favour of the development of out-of-town shops and why?   families who own a car town council Retail companies like Tesco Environmentalists building contractors local farmers State two stakeholders (other than shoppers) who would be against out-of-town developments and give reasons for your choice. 4 5 6 7 17
  18. 18. <ul><li>Resource 6 </li></ul><ul><li>On the map of Liverpool, draw arrows to identify the following movements that affect the city: </li></ul><ul><li>Gentrification </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Reurbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Annotate the impacts this movement will have upon the city. Justify your decisions. </li></ul>© 2008 Okehampton College Gentrification impacts the city by... Suburbanisation impacts the city by... Reurbanisation impacts the city by... Filtering impacts the city by.... Gentrification = movement of wealthy into the city 18
  19. 19. © 2008 Okehampton College Read the article The Doughnut Effect from The Economist newspaper and answer the following questions. 1. a) Note the date of the article b) check what has happened to the Bull Ring since the article was published: c) has it re-opened yet? d) is it popular e) has the new Bull Ring development solved any problems?   2. a) What is the doughnut effect? b) How is the doughnut effect different from the donut effect? c) Are any differences between the two effects important? 3. Describe the Urban village effect discussed in the article, in your own words. 4. Brindley Place is mentioned in the article: what is this development and determine whether it is important for your DME. 5. What is reverse commuting and how might it be important for town planners to know and understand what it is? 6. a)How have the inner suburbs been left behind in the rush to improve the inner city areas, according to the article? b) If the inner suburbs have been left behind as the article suggests, what does that tell us about town planning in Britain in the late 20th century and early 21st century? 7. Now put the article from The Economist by the side of the resources in your booklet and see how they might be linked: review your answers to the first 7 questions on this worksheet and make sure you understand how they either can be or cannot be applied to the case of Bristol as well as to Birmingham … or anywhere else in Britain for that matter e.g. Liverpool. Higher Tier Extension Answer these questions in your notes section at the back of the booklet. Resource 6 19
  20. 20. © 2008 Okehampton College THE huge, red fronted Mailbox building just off Birmingham's city centre was built in the 1970s as the country's largest mail-sorting office. It was also probably one of the ugliest buildings anywhere in the world. Today, however, after a facelift, it is one of the most desirable addresses in the Midlands. Harvey Nichols and Armani have just moved in to this multi-use development, and all the 144 flats on the upper floors have been snapped up for prices of up to £350,000. Britain's second city used to be a byword for urban blight. After the planners got to work on Birmingham in the 1960s, its centre was a grim confusion of concrete and flyovers. By the time the recession of the early 1980s had done its bit, there was not much life left in it at all. But in the late 1980s, an enterprising council started to reverse the trend with a mixture of public and private money. Since then, the city centre has been transformed. Money is still pouring in, with the glossy new Bull Ring shopping centre due to open next year. But in Birmingham, as in many similar cities, there is a cost to the inner-city revival. The British doughnut, a lump of indifferent carbohydrate with jam in the middle, describes rich inner-city development surrounded by acres of gloom Whilst the centre has prospered, those parts of the city that planners call the “inner suburbs” have crumbled, leaving many stranded in the no-man's land between the booming centre and the plush outer suburbs. Planners call this the “doughnut effect”, which confusingly describes the opposite phenomenon to the “donut effect” that American planners talk of. The American donut, a sugary ring with an empty centre, is a fine metaphor for the rich suburbs around a collapsed inner city. The British doughnut, a lump of indifferent carbohydrate with jam in the middle, describes rich inner-city development surrounded by acres of gloom. The ideas behind inner-city regeneration are partly to blame. They were based on the principles of the Urban Village movement that emerged from America in the early 1990s, whereby the segregation of urban areas into retail, industrial and living areas was abandoned, and cities reverted to mixed-use development. The Jewellery Quarter in the centre of Birmingham, for instance, used to be home to 70,000 jobs. Now only 6,000 remain, but developers have gentrified the old canal-side warehouses and built plazas decorated with coffee shops. This combination has attracted both homebuyers and new businesses to the area. Corporate headquarters have moved in and a new law college