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fumiko hoeft md phd
ucsf cognitive neuroscientist
director of cintel & brainLENS.org
audrey wong
nueva high school
Nueva I...
outline
• EDHACK: Internal environment
1) motivation
2) anxiety & resilience
3) mind-wandering
• Why haven’t we figured
it...
1) MOTIVATION
Intrinsic
reward
Extrinsic
reward>
Socio-emotional well being is important for academic
success and learning
Reading
Dyslexia
NEUROBIOLOGY
EXTERNAL
ENVIRONME...
Socio-emotional well being is not just important but
possibly more modifiable than some other traits
0
50
100
Heritability...
Extrinsic motivation can be good, short term.
Intrinsic motivation is important for
‘long-term & growth’ in achievement
In...
Extrinsic reward can help long-term learning
for uninteresting material
Murayama & Kuhbandner. Cognition 2011
>
But… extrinsic reward not so great because it can
undermine intrinsic motivation
• Intrinsic motivation is very
vulnerable...
Extrinsic reward, great when it’s there but when removed,
it can no longer engage the motivation/learning circuit
No Rewar...
HOW CAN WE PROMOTE
MOTIVATION?
X
GIVE CHOICES.
Enhances performance by turning on vmPFC.
When you make your own choice, you fail less, & even
when you fail...
Giving choices helps
intrinsic motivation & enhances performance
• In education (e.g. Cordova & Lepper ’96), organizations...
GROWTH MIND-SET, the belief that ability is effort
based, promotes motivation also
Do Not Say Do Say
You are so smart! You...
GROWTH MIND-SET = intrinsic motivation circuit
MIND-SET vs. GRIT, different brain networks:
Possibility of multiple target...
REDUCING STRESS improves
motivation & decision making
Hollon Burgeno Phillips. Nat Neurosci ‘15
SUMMARY: MOTIVATION
• Socio-emotional skills critical in success.
• Choice, growth mindset, and reduction of stress import...
outline
• EDHACK
1) motivation
2) anxiety & resilience
3) mind-wandering
• Why haven’t we figured
it all out by now?
• How...
2) STRESS, ANXIETY
&
RESILIENCE
encourage vs. support? expose vs. avoid?
8% of children = anxiety disorder (show signs at age 6; only 18% treated)
4% of children = PTSD
14% of children = depressi...
EXTINCTION: Inhibiting previously learned fear associations.
Ineffective in a different context & over time. - EXPOSURE TH...
EXTINCTION DURING RECONSOLIDATION: Memories during
retrieval is labile, hence making the extinction more effective
Alters ...
NOVELTY FACILITATED EXTINCTION: Substituting with a neutral
stimulus may be more effective by reducing uncertainty.
- COGN...
STRESSOR CONTROLLABILITY
Hartley et al. Neurobiol Learn Mem ’14, Kerr et al. Fron Psychol ’12
Goodkin. Learn & motivation ...
ENCOURAGEMENT OF BRAVERY REDUCES ANXIETY
encourage vs. protect
from further trauma? expose vs. avoid?
Encouragement & auto...
SUMMARY: STRESS, ANXIETY & RESILIENCE
Reducing anxiety.
• Mere exposure, not good enough.
• Replacing bad memories with po...
outline
• EDHACK
1) motivation
2) anxiety & resilience
3) mind-wandering
• Why haven’t we figured
it all out by now?
• How...
3) MIND-WANDERING
MIND WANDERING – traditional view
• Spontaneous thought, incl. “day-
dreaming”, “zoning out”
• 30-50% of waking hours.
• L...
The up-side of mind-wandering:
Incubation of creative thoughts
Mooneyham & Schooler. Can J Exp Psychol ’13; Sio & Ormerod ...
outline
• EDHACK
1) motivation
2) anxiety & resilience
3) mind-wandering
• Why haven’t we figured
it all out by now?
• How...
WHY HAVEN’T WE FIGURED IT ALL OUT BY NOW?
Looking at a needle in the haystack
msec
(MEG/tDCS)
years
(development)
Learning...
WHY HAVEN’T WE FIGURED IT ALL OUT BY NOW?
Nature vs. Nurture: A complex story
Both boys, share 50% of the genes, essential...
WHY HAVEN’T WE FIGURED IT ALL OUT BY NOW?
There is more to it than risk genes
With dyslexia in the family, chances are 1 i...
