Esg case study bible 2014

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Esg case study bible 2014

  1. 1. Name…………………................
  2. 2. The Case study has 3 levels in the mark scheme. It is worth 9 marks + 3 for SPaG. 12 altogether! -If you don't name an actual example you can not get beyond level 1. (1-3 marks) -To access level 2 you must make a point and develop it (3 of them for top level 2). Remember to answer both parts of the question (4-6 marks) -For level 3, answers are described, explained and have numerous place specific details. (7-9 marks) Where possible mention SEE- Social, Economic, Environmental. Use paragraphs and key terms. There are 3 marks available for good SPaG.
  3. 3. Theme What do I need to know? Rivers • • • A river valley and it’s landforms River flooding (causes, effects and management) in a MEDC River flooding (causes, effects and management) in a LEDC -River Tees -Cumbria 2009 -Mozambique 2000 Coasts • • A coastal area and its landforms Coastal management along one stretch of coastline -The Dorset Coast -Seaford to Birling Gap, East Sussex Population • • • A strategy to influence population change. International Migration from one country to another. Migration within one country (regional migration). -China’s One Child Policy -Mexico to the USA -Rural to Urban Migration in Brazil Settlement • Urban Change/ regeneration • Change in shopping provisions. -London Docklands and Greenwich Millennium Village -Bluewater Shopping Centre • • An aid project in a LEDC Factors that affect the location of a type of economic activity in a LEDC -Link Ethiopia -South East Brazil • Factors that affect the location of a type of economic activity in a MEDC (Just choose one to revise………….) -Primary= Wheat Farming in the Canadian Prairies -Secondary= Car Manufacturing in the EU -Tertiary= City of London -Quaternary= Silocon Valley, Ottawa Canada • • MNC investment in a specific area and in an international context A development where conflicts exist between economic development and environmental damage -Nike -The Pearl Delta- China Economic Development Example you have studied
  4. 4. 85 miles in length Upper Course: High Force Waterfalla famous waterfall at the upper course of the River Tees It drains an area of 710 square miles River Management -Long history of flash flooding -Cow green reservoir, controls water supply for industries along the river -Straighten the river for easier navigation during the industrial revolution Flood protection schemes in Yarn Upper Course Lower Course -Source high in the Pennines (893m above sea level) -High run off as steep V shaped valleys of impermeable rock -High rainfall – good water supply -Many tributaries -High Force waterfall – tallest in England 21 metres high -Gorges, rapids and potholes at Low force -Very urbanised and large populations. Eg Yarn -Important wildlife seals & migratory birds also SSSI -Ox bow lakes -Large oil, gas and petrochemical industries (as flat land) -Natural Levees formed due to silt build up -Mouth is in the North sea -Wide Mudflat and Tees estuary (tidal) -Huge water sports complex Tees Barrage Middle Course -Clear widening and meandering -Meanders cut off in the 19th century -Sides become less steep -Lateral erosion
  5. 5. Characteristics of Mozambique -South East Africa, bordered by the Indian Ocean. -The floods happened in February 2000 -Life expectancy before the flood was only about 47 years. 90% of the people of Mozambique have to live on less that $1 a day (about 60p). -83% of people work in agriculture. Why? Short term causes: -3 days of heavy rain at the start of Jan 2000. -5 weeks of almost continuous rainfall from the middle of Jan. --Cyclone Eline struck Mozambique on 22 Feb. Long term causes: -Grasslands in the upper course of the rivers are being destroyed. These grasslands are like sponges, so without them more water gets into the rivers. -Massive urbanisation in S.Africa means more water gets into the upper courses of the rivers that end up in Mozambique. One of the main rivers affected was the Zambezi. Economic impacts -$30 million was needed to repair the roads, $6 million for railways and $4 million for the electricity supply. Social impacts -1 million people lost their homes. -Thousands of people drowned. -The flood survivors had to go to refugee camps without much food or water and with poor sanitation, so diseases spread quickly. Environmental impacts -The flood destroyed fertile farmland. Response and management -Mozambique are an LEDC. GDP is 195 th in the world. Money is spent on schools and hospitals as these tend to be more urgent that flooding. -Rivers begin in other countries so they can’t always control what they do in the upper courses. -The European Union has given money to start a flood warning system. They have sensors to measure rainfall in the river catchments so they can warn people by radio and help them evacuate before a flood comes.