has opened. Other city-centre “quarters” such as Brindley Place have also prospered after getting the gentrification treatment. Over 3,000 new housing units have been built in the centre of Birmingham. This has even led to the novel phenomenon of “reverse commuting”, whereby the city centre's new residents travel to jobs in new, high-tech companies on greenfield sites on the edge of the city. But, as Robert Shaw, the policy officer of the Town and Country Planning Association (TCPA), argues, “the suburbs have been left behind in the rush to improve the inner-city areas.” In many inner suburbs, the infrastructure is failing and the services are moving out. Many of these areas in Birmingham are now identified as “food deserts”: food retailers have moved out, either to up-market shops in the city centre or to out-of-town supermarkets. Differences in house prices tell the story. A Birmingham estate agent is selling three-bedroom terraced houses in the inner suburb of Selly Oak for £90,000 and two-bedroom flats in Brindley Place for upwards of £200,000. Birmingham is not the only city facing up to the plight of its suburbs. The TCPA has just finished co-writing a report on the problem for the Greater London Assembly. It looks at previously prosperous areas such as Surbiton, Barnet and Colliers Wood. In Birmingham, the city council is already trying to apply the lessons of its city-centre regeneration to some of the suburbs. Northfield is set to get £17m of public and private money. Selly Oak and Erdington are also due for such treatment. But whether the people who actually live in these areas will relish the city-centre treatment remains to be seen. City-centre regeneration relied on “higher density” plans, getting more people and businesses into the same area. For many residents, this offends the whole spirit of the suburbs, which were, after all, designed as a refuge from the bustle of city life; but these days they're looking a little too quiet. The Doughnut Effect 17th Jan 2002 The suburbs are paying for Britain's success in reviving its inner cities 20
  21. 21. © 2008 Okehampton College For the two schemes shown in Resource 7a and 7b , list their key features 21 Birmingham Regeneration Bristol Broadmead Redevelopment
  22. 22. © 2008 Okehampton College Brindley Place is a large development of shops, leisure facilities and housing packed together in one canal side space. The three other images are spread across the city of Birmingham. In the boxes below give the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to redevelopment. Birmingham Regeneration Scheme Resource 7a 22 Concentrated redevelopment Spreading redevelopment across the city centre Advantages Advantages Disadvantages Disadvantages
  23. 23. © 2008 Okehampton College Brindley Place Stakeholders Resource 7a For each of the groups below, write a list of what each group would want from the redevelopment of Brindley Place. In the second column tick to say whether you think Brindley Place fulfils their needs. 23 Group/Body Their requirements Fulfilled? Elderly Young (under 16) University students Local business people The environment Agency Birmingham City Council Chain stores
  24. 24. © 2008 Okehampton College Birmingham Regeneration Scheme Resource 7a Using the images on the slide, answer the questions below. 24 What suggests these areas are in decline? Why are canals a popular choice for redevelopment? Why do people protest about areas being allowed to decline? What types of industry used to be here? Why are they no longer here? What effect does the closure of industry have on people in the local area?
  25. 25. © 2008 Okehampton College Redevelopment of Broadmead Bristol Resource 7b Annotate this image with as many geographical features as you can. Give reasons for things that you see! 25
  26. 26. © 2008 Okehampton College What is it? Broadmead is not just a shopping centre, it's a major part of the city centre - and because the city is historic Bristol, the experience is unforgettable! Broadmead itself has over 300 stores, and a wide range of restaurants, pubs, clubs, cafes and other entertainment all within a few minutes walk.   Cabot Circus is now open and will be a fantastic addition to the city of Bristol and has so much to offer.  Cabot Circus comprises 140 new shops including 15 major landmark stores, 25 new restaurants and cafes, a grand European-style piazza and a 13 screen Cinema De Lux.  Redevelopment of Broadmead Bristol Resource 7b Location <ul><li>What have they done? </li></ul><ul><li>The first BID unlocked major voluntary contributions from many organisations. Investment was approximately £1million raised from retailers, matched with an additional £10million from the Bristol Alliance, The Mall Bristol, Bristol City Council, the South West of England Regional Development Agency and other property owners. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It allowed them to sweep away dated clutter in Broadmead streets, refreshing them with: </li></ul><ul><li>new store location signage </li></ul><ul><li>new paving </li></ul><ul><li>new seating / bollards / bins / bicycle racks </li></ul><ul><li>improved wall mounted lighting </li></ul><ul><li>landscaping </li></ul><ul><li>shop front improvements </li></ul><ul><li>pavement shops </li></ul><ul><li>Now BID 2 will raise the funds needed to run a major advertising marketing and promotions campaign for Broadmead.  On top of this, it will provide the much-needed resources to improve standards of cleanliness to match the Cabot Circus experience. BID 2 will ensure that Broadmead is part of the beating heart of Bristol's new city centre. </li></ul>26