WHY HAVEN’T WE FIGURED IT ALL OUT BY NOW?
Healthy or Atypical?
vs
Feeling talked behind my back Being psychotic
Not readin...
summary
1) Extrinsic motivation can be
good.
2) Choice, mind-set, sense of
control promote motivation &
resilience.
3) Enc...
PARTNERS
R01HD067254 (Cutting, Vanderbilt)
R01HD044073 (Cutting, Vanderbilt)
R01HD065794 (Pugh, Haskins/Yale)
P01HD001994 ...
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Motivation, Resilience & Mindwandering - Some Unknown Facts

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Innovative Learning Conference 2015
"Ed-hack through Neuroscience"

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Motivation, Resilience & Mindwandering - Some Unknown Facts

  1. 1. fumiko hoeft md phd ucsf cognitive neuroscientist director of cintel & brainLENS.org audrey wong nueva high school Nueva Innovative Learning Conference 2015 – 10/16/2015 2:10-3:10 EDHACK THROUGH NEUROSCIENCE How is neuroscience cracking the code of learning & education?
  2. 2. outline • EDHACK: Internal environment 1) motivation 2) anxiety & resilience 3) mind-wandering • Why haven’t we figured it all out by now? • How neuroscience and technology may help transform education
  3. 3. 1) MOTIVATION Intrinsic reward Extrinsic reward>
  4. 4. Socio-emotional well being is important for academic success and learning Reading Dyslexia NEUROBIOLOGY EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT STEREOTYPE THREAT MOTIVATION & MINDSET RESILIENCE & GRIT SELF CONCEPT Self discipline, more predictive than IQ (2x) & above and beyond achievement itself (Duckworth & Seligman, Psychol Sci ‘05) 2x
  5. 5. Socio-emotional well being is not just important but possibly more modifiable than some other traits 0 50 100 Heritability[%] IQ(adult)(reading50-70%) Motivation Grit Conscientiousness Creativity 85 40 49 21 Bouchard ’04; Murayama et al. under prep; Bouchard, McGue. J Neurobiol ’03; Simonton Rev Gen Psychol ‘08 Possibility that socio-emotional processing should be additional targets for instruction
  6. 6. Extrinsic motivation can be good, short term. Intrinsic motivation is important for ‘long-term & growth’ in achievement Intrinsic Motivation (mastery goal) “If you work on this task with the intention to develop your ability, you can develop your competence”. Extrinsic Motivation (performance goal) “The aim of this task is to measure your cognitive ability in comparison with other university students”. 0 20 40 60 80 Performance[%] Incidentallearningparadigm Int Ext Int Ext Tested Immediately Tested 1weeklater Murayama & Elliot. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull ‘11, Child Develop ‘13 Intrinsic reward Extrinsic reward< ?
  7. 7. Extrinsic reward can help long-term learning for uninteresting material Murayama & Kuhbandner. Cognition 2011 >
  8. 8. But… extrinsic reward not so great because it can undermine intrinsic motivation • Intrinsic motivation is very vulnerable • Extrinsic reward can undermine intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan. ‘85) http://www.learning-knowledge.com/reward.html http://www.superconsciousness.co m/topics/society/spontaneous- altruism-toddlers No reward Reward Voluntary engagement Undermining effect!
  9. 9. Extrinsic reward, great when it’s there but when removed, it can no longer engage the motivation/learning circuit No Reward (Intrinsic) Group Extrinsic Reward Group 1st session 2nd session No reward No reward Reward ($$$) Reward removed dopaminergic reward system Caudate Murayama et al. PNAS 2010
  10. 10. HOW CAN WE PROMOTE MOTIVATION? X
  11. 11. GIVE CHOICES. Enhances performance by turning on vmPFC. When you make your own choice, you fail less, & even when you fail, your vmPFC won’t turn off. When you are not given choices, you fail more, & when you fail, your vmPFC turns off. Mikulincer. ’88, Moller et al. ’06 , Murayama et al. PNAS ‘10, Cerebr Cort ‘13 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 Self-determined choice Forced choice Taskperformance(successrate) * Prefrontal vmPFC Ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC): Subjective valuation. Regulates amygdala, and emotion.
