Why is the Transit of Venus (project)Relevant to the Profession?• Why the transit of Venus? • Objective • Back ground• The project in more detail• Distribution of solar scopes• Resources• Future ?
O B S E R V IN G T H E T R A N S IT O F VE N U SHISTORYThe sighting of Australia by Captain Cook in 1770 waspreceded by one of the most important scientific expeditions ofthe time;OUTCOMEto measure the distance between the Earth and the Sun (anastronomical unit - AU) and so compute the scale of the solarsystem.METHODThis was achieved by measuring the time taken for Venus totransit across the face of the Sun from different locations onEarth and uses the parallax effect to compute 1 AU.
T H E T R A N S IT O F V E N U SThe Blue Elipse represents ourview of the Sun’s Orbit Venus’ orbit is inclined (by 3.39 (Courtesy Hyperphysics, 2006) degrees) relative to the ecliptic
L IS T O F T R A N S IT S A N D IN T E R V A L S Ascending (A) or Duration since last transit Date of transit Descending (D) node (years and months)6 December 1631 A4 December 1639 A 8 yrs 6 June 1761 D 121 yrs 6 months 3 June 1769 D 8 yrs9 December 1874 A 105 yrs 6 months6 December 1882 A 8 yrs 8 June 2004 D 121 yrs 6 months 5 June 2012 D 8 yrs11 December 2117 A 105 yrs 6 months8 December 2125 A 8 yrs 5
A B R IE F H IS T O R Y O F T H E T R A N S IT O FVE N U S First predicted by Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century First scientifically observed transit in 1639 by Jeremiah Horrocks using a telescope to project the image of the Sun onto a piece of paper an estimation of the Astronomical Unit was made, but based on assumptions of the size of Venus Early in the 18th century, Edmund Halley proposed a method of calculating the distance from Earth to Sun using transits of Mercury or Venus.
A B R IE F H IS T O R Y O F T H E T R A N S IT O FVE N U S The transits of 1761 and 1769 were observed by many people, in different locations around the world. The 1769 transit is the one observed notably by Captain James Cook in Tahiti. In Australia in 1874, a team of men led by Government Astronomer Henry Chamberlain Russell, scientifically observed transit of Venus in various locations around New South Wales. There was an unsuccessful observation at Jimbour on the Darling Downs in 1882 and the project hopes to successfully observe the T of V there in June. A re-enactment at Woodford in the Blue Mountains on 8 June 2004
T R A N S IT O F V E N U S – A MODERN MEAS UREMENTThe Project will live stream video of the eventto our website www.transitofvenus.com.au andleave a lasting record and allows accuratetiming of the ingress and egress of the Transit. OldThe Project partnership consists of Surveyorsand amateur astronomers, who haveastronomical telescopes with an accuratetracking and timing mechanism and a capacityto stream images live to a website.Should a site be cloudy there are severalAstronomy sites in Australia we can call on toview on the website. New
T H E T R A N S IT O F V E N U S The Project Website has: Countdown Timer to the Transit which will be replaced by the actual Transit in progress. Safety message, Information & Entry to Schools Competition on line, Access to a free simulator software called Stellarium, with exercises Computing “AU” The Brochure of the TofV Surveying and Astronomy What to Observe Links to relevant Surveying, Spatial and Education sites & lots more …..There are a number of Transit of Venus websites but ours is thebest.
V IE W IN G T H E T R A N S IT…. or here you will If you live here …see the whole transit
The Project Website www.transitofvenus.com.au makesstudents aware of Astronomy and the Surveying & SpatialProfessions covering: Land Surveying, Hydrographical Surveying, Engineering Surveying Mine Surveying, Spatial Information, (Geographical Information) Cartography, Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geodetic Surveying. Astronomy Seats of Learning and an insight into a Surveying Practice. Past and Future directions of Surveying and Spatial Professions
F O R M O R E IN F O R M A T IO NThe calculation of the distance from earth to the sun “AU”using the Venus Transits are too complicated to explain here. The paper which was presented at the International F.I.G.Congress by Craig Roberts and Matthew Cooper in Sydney2010, recommended Steven van Roode’s Online ParallaxCalculator, http://www.transitofvenus.nl/parallax.html forcalculating AU. Note: for Countries east of the dateline, the Transit occurs on the 5th June.
The current accepted value 1AU is 149,597,870.691 km (Distance from earth to the sun)www.transitofvenus.com.au Nick de Weger for Project Committee.
T h e S c h o o ls C o m p e t i t i o n ( n o w f in is h e d ) The schools competition was about winning a free Solarscope (valued at in excess of $150) for your local school Schools could also purchase additional Solarscopes at the reduced price of $80.00 The competition was to predict the time of “second contact” of the Transit of Venus at that school. Our web site http://www.transitofvenus.com.au/Resources.html contains teaching material that will assist in predicting this time i.e. free Software “Stellarium” & iPhone & Android Apps The competition could only be entered “on line” on our web page. Entries closed end March 2012 and SolarScopes will be presented in May 2012, by surveyors who will talk to students. If the school misses out, Surveyors could purchase a SolarScope for their school at discount price with an advertorial stickers on it.
Schools Competition Entries, SolarScope Orders & Volunteer Register Report as at 2:00pm 19th April 2012
Th eS o la r S c o p eThe Educational Solarscope is great for studyingsunspots, solar eclipses and the transits of Venusand Mercury.Theres even a comprehensive users guide with instructions ontracking the Earths ever-changing position with regard to the Sun.The Solarscope Educational Version is designed for use by 2 to 7observers.The Educational Solarscope Version is for those willing to go furtherthan simple sun observation and comes with a 40-page workbookwalking the user through many interesting measurements.
Th eS o la r S c o p eThe Transit of Venus - What you will actually see.In the SolarScope Venus will appear to movein a “U” shape.
S UPPORATFree iPhone or Android Application is available fromwww.transitofvenus.nl and click on Screenshots
To finish, here is a video clipfrom NASA to summarise.Video
SponsorsF U N D I N G /C O N T R I B U T Without the financial support of the following sponsors, the project would not have proceeded. Their commitment to the advancement of education in the sciences and related subjects is gratefully acknowledged. Astronomical Association of Queensland www.aaq.org.au Bennett + Bennett bennettandbennett.com.au Bosco Johnson www.bosjon.com.au C. R. Kennedy www.crkennedy.com.au Consulting Surveyors National www.acsnational.com.au Schlencker Surveying firstname.lastname@example.org SIBA www.spatialbusiness.org/aus/About_SIBA.aspxIN G B O D IE S Statewide Surveying statewidesurvey.com.au The Institution of Surveyors New South Wales www.surveyors.org.au The Institution of Surveyors Victoria www.surveying.org.au The Institution of Surveyors Queensland email@example.com The Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute Qld Region www.sssi.org.au The Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute LSC The Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute Qld Region Central Group Ultimate Positioning, Roderick_Yann@ultimatepositioning.com Wesfarmers A Truly Industry initiative. initiative