  27. 27. © 2008 Okehampton College Regeneration vs Redevelopment For the two schemes outlined in resources 7a and 7b complete the table in order to compare and contrast the two types of planning. Sustainability Issues Which of the two redevelopment plans, Birmingham or Bristol, do you think is the most sustainable plan? Justify your reasons for this.   Which aspects of a sustainable redevelopment plan are missing?   What suggestions would you make to improve the sustainability of the transport system in these two towns? 27
  28. 28. © 2008 Okehampton College Rank ‘The Vision’ statements into order of importance. Prioritise the improvements suggested for the redevelopment of Liverpool City Centre and explain why these improvements are vital for a twenty first century city. Resource 8 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of each Transport Development. 1 2 28 No Improvements Why? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Transport Developments Advantages Disadvantages Merseyside and Public Transport Improvements on main roads Selected Street Improvements
  29. 29. © 2008 Okehampton College Regeneration of Liverpool - Positives Resource 8 Complete the table... 29
  30. 30. © 2008 Okehampton College Regeneration of Liverpool - Positives Resource 8 Complete the table... 30
  31. 31. © 2008 Okehampton College Resource 8 and 9   1. Highlight how plans are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable.   2. How could these plans be more sustainable?   3. What is missing in these plans? Study Resource 8 ‘The Vision’. Rank the seven elements of the regeneration of Liverpool City Centre in order, with the most important element first.   Explain why you feel your first three choices are so important. You should refer to peoples social, economic and environmental needs and the photographs in your answer. 8 Marks   Study Resource 8 ‘Transport Developments’ Explain why ‘interchange facilities’ are so important. Explain why new traffic signals and wider road junctions to cope with increased traffic is often seen as an unsustainable solution to transport problems. Castle Street is to become a ‘high quality pedestrian environment’. What would be the advantages of this change? Are there any disadvantages? 8 Marks Questions about regeneration in Liverpool 31
  32. 32. 6 - Why might mixed land use be a better option than just a shopping centre? Do you think independent or chain establishments provide the most sustainable option? What are the sustainable features of these plans? What are the benefits of these plans to users of public transport? What are the benefits of these plans to those working in Liverpool city centre? Which stakeholders might not benefit from these plans? What features of the plans are unsustainable? How could they be made more sustainable? 1 - What are the social and economic benefits of this to Liverpool? Why might Liverpool be a popular venue for such events? (Resource 10) 4 – Who will benefit from this? Do you think it is sustainable? 3 – How does this fit with Liverpool’s vision? 5- Why should there be investment in public transport? What are the benefits of these plans to pedestrians? 2 - Who would this benefit? What are its sustainable features? Why build an ‘iconic’ development? Decision Making – skills practice Annotation © 2008 Okehampton College 32
  33. 33. © 2008 Okehampton College Read the features of Liverpool’s plans and complete the grid below with a tick or cross to help you to begin to understand which stakeholders will benefit most and to what extent the plans are sustainable. Resource 9 33
  34. 34. © 2008 Okehampton College 1.”Liverpool is looking great after years of neglect.” 2.”Grotesque box-like office blocks.” 3.”It’s fantastic –in many ways it’s just the act of creating something new – it’s amazing!” 4.The war years’ damage left the councils throwing up cheap housing and slow repairs on the lovely damaged buildings. Now the SAD buildings have been replaced by new pleasure – to-look –at – buildings . Great!” 5. “I was proud that this was my city. Whichever direction I look(ed) I saw buildings I remembered from children.” 6. “Very forward looking now.” 7. “I think any regeneration is to be welcomed; especially on this scale. It’s going to bring in a lot of work to Liverpool but it’s quite a pity that it hasn’t brought any yet because a lot of work has been done by people from outside.” 8. “People should be dissuades from bringing private vehicles into the city –ergo public transport must be improved.” 