  12. 12. Giving choices helps intrinsic motivation & enhances performance • In education (e.g. Cordova & Lepper ’96), organizations (e.g. Van den Broeck et al. ‘08) & creativity (e.g. Amabile ‘96). http://mylittlebitoflife.com/?p=3461
  13. 13. GROWTH MIND-SET, the belief that ability is effort based, promotes motivation also Do Not Say Do Say You are so smart! You work hard in school and it shows You always get good grades; That makes me happy. When you put forth effort, it really shows in your grades. You should be so proud of yourself. We are proud of you! Carol Deck PhD
  14. 14. GROWTH MIND-SET = intrinsic motivation circuit MIND-SET vs. GRIT, different brain networks: Possibility of multiple targets caudate VTA DLPFC GROWTH MIND-SET: Belief that ability is effort based COGNITIVE REAPPRAISAL (Doherty et al. Science ‘04) INTRINSIC MOTIVATION (Muyrayama et al. PNAS ‘10) vStr mPFC VTA GRIT: Perseverance toward a long term goal PERSISTENCE (Gusnard et al. PNAS ‘03) FUTURE REWARD (Doherty et al. Science ‘04) Chelsea Myers BSc Myers et al. SCAN. under revision
  15. 15. REDUCING STRESS improves motivation & decision making Hollon Burgeno Phillips. Nat Neurosci ‘15
  16. 16. SUMMARY: MOTIVATION • Socio-emotional skills critical in success. • Choice, growth mindset, and reduction of stress important in enhancing intrinsic motivation & performance. • Extrinsic motivation can be good short term & for ‘uninteresting’ material, but can undermine intrinsic motivation. • Punishment recruits fear circuitry rather than reward circuitry. >
  17. 17. outline • EDHACK 1) motivation 2) anxiety & resilience 3) mind-wandering • Why haven’t we figured it all out by now? • How neuroscience and technology may help transform education
  18. 18. 2) STRESS, ANXIETY & RESILIENCE encourage vs. support? expose vs. avoid?
  19. 19. 8% of children = anxiety disorder (show signs at age 6; only 18% treated) 4% of children = PTSD 14% of children = depression (1/3 are severe) HPA axis Trauma Prenatal stress Prefrontal cortex dysregulation of emotion and reward circuitries Amygdala, NAcc, Ant Ins, vmPFC Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). If precise mechanism known (e.g. attention, anxiety, memory, decision making), then more personalized and targeted intervention possible. Decision making Focus on the negatives Insight/Creativity
  20. 20. EXTINCTION: Inhibiting previously learned fear associations. Ineffective in a different context & over time. - EXPOSURE THERAPY Prefrontal inhibition of fear circuitry (amygdala) Prefrontal vmPFC Amygdala Amano Unal Pare. Nat Neurosci ‘10
  21. 21. EXTINCTION DURING RECONSOLIDATION: Memories during retrieval is labile, hence making the extinction more effective Alters fear & memory circuits directly Rao-Ruiz et al. Nat Neurosci ‘11, Radulovic & Tronson Nat Neurosci ’11, Schiller et al. PNAS ‘13 Amygdala Hippocampus
  22. 22. NOVELTY FACILITATED EXTINCTION: Substituting with a neutral stimulus may be more effective by reducing uncertainty. - COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING, REAPPRAISAL Dunsmoor et al. Biological Psychiatry ‘14
  23. 23. STRESSOR CONTROLLABILITY Hartley et al. Neurobiol Learn Mem ’14, Kerr et al. Fron Psychol ’12 Goodkin. Learn & motivation ’76, Mineka Gunnar Champoux. ChildDevelop ‘86 Degree of sense of control over stressful experiences. Mechanism: Inhibitory control from prefrontal cortex to brainstem. May work even when trained with rewarding experiences. Cultivating sense of control may ameliorate excessive fear/anxiety & promote resilience. Sense of control of escape from stressor Physiologicalresponse tostressfulevents Brainstem (dorsal raphe nucleus) Prefrontal Cortex vmPFC Amygdala