  6. 6. Location: Seaford to Birling Gap, East Sussex, UK. Problems: -Shingle is lost from Seaford’s beach due to the process of longshore drift carrying material from west to east. This causes the beach to disappear and parts of the town are susceptible to flooding during storm events. Coastal Management in place and it’s sustainability: Hard engineering: Between 1986 and 1987 a 9 million coastal management programme was put in to place by Southern Water. One of the main developments was a terminal groyne; built towards the eastern end of Seaford’s beach to slow down the process of longshore drift. The groyne traps sediment and helps to build up the width of the beach. Advantages: Socially sustainable as it maintains the beach and helps to protect the town of Seaford from flooding. Disadvantage: Environmental impacts are worsened elsewhere. For example, erosion is increased at Birling Gap because the groyne traps much needed sediment and is starving the area of replenished material. In terms of economic sustainability it could be considered to be quite cheap because of how long this groyne will last for and it does a good job of maintaining the beach and protecting the town of Seaford from flooding. Conflict: Birling Gap is starved of material and the residents there feel that this is unfair and want protection for their settlement. Hard engineering: Rip rap is place in front of the cliffs at Seaford Head. These are big concrete boulders designed to absorb wave energy and reduce erosion of the cliff. Economically sustainable because they are relatively cheap. Conflict: Environmentalists think that the rip rap is an eyesore and intrudes on the natural landscape. Soft engineering: Beach replenishment in Seaford- Twice a year a firm of contractors arrive to redistribute the shingle at Seaford Bay. The process takes about 3 weeks and employs 6 earthmovers, two bulldozers and a digger. The contractors move the material back from the east to the centre to replace the material that was carried by LSD. This creates a wide beach to protect the town from flooding. Economically expensive as it is costing £100,000 each year to carry out, however when you compare this with what the economic costs of the flooding would be this seems a cheap price to pay. Conflict: Local people are unable to use parts of the beach whilst this is taking place and it could impact upon tourism. However this is managed by carrying out the activity during the winter.
  7. 7. A case study of managing population change- China and the one child policy • • • • • • . Background - Started – 1979 but the policy has recently been relaxed in Nov 2013 and you can now have a second child. Reason for policy – concerns over the rapidly growing population. (China has 1.3bn people) Exceptions – twins. If you live in rural areas (the 2 nd child helps on the farm) Has it been successful – Yes. The population is growing more slowly, but it is still growing. However many religious and human rights groups think it is wrong. Should education of family planning play a bigger part now? • • • • • • • • • Consequences of not keeping to it Fines. Have to pay for education/ health care. Gender Benefits of keeping to it– Access to health care, education and housing. Other effects of the law: The elderly now have fewer young people to look after them. Or the young have more people to look after. Higher dependency ratio Incidents of female infanticide have been recorded (killing baby girls), and lots more selective terminations. Gender imbalance – reportedly 120 boys to 100 girls.
  8. 8. What is the situation? There is a 2000km border between USA and Mexico. 1 million+ Mexicans migrate to the USA each year. Causes Push Factors (reasons why people leave Mexico): Poor medical facilities (1800 per doctor), low paid jobs (GNP= $3,750), Adult literacy rates 55%- poor education prospects, life expectancy 72 years, 40% unemployed. Pull Factors (reasons why people are attracted to the USA): Excellent medical facilities (400 per doctor), well paid jobs (GNP $24, 750), Adult literacy rates 99%- good education prospects, many jobs available for low paid workers such as Mexicans. What are the Consequences impacts on the USA? •Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons •Mexicans are seen as a drain on the USA economy •Migrant workers keep wages low which affects Americans •Cultural and racial issues •Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages •Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music •The incidents of TB has been increasing greatly due to the increased migration What are the impacts on Mexico? •The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people •Many men emigrate leaving a majority of women who have trouble finding marriage partners •Young people tend to migrate leaving the old and the very young •Legal and illegal immigrants together send some $6 billion a year back to Mexico •Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants Management of this migration: The USA has tried to limit the numbers coming across by constructing a physical barrier. However, it is almost an impossible task of trying to cover the 2000km border. Most believe it is unlikely it will ever be completed. The government provides patrols to limit the number of people crossing the border.
  9. 9. Where? Rural to Urban migration is occurring in North East Brazil. People are pushed away from the drought ridden area know as the ‘Caatinga’ such as Sao Francisco and Nova Casa Nova and are being pulled to the big cities in the south east such as Belo Horizonte, Sao Paulo and Rio De Janeiro. Impacts on the NE of Brazil (Caatinga) •Young men and women leave the area in search of a better quality of life which they think can be found in the cities of the south east. (Think push/pull factors!) •They send money back to families in the countryside. •The Caatinga area now has less young, energetic fit and healthy people to help farm the land and run the house. •The young and elderley find life an even bigger struggle and cannot look after themselves as well. Impacts on the SE of Brazil (Belo Horizonte, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo) •Growth of slums (also known as favelas and shanty towns) •Over 150,000 live in Rocinha •The government cant supply basic services/ infrastructure to these slums – sewerage, water, electricity. •40% of people live (in Rocinha) in slums that often built poorly and illegally, but are difficult to move on. •Planning how land should be used is very difficult. •Overcrowding of schools and other services. How are they managing the situation? •The self help scheme. Government subsidise (reduce the cost of) materials so residents can build more secure buildings with bricks, and tiles. •Community schemes are set up so they help each other. •Many of the settlements are 40-50km from the city centre – so transport needs to be improved. •Attempting to solve the issue of who owns the land – if the people now own it, they will be more likely to invest and look after their home (as they know they cant be evicted!) •Electricity companies are supplying more energy efficient products – low energy light bulbs, efficient fridges etc to cut down energy bills.
  10. 10. Urban regeneration/ sustainable city living - London Docklands and Greenwich Millennium Village • • • The problem – Our environment is under pressure from all angles. Cities are expanding all the time (urbanisation) and we need to use the land we have more wisely and in a green way. Greenwich Millennium Village tries to help people live more sustainably. It was build on old dock land (reclaimed industrial land – Brownfield). Sustainable means meeting the needs of the present without affecting future generations. • • • • • • Key factsHomes there will use 80% less energy, 30% less water. Wood to build the houses comes from sustainable forests. They are designed to use sunlight to heat them up (more glass/ south facing) Public transport is easier with tube and bus services. Also there are cycle paths. All necessary services are provided locally (schools/ shops etc) helping for a sustainable community. It will not solve all the problems but it is a start at trying to promote sustainable urban living. Lessons will be learnt for the future.....
  11. 11. Change in shopping provisions: Out of town shopping centre- Bluewater, Kent There has been major changes in the way we shop in the last 100 years. 1.Changes in transport- car ownership has increased so people can travel further for their shopping. This means there are fewer smaller convenience stores in rural areas, but there are more out-of-town shopping centres. They are built out of town because land is cheaper, there is more available and it is accessible with on-site parking. 2.Changing market forces- changes in supply and demand for goods and retail services. People now want a larger range of goods at cheaper prices. Small, specialist shops can not meet this demand, but larger chain stores and out of town shopping centres can- they have lots of different products under one roof at much cheaper prices. 3.Social habits have also changed- people have less time to shop for the things they really need (e.g. food) but want more leisure time to shop (e.g. clothes). This means supermarkets have become more convenient as all types of food are stocked together. Bluewater is a brownfield site. It was built in a former chalk quarry which was in use in the 1960s-80s. Bluewater has over 14 hectares of retail space and nearly 1.5 hectares for indoor leisure use. The rest of the site is occupied by parkland, lakes and car parking. Location: Kent, SE England. 35km from central London. The nearest towns are Dartford and Gravesend. Transport Links: 40 min from central London, Served by 60 buses per hour, good motorway links such a mile away from the M25 and A2/M2, good rail links, free parking. Bluewater has 25 million visitors per year – it has a large threshold population. Bluewater has 11 million people living within one hours drive – so it has a good catchment area and 59% are better off “White Collar” workers. Characteristics of Bluewater Described as an economic success! Over 330 stores, parking for 13,000 cars, open until 9pm each day, 3 anchor stores – John Lewis, M&S, House of Fraser, Café and Restaurants, 50 acres of lakes and parkland, playgrounds and cycle ways, 12 screen cinema, crèche, safe, pleasant environment, complete leisure experience – family day. Plans to expand with railway links to places in Europe. Impacts on shops in nearby towns such as Dartford and Gravesend Dartford and Gravesend now described as ‘dead heart’ places. The number of shops have declined here and the CBDs have suffered from competition. They moved to Bluewater where rent is cheaper and they can have more space. Customers also going to Bluewater instead. They are fighting back by redeveloping their town centres and they released campaigns such as ‘Shop local’. Environmental impacts of Bluewater: increased congestion/accidents on the roads, light pollution, now acting as a growth pole by attracting more hotels and local business, have attempted to blend in by planting trees around the former quarry.
  12. 12. Link Ethiopia are a non governmental organisation. They have one office in London and another two offices in the north (Gondar) and south (Debrezeit) of Ethiopia. Over 50% of children in rural Ethiopia do not access education or go to school. Many have other responsibilities to fetch water. Mission To change lives through education. They do this by improving access to quality education, encouraging mutual understanding and respect between different cultures. Sustainability The work of Link Ethiopia School Links Link Ethiopia set up, support and help manage links between U.K. schools and schools in Ethiopia, in both the primary and secondary sectors. For example they facilitate letter writing and shared curriculum activities. They will help schools to plan visits to Ethiopia. Gap Scheme Link Ethiopia offer a three-month Gap Ethiopia teaching placement to pre-university students. Our volunteers are accommodated by local families and teach English Communication Skills at secondary school level. Providing Resources Many of the schools they work with in Ethiopia are under-resourced. Link Ethiopia therefore aim to assist schools in identifying, implementing and managing projects to improve the quality of the schooling they offer. This may involve basic necessities such as clean running water, adequate classrooms, the training of teachers in computer skills, or the management of libraries in larger schools. They work with schools in both rural and urban areas and strive to enable all schools to deliver suitable education for the needs of their community. -Socially sustainable as students in the UK and Ethiopia gain knowledge of each others cultures. -Link Ethiopia also employ local people in Ethiopia who they train to maintain the links between the schools in Ethiopia and the UK. They invest time in their local community and this is socially sustainable . -Economically sustainablevolunteers can help young people develop their English Language skills at no cost to the schools. UK students gain experience of working within a different environment. -Education is now improving as money is being invested in infrastructure.
  13. 13. Primary Industries •Good climate-warm rainfall, rich soil •Coffee, beef, caccio, sugar cane •Large deposit of gold, iron ore, bauxite •Large deposits of oil and off-shore gas •Lots of industry Higher wages and better quality of life CORE South East Brazil including Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro Ports Tertiary Industries •Sau Paulo largest financial centre in South American •Headquarters of most domestic and foreign banks Secondary Industries •Foreign and domestic investment in manufacturing •Government investment in South East to promote growth to an N.I.C. •Good road and rail networks/ports •Has many MNCs •Highest population density •Highest education and skills •Car manufacturing - Ford, GM, Toyota, VW, Fiat •Large local market and ports for export Core/Periphery in Brazil Quaternary Industries •Centre of research and development public and private sectors •Example - Sáo Jose dos Campus - Aerospace Technical Centre - Specialists in aviation and outer space Terms Cumulative Causation A significant increase in economic growth can lead to even more growth is more money circulates in the economy. Economic Core Region The most highly developed region in a country –good infrastructure/high levels of interest/high incomes. Periphery Parts outside the core-lower level of economic development All other regions •Lower income •Lower quality of life •Lower access to services, eg hospitals •Poor infrastructure •Poorer climate for farming PERIPHERY Migration •Many younger people move to South East for work and other opportunities •This can leave aging populations in rural villages New capital city Brazilia –located in interior to try to encourage investment
  14. 14. Nike s the world's leading supplier of sports footwear and equipment. The company was founded in 1972. The company name comes from the Greek word for 'victory'. Nike does not make any shoes or clothes itself but contracts out to factories in LEDCs. These subcontracted companies then act on their own and re-subcontract their operations in other Asian countries that give low wages and have no employment laws. E.g. Vietnam, The Philippines and Indonesia The average pay at a Nike factory close in Vietnam is $54 a month, 3x higher than other jobs. In 1998 Nike changed the minimum age requirements to 17 yrs Negatives of Nike - Sweatshops - Child labour. - Hazardous working conditions - Below subsistence wages. The numbers… Yearly revenue of $19.2 billion (2009). Products in 140 countries. Contracts to 700 factories in 45 countries. Employing 800.000 people in the supply chain. Children as young as 10 making shoes, clothing and footballs in Pakistan and Cambodia Measures taken by Nike, Code of conduct. Decommissioning. Auditing tools and task force. Nike have hired independent auditors to make sure that the company subcontractors are living up to Nike’s code of conduct.
  15. 15. The Pearl Delta is in the Republic of China in the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea. It is one of the most densely urbanised regions in the world and one of the main hubs of China's economic growth. Much of the area is frequently covered with a brown smog. This has a strong effect on the pollution levels in the delta. In October 2009, Greenpeace released a report, "Poisoning the Pearl River" that detailed the results of a study it conducted. All samples they took contained hazardous properties including heavy metals such as beryllium, copper and manganese. These substances are associated with a long list of health problems such as cancer, endocrine disruption, renal failure and damage to the nervous system as well being known to harm the environment. The Pearl River Delta is notoriously polluted, with sewage and industrial waste. (Treatment facilities are failing to keep up with the growing population). The Pearl River Delta has become the world's workshop and is a major manufacturing base for products such as electronic products (such as watches and clocks), toys, garments and textiles, plastic products, and a range of other goods. Nearly five percent of the world's goods were produced in the Greater Pearl River Delta in 2001. Over 70,000 Hong Kong companies have plants there. In 2007, the World Bank approved a $96 million loan to the Chinese government to reduce water pollution in the Pearl River Delta. 7.1 billion was spent on the river by mid 2010 to clean up the river's sewage problems. The city will build about 30 water treatment plants, which will treat 2.25 million tonnes of water per day. The program hopes to cut down the amount of sewage in the area by 85%,
  16. 16. Mount St Helens is on the plate boundary between the Juan de Fuca plate and North American plate. When it erupted it permanently changed the surrounding landscape. 200 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles of railways and 185 miles of highway were destroyed. U.S. President Jimmy Carter surveyed the damage and stated it looked more desolate than a moonscape. Mt St Helens was dormant for a long time but small quakes from 1980 suggested that the magma was moving. On March the 18th a quake in the volcano of 4.2 on the Richter scale signalled the volcanoes return to activity. A large “bulge” on the side of the volcano signified a build up of magma. On May 18 at 8:32 a.m., a magnitude 5.1 earthquake centred directly below the north slope triggered that part of the mountain to slide this was on of the largest landslides in history, it moved at around 110 mph and it covered about 24 square miles *Large number of wildlife were killed by the blast and the volcanic ash with nothing surviving in the blast zone * flooding resulting from blocked rivers washed away road and rail bridges * crops were ruined and livelihoods of loggers were devastated with large areas of trees being flattened like matchsticks
  17. 17. The worst-affected was the town of Armero. It was virtually destroyed buried by mud and rubble swept down on to it. The fatal eruption happened during the night when most of the town's 27,000 residents were in bed. -Pumice fragments and ash from side of vent. -Lava erupted from summit crater accompanied by heavy rainfall. -Hot ash and rocks transported by pyroclastic flows of clouds of gas and ash. -Rapid snow melting causing floods to sweep loose debris and soil to create hot lahars down the mountain. An evacuation was ordered but abandoned when the volcano went quiet. The Colombian government has appealed to the United Nations for help. However, rescue efforts are being hampered by fallen bridges and impassable roads.
  18. 18. The L’Aquila earthquake struck this medieval town on 6th April 2009. L’Aquila is located in central Italy. It is situated between the Eurasian and Adriatic Plates. Primary effects -297 dead -1500 injured -66 000injured -10 000 unsafe buildings -Roads damaged -Historical sites destroyed Secondary effects -Town partly sealed off -Aftershocks hit for days after -Visitors put off/Tourist jobs lost -Families living in tents -$14.2 billion to rebuild Transport networks blocked The earthquake happened due to the building up of tension in a fault line under the Apennine Mountains. The response to the Italian earthquake was good. Italy is a wealthy country in comparison with Haiti. People could do more to help themselves. Over 40,000 homeless people were given tents to live in. Much of the damage can be repaired because buildings and possessions were insured. Rebuilding does not happen quickly, however. Even one year after the earthquake, a ‘red zone’ in the old centre of L’Aquila was still sealed off. It’s likely to be some time before it is safe again. Italian phone companies gave L’Aquila residents free minutes and banks suspended their mortgage payments. Within 48 hours, 7000 Italians were using modern equipment to rescue people. Another 10 000 people were given rooms in seaside hotels. Others went to stay with family and friends.
  19. 19. The country is located on a conservative plate boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the North American Plate. 3 Million people live in Port au Prince with the majority living in slum conditions after rapid urbanisation. - 12th January 2010 an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck Haiti. -The focus was 13km underground -The epicentre was 25km from the capital Port-au-Prince -Haiti suffered a huge number of serious aftershocks. The poorest country in the western hemisphere. GDP is 143/227. 66% of the population of Haiti earn less than £1 a day with 56% of the population classed as “extremely poor” In early January 2010 the EU released €3 m in emergency funding. -The number of people in relief camps of tents since the quake was 1.6 million -In July 2010, CNN returned to Portau-Prince and reported, "It looks like the quake just happened yesterday“. -A January 2012 Oxfam report said that a half a million Haitians remained homeless -Only about 20% of aid has been spent by the Haiti government as they have no resources. The European Council and its member nations later announced more than €429 million in aid. The governments of the United States, Israel ,the Dominican Republic, Canada, Brazil, Italy and Cuba3 sent over 1,000 military and disaster relief personnel each, with the United States being by far the largest single contributor to the relief efforts.