9. “There is a lot of development going on in the city which is good… The city has a big potential that should be used properly.” 10.” I hope we don’t become too upmarket for the ordinary local person.” 11.”The Americans build their car parks underground. Why don’t we?” 12.”I would like the planners to remember that there are working class people in this city who cannot afford exorbitant rents,” 13. “There’s no thought gone into the planning, it’s just new houses but no facilities that people might need.” 14.”More of those ‘beautiful’ luxury apartments that people who live here can’t afford…….they look like some kind of prison block…they’re so ugly.” 15. That building( the echo offices ) is an absolute monstrosity, whoever designed that wants shooting.” 16. New people who have money are taking over the city and erasing buildings.” What do they think? Quotations from stakeholders in Liverpool Colour code the statements according to whether they are positive or negative opinions 34 Positive Negative
  35. 35. © 2008 Okehampton College 17.” I think they are ugly.” 18. “It was hard to recall how things used to look in the 60’s. Sorry to see lots of old familiar buildings gone, but progress must happen.” 19.” Local people can’t afford them.( the apartments)” 20.”No place for pedestrians and cyclists.” 21.” Liverpool used to be rather a poor city. It has become very sophisticated.” 22.”I seen a change for the future, however, I don’t know how it will turn out –good or bad.” 23.” Do we have to have ugly buildings in order to appreciate the beautiful ones?” 24. “They knocked down a very historic church and built those yuppie apartments…..just next to it you can see the last remnants of what was the original council housing of the community” 25. “I hope there will be more low cost transportation to connect the various ends of the city efficiently…it can be difficult to do ones business, shopping and getting around in a day” 26, “Hotels! Car parks! Shopping Malls! European City of Culture –they’re havin’ a laugh!” 27. “It was great knowing that over the years the derelict, decaying buildings have been replaced by brand new, good looking buildings….great!” 28. “This is what is bringing money into the town.” 29. “I hope there will be some green areas for people to relax in.” 30. “I love this city and am proud to tell people where I’m from” 31. “Growing up in the 30’s and 40’s most people were working class. Our children have more opportunities for advancement” 32. “My Liverpool has changed beyond recognition. I hope it doesn’t lose its character.” 33. “One of the most pedestrian and cyclist unfriendly cities I know!” 35
  36. 36. © 2008 Okehampton College Complete the speech bubbles below to show what the following people would think about the new proposed plans for Liverpool city centre. Stakeholders in the regeneration of Liverpool city centre Resource 9 Families Taxi Drivers Business people / office workers Young people 36
  37. 37. © 2008 Okehampton College Councillor Environmentalists Pedestrians Commuters 37
  38. 38. © 2008 Okehampton College THE DECISION   There are two decisions to make.   Use Resources 8, 9 and 10 plus any ideas from elsewhere in the Resource Booklet or your own knowledge to make your decisions.   Proposals are being made to regenerate Liverpool City Centre.   DECISION 1: With regard to these proposed changes, consider these options;   Option A – the proposals should be turned down. Option B – the proposals should go ahead as suggested. Option C – the proposals should be allowed but at a reduced size and with further controls imposed.   Select your preferred option and give reasons for your choice. State why you rejected the other two proposals. [12]   Level 1 (1-3 marks) Selects an option and gives a reason for choice. Level 2 (4-8 marks) Adds additional reason for choice referring to the resources/own knowledge. Level 3 (9-12 marks) Gives reasons for rejection of both the other proposals. Rejection of only one proposal is L3- (10 marks).   DECISION 2: Liverpool City Centre is suffering due to pressures from out-of-town retail developments. Annotate the map of the city centre on the separate resource sheet with your proposals for sustainable restoration. [8]   Level 1 (1-4 marks) Simple annotations on map of city centre to show proposal for sustainable regeneration up to a maximum of four marks. No annotations on plan, no marks at this level for this part of the decision. Level 2 (5-8 marks) Adds explanations to each of the proposals for sustainable regeneration. These explanations could be extended annotations on the plan or in prose form.   Guidance: 2 marks per annotation. Max. L1 if map is not labeled/annotated but has a written plan. 38
  39. 39. © 2008 Okehampton College (Section C: 20 MARKS)     DECISION 2: Liverpool City Centre is suffering due to pressures from out-of-town retail developments. Annotate the map of the city centre below with your proposals for sustainable restoration. 39
  40. 40. Possible Decision for the DME – Resources 8,9 and 10   Option Exercise 1 Rope Walks This is due to become the seventh major development area in Liverpool, make a decision on how that area could be regenerated from the following options: A green area with parks and walkways A centre for commerce and business Housing redevelopment with appropriate services A leisure park with swimming pool, bowling alley and cinema   Option Exercise 2 Major Development Areas (Higher) There are a number of planned development areas proposed around Liverpool, make a decision on which is the best option for [a certain stakeholder e.g. local resident, business owner, city council, or environmentalist]: Kings Waterfront Fourth Grace/Pier Head Princess Dock Commercial District Lime Street Station Paradise Street Development Area   Option Exercise 3 Major Development Areas (Foundation) There are a number of planned development areas proposed around Liverpool, make a decision on which is the best option to regenerate the city. Kings Waterfront Fourth Grace/Pier Head Princess Dock Commercial District Lime Street Station Paradise Street Development Area   40 © 2008 Okehampton College
  41. 41. Option Exercise 4 Report Writing Rope Walks will be redeveloped as a new leisure park with cinema, bowling alley, swimming pool and open space. Imagine you are one of the following stakeholders: Local Resident Local Councillor Local Business person   Write a report, as one of the above, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of this redevelopment in Rope Walks. Option Exercise 5 Standard Decision Activity Choose one of these proposed sites for the redevelopment of Liverpool, giving your reasons for your choice, taking into account the sustainability and the increased/decreased traffic around the city.   • State why you rejected each of the other five sites.   • Explain why your choice may not be ideal in all aspects.   • Explain how the rejected sites may have some advantages   Option Exercise 6 Transport Decision Using a copy of the map, annotate it to show the strengths and weaknesses of each planned redevelopment specifically taking into account the transport improvements. Making a decision! © 2008 Okehampton College 41
  42. 42. Question 1 Study Resource 1 Describe and briefly explain two reasons why people are attracted to the city centre.   Question 2 Which sector has the highest land value in a city? Why?   Question 3 Using resource 2 State two problems faced by declining city centres?   Using the photograph suggest two ways in which you could recognise a city centre is in decline?   Question 4 Using resources 2 & 3 Describe and explain the attractions for businesses moving to an out of town business park?   What are the disadvantages of these sites compared with a city centre location?   Question 5 Use Resource 4 Give two reasons why out-of-town shopping malls are a threat to the sustainability of city centres. Suggest two attractions of shopping at an out-of-town shopping mall.   Question 6 Use resources 3,4,5 & 6 Why have retailers left city centre locations? How can people be adversely affected by retailers moving to out-of-town locations? Why have people moved back into city centres? You can expect to see questions similar to the ones below. The questions will lead up to a final decision, which will be worth the most marks! For many of you, timing will be the key to success. © 2008 Okehampton College 42
  43. 43. Question 7 Use resources 6, 7a and 7b   Give three ways in which Birmingham’s Regeneration Scheme limits the impact of the ‘donut effect’. State the advantages and disadvantages of each scheme outlined in resources 7a and 7b. Which of the two schemes outlined in resources 7a and 7b would you consider more sustainable for the city centre?   Question 8 Using resources 8,9 and 10 Write a report considering the benefits and drawbacks of the regeneration of Liverpool City Centre.   Explain why it is necessary for Liverpool to be regenerated.   Describe the advantages of the regeneration plan.   Explain how this scheme can be considered sustainable.   OR   Question 8 Using resources 8,9 and 10 Write a report to explain what you would do to regeneration of Liverpool City Centre. You must also explain why you rejected the other options.   Option 1 Do nothing   Option 2 Concentrate on the construction of an efficient co-ordinated transport system, including Merseytram that would reduce congestion .   Option 3 Create new shopping facilities and redevelop/regenerate housing within the city centre.   Option 4 Implement the full scheme of transport, shopping and housing improvements. Making a decision! © 2008 Okehampton College 43
  44. 44. Windmill Hill Park, Swindon,%20Swindon.pdf Out Town Shopping Centres Our Changing High Streets Changing City Centres Liverpool © 2008 Okehampton College Use your electronic copy of the DME booklet to link to these sites quickly and easily! 44
  45. 45. © 2008 Okehampton College Use this space for any additional notes... 45
  46. 46. © 2008 Okehampton College Use this space for any additional notes... 46
  47. 47. © 2008 Okehampton College Use this space for any additional notes... 47
  48. 48. © 2008 Okehampton College Use this space for any additional notes... 48