  24. 24. ENCOURAGEMENT OF BRAVERY REDUCES ANXIETY encourage vs. protect from further trauma? expose vs. avoid? Encouragement & autonomy-granting. It conveys parents’ willingness to tolerate and allow the child to make mistakes and experience distress, as well as a respect for the child’s ability (i.e. to make independent decisions or accomplish difficult tasks). >> Possibly through similar mechanism as providing choices, stressor controllability & build resilience in children? Silk et al. J Anxiety Disord ’13, McLeod, Wood & Weisz. Clin Psychol Rev ‘07
  25. 25. SUMMARY: STRESS, ANXIETY & RESILIENCE Reducing anxiety. • Mere exposure, not good enough. • Replacing bad memories with positive/neutral experience while reliving them. - reappraisal (Dunsmoor et al .Biological Psychiatry ‘14) • Encouragement.(Silk et al. J Anxiety Disord ’13) • Training sense of controllability (self efficacy, locus of control) can promote resilience.(Hartley et al. Neurobiol Learn Mem ’14) Other factors that promote resilience. optimism, social support, humor, physical exercise, prosocial behavior, trait mindfulness, moral compass Wu, Feder et al. Front Behav Neurosci ‘13
  26. 26. outline • EDHACK 1) motivation 2) anxiety & resilience 3) mind-wandering • Why haven’t we figured it all out by now? • How neuroscience and technology may help transform education
  27. 27. 3) MIND-WANDERING
  28. 28. MIND WANDERING – traditional view • Spontaneous thought, incl. “day- dreaming”, “zoning out” • 30-50% of waking hours. • Linked to failure of cognitive control, inattention, & reduced performance. Opposite extreme of metacognition*. • Low stake quizzing, frequent shift in topic reduces MW. Fox & Christoff. Cog Neuro of MetaCognition ’14; Szpunar Moulton Schacter. Front Psychol ‘13
  29. 29. The up-side of mind-wandering: Incubation of creative thoughts Mooneyham & Schooler. Can J Exp Psychol ’13; Sio & Ormerod ‘09; Baird et al. Psychol Sci ‘12; Immordino-Yang, Christoudoulou, Singh. ‘12; Baird et al. Psychol Sci ‘12; Christoff et al. PNAS ‘09 Archemedis’ Eureka moment Both MW and incubation of creative thoughts – new solutions to old problems – are best evoked when performing undemanding tasks (vs. no task or demanding) Mechanism: Coactivation of default mode network (self referential processing) & executive control MW = “constructive” internal reflection
  30. 30. outline • EDHACK 1) motivation 2) anxiety & resilience 3) mind-wandering • Why haven’t we figured it all out by now? • How neuroscience and technology may help transform education
  31. 31. WHY HAVEN’T WE FIGURED IT ALL OUT BY NOW? Looking at a needle in the haystack msec (MEG/tDCS) years (development) Learning (implicit, explicit) Cognition (reasoning, attention) Reading, Math Perception (visual, spatial, auditory, face) Socio-emotional (motivation, resilience, empathy) Preconception Prenatal Postnatal Child Adult (parents) Adolescent DEVELOPMENT Genetic Neurochemical (dopamine) Macroscopic (cortex size & shape) Physiology (neurooscillation/blood flow) Behavior, Perception, Cognition, Affect
  32. 32. WHY HAVEN’T WE FIGURED IT ALL OUT BY NOW? Nature vs. Nurture: A complex story Both boys, share 50% of the genes, essentially identical environment…
  33. 33. WHY HAVEN’T WE FIGURED IT ALL OUT BY NOW? There is more to it than risk genes With dyslexia in the family, chances are 1 in 2 (heritability is 40-74%) (Grigorenko ‘04) Many risk genes (Dyslexia ~10, Autism ~90, Schizophrenia ~100) Each risk gene explains only 1 to 5 in 1000 cases (0.1-0.5% of the variance) (Plomin Intelligence ’06) >> Why the gap? Known as “Missing heritability” (Eichler et al. Nat Rev Gen ‘10) Epigenetics (gene expression)? Epistatis (gene-gene interaction)? Protective factors? p15- 16 DYX3 DYX6 p11. 2 DYX5 p13- q13 q13- 16.2 DYX4 DYX8 p34- 36 DYX7 p15.5 DYX1 DYX2 p21.3-22 q21 DYX9 q27. 3 DRD4 (ADH D) KIAA0319, DCDC2 (ADHD) Adapted from: Williams & O’Donovan, Eur J Hum Genet ’06; Poelmans et al. Mol Psychiatr ‘11 DYXC1 ROBO1 KIAA0319L FMR1 (FXS) GT F2I (W BS) q11.23 DIP2A, S100B q22. 3 q31DOCK2 (FOXP2- language) q35 CNTNP2 (Autism, ADHD, etc) q24 ATP2C2 C2ORF3 MRPL19
  34. 34. WHY HAVEN’T WE FIGURED IT ALL OUT BY NOW? Healthy or Atