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Transit of Venus

Transit of Venus

1 of 21
Transit of Venus
Why is the Transit of Venus (project)
Relevant to the Profession?

• Why the transit of Venus?
       • Objective
       • Back ground
• The project in more detail
• Distribution of solar scopes
• Resources
• Future ?
O B S E R V IN G T H E T R A N S IT O F
 VE N U S
HISTORY
The sighting of Australia by Captain Cook in 1770 was
preceded by one of the most important scientific expeditions of
the time;

OUTCOME
to measure the distance between the Earth and the Sun (an
astronomical unit - AU) and so compute the scale of the solar
system.

METHOD
This was achieved by measuring the time taken for Venus to
transit across the face of the Sun from different locations on
Earth and uses the parallax effect to compute 1 AU.
T H E T R A N S IT O F V E N U S




The Blue Elipse represents our
view of the Sun’s Orbit
                                 Venus’ orbit is inclined (by 3.39
 (Courtesy Hyperphysics, 2006)
                                 degrees) relative to the ecliptic
L IS T O F T R A N S IT S A N D
 IN T E R V A L S
                    Ascending (A) or     Duration since last transit
 Date of transit
                   Descending (D) node        (years and months)
6 December 1631            A
4 December 1639            A                        8 yrs
  6 June 1761              D                  121 yrs 6 months
  3 June 1769              D                        8 yrs
9 December 1874            A                  105 yrs 6 months
6 December 1882            A                        8 yrs
  8 June 2004              D                  121 yrs 6 months
  5 June 2012              D                        8 yrs
11 December 2117           A                  105 yrs 6 months
8 December 2125            A                        8 yrs




                                                                       5
A B R IE F H IS T O R Y O F T H E T R A N S IT O F
VE N U S
 First predicted by Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century
 First scientifically observed transit in 1639 by Jeremiah
 Horrocks
   using a telescope to project the image of the Sun onto a
    piece of paper
   an estimation of the Astronomical Unit was made, but
    based on assumptions of the size of Venus
 Early in the 18th century, Edmund Halley proposed a
 method of calculating the distance from Earth to Sun using
 transits of Mercury or Venus.
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Transit of Venus

  • 2. Why is the Transit of Venus (project) Relevant to the Profession? • Why the transit of Venus? • Objective • Back ground • The project in more detail • Distribution of solar scopes • Resources • Future ?
  • 3. O B S E R V IN G T H E T R A N S IT O F VE N U S HISTORY The sighting of Australia by Captain Cook in 1770 was preceded by one of the most important scientific expeditions of the time; OUTCOME to measure the distance between the Earth and the Sun (an astronomical unit - AU) and so compute the scale of the solar system. METHOD This was achieved by measuring the time taken for Venus to transit across the face of the Sun from different locations on Earth and uses the parallax effect to compute 1 AU.
  • 4. T H E T R A N S IT O F V E N U S The Blue Elipse represents our view of the Sun’s Orbit Venus’ orbit is inclined (by 3.39 (Courtesy Hyperphysics, 2006) degrees) relative to the ecliptic
  • 5. L IS T O F T R A N S IT S A N D IN T E R V A L S Ascending (A) or Duration since last transit Date of transit Descending (D) node (years and months) 6 December 1631 A 4 December 1639 A 8 yrs 6 June 1761 D 121 yrs 6 months 3 June 1769 D 8 yrs 9 December 1874 A 105 yrs 6 months 6 December 1882 A 8 yrs 8 June 2004 D 121 yrs 6 months 5 June 2012 D 8 yrs 11 December 2117 A 105 yrs 6 months 8 December 2125 A 8 yrs 5
  • 6. A B R IE F H IS T O R Y O F T H E T R A N S IT O F VE N U S First predicted by Johannes Kepler in the early 17th century First scientifically observed transit in 1639 by Jeremiah Horrocks using a telescope to project the image of the Sun onto a piece of paper an estimation of the Astronomical Unit was made, but based on assumptions of the size of Venus Early in the 18th century, Edmund Halley proposed a method of calculating the distance from Earth to Sun using transits of Mercury or Venus.
  • 7. A B R IE F H IS T O R Y O F T H E T R A N S IT O F VE N U S The transits of 1761 and 1769 were observed by many people, in different locations around the world. The 1769 transit is the one observed notably by Captain James Cook in Tahiti. In Australia in 1874, a team of men led by Government Astronomer Henry Chamberlain Russell, scientifically observed transit of Venus in various locations around New South Wales. There was an unsuccessful observation at Jimbour on the Darling Downs in 1882 and the project hopes to successfully observe the T of V there in June. A re-enactment at Woodford in the Blue Mountains on 8 June 2004
  • 8. T R A N S IT O F V E N U S – A MODERN MEAS UREMENT The Project will live stream video of the event to our website www.transitofvenus.com.au and leave a lasting record and allows accurate timing of the ingress and egress of the Transit. Old The Project partnership consists of Surveyors and amateur astronomers, who have astronomical telescopes with an accurate tracking and timing mechanism and a capacity to stream images live to a website. Should a site be cloudy there are several Astronomy sites in Australia we can call on to view on the website. New
  • 9. T H E T R A N S IT O F V E N U S The Project Website has: Countdown Timer to the Transit which will be replaced by the actual Transit in progress. Safety message, Information & Entry to Schools Competition on line, Access to a free simulator software called Stellarium, with exercises Computing “AU” The Brochure of the TofV Surveying and Astronomy What to Observe Links to relevant Surveying, Spatial and Education sites & lots more ….. There are a number of Transit of Venus websites but ours is the best.
  • 10. V IE W IN G T H E T R A N S IT …. or here you will If you live here … see the whole transit
  • 11. The Project Website www.transitofvenus.com.au makes students aware of Astronomy and the Surveying & Spatial Professions covering:  Land Surveying,  Hydrographical Surveying,  Engineering Surveying  Mine Surveying,  Spatial Information, (Geographical Information)  Cartography,  Photogrammetry,  Remote Sensing and  Geodetic Surveying.  Astronomy  Seats of Learning and  an insight into a Surveying Practice.  Past and Future directions of Surveying and Spatial Professions
  • 12. F O R M O R E IN F O R M A T IO N The calculation of the distance from earth to the sun “AU” using the Venus Transits are too complicated to explain here. The paper which was presented at the International F.I.G. Congress by Craig Roberts and Matthew Cooper in Sydney 2010, recommended Steven van Roode’s Online Parallax Calculator, http://www.transitofvenus.nl/parallax.html for calculating AU. Note: for Countries east of the dateline, the Transit occurs on the 5th June.
  • 13. The current accepted value 1AU is 149,597,870.691 km (Distance from earth to the sun) www.transitofvenus.com.au Nick de Weger for Project Committee.
  • 14. T h e S c h o o ls C o m p e t i t i o n ( n o w f in is h e d )  The schools competition was about winning a free Solarscope (valued at in excess of $150) for your local school  Schools could also purchase additional Solarscopes at the reduced price of $80.00  The competition was to predict the time of “second contact” of the Transit of Venus at that school.  Our web site http://www.transitofvenus.com.au/Resources.html contains teaching material that will assist in predicting this time i.e. free Software “Stellarium” & iPhone & Android Apps  The competition could only be entered “on line” on our web page.  Entries closed end March 2012 and SolarScopes will be presented in May 2012, by surveyors who will talk to students.  If the school misses out, Surveyors could purchase a SolarScope for their school at discount price with an advertorial stickers on it.
  • 15. Schools Competition Entries, SolarScope Orders & Volunteer Register Report as at 2:00pm 19th April 2012
  • 16. T H E T R A N S IT O F V E N U S
  • 17. Th e S o la r S c o p e The Educational Solarscope is great for studying sunspots, solar eclipses and the transits of Venus and Mercury. There's even a comprehensive user's guide with instructions on tracking the Earth's ever-changing position with regard to the Sun. The Solarscope Educational Version is designed for use by 2 to 7 observers. The Educational Solarscope Version is for those willing to go further than simple sun observation and comes with a 40-page workbook walking the user through many interesting measurements.
  • 18. Th e S o la r S c o p e The Transit of Venus - What you will actually see. In the SolarScope Venus will appear to move in a “U” shape.
  • 19. S UPPOR ATFree iPhone or Android Application is available from www.transitofvenus.nl and click on Screenshots
  • 20. To finish, here is a video clip from NASA to summarise. Video
  • 21. Sponsors F U N D I N G /C O N T R I B U T Without the financial support of the following sponsors, the project would not have proceeded. Their commitment to the advancement of education in the sciences and related subjects is gratefully acknowledged. Astronomical Association of Queensland www.aaq.org.au Bennett + Bennett bennettandbennett.com.au Bosco Johnson www.bosjon.com.au C. R. Kennedy www.crkennedy.com.au Consulting Surveyors National www.acsnational.com.au Schlencker Surveying mail@schlencker.com.au SIBA www.spatialbusiness.org/aus/About_SIBA.aspx IN G B O D IE S Statewide Surveying statewidesurvey.com.au The Institution of Surveyors New South Wales www.surveyors.org.au The Institution of Surveyors Victoria www.surveying.org.au The Institution of Surveyors Queensland reo.qld@sssi.org.au The Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute Qld Region www.sssi.org.au The Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute LSC The Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute Qld Region Central Group Ultimate Positioning, Roderick_Yann@ultimatepositioning.com Wesfarmers A Truly Industry initiative. initiative