  20. 20. • Strong winds up to 135mph • • Storm surge of 7.6m • Heavy rainfall The primary impacts included -140,000 were killed -450,000 homes -1700 schools were destroyed. -200,000 farm animals were killed -40% of food stores were destroyed. -Rice fields were flooded on the Irrawaddy Delta The secondary impacts were that -up to 3 million were made homeless -millions lost their livelihoods. -Over 70% of households didn’t have access to clean water and this caused diseases. -There was a shortage of food. -1000’s of temples were destroyed The cost of the damage was $10 billion. The impacts were also greater in Burma than the USA because many in Burma depend on farming (crops and livestock) and much of this was totally destroyed Additionally, they do not have flood defences and their houses are poor quality and easily destroyed. The cyclone happened on 2nd May 2008 at the Irrawaddy delta in Burma The Government failed to warn its people. People were not evacuated in time As Burma is a poor country it could not afford to plan, predict and prepare like the USA. The emergency services were ill prepared, had little training or equipment and lacked numbers. The government refused to accept foreign aid at first as they said they could cope. Its government is a military dictator and they do not like outsiders! Aid workers were eventually allowed in, though this was three weeks after the cyclone. http://www.coolgeography.co.uk/A-level/AQA/Year%2013/Weather%20and%20climate/Hurricanes/Cyclone_Nargis.htm
  21. 21. Tropical storms have strong winds and torrential rain. They are circular in shape and can be hundreds of km wide. They form over tropical seas (27oC or higher). Warm moist air rises and condenses. This releases energy which makes it grow really powerful. They lose strength as they move over land because their energy source (warm water) is cut off. The USA has a sophisticated monitoring system to predict if hurricanes will hit (satellites can track them). This means people can be evacuated. 80% were evacuated before the storm hit, reducing the death toll. Mississippi and Louisiana declared states of emergency and stockpiled supplies (food and water). The coastguard, police, fire services and army rescued over 50,000 people and they had access to equipment such as helicopters. Hurricane Katrina hit the South East USA on 29th August 2005 and cost a staggering $300 billion. Katrina was a category 4 storm. Storm surges reached over 6 metres in height. New Orleans was one of the worst affected areas because it lies below sea level and is protected by levees. People sought refuge in the Superdome stadium. Conditions were unhygienic, and there was a shortage of food and water. Looting was commonplace throughout the city. Tension was high and many felt vulnerable and unsafe. Although the response was better than in Burma the USA government received much criticism. Some homeless families ended up in sports stadia where conditions were intolerable and fighting etc broke out as tensions rose. There were accusations that as it was ‘black poor people mostly affected’ the government didn’t care. Looting was commonplace. Finally, flood defences that were supposed to protect New Orleans failed and this actually increased the damage as flood water became trapped The primary impacts included 1800 were killed and 300,000 homes were destroyed. 3 million people were left without electricity and bridges including the I10 collapsed. Coastal habitats were also damaged. The secondary impacts were tens of thousands were made homeless and 230,000 jobs were lost from business that were damaged and destroyed. Water supplies were polluted with sewage, chemicals and dead bodies.
  22. 22. The Sahel region of Africa has been suffering from drought on a regular basis since the early 1980s. The area naturally experiences alternating wet and dry seasons. Drought is different from other hazards unlike floods and tropical storms it never kills people directly Desertification – the turning of land, often through physical processes and human mismanagement, into desert. A severe threat to millions in the Sahel region of Africa. In the Sahel, a drought is declared when there’s below average rainfall for 2 years. The Sahel has actually suffered drought for most of the last 30 years. The result is crop failure, soil erosion, famine and hunger: people are then less able to work when their need is greatest. It becomes a vicious circle and can result in many deaths, especially among infants and the elderly. In Niger in 2004, the situation was made worse when a plague of locusts consumed any remaining crops. In these cases, people rely on food aid from the international community. The Eden project is a charity that plants trees in the area to give food to the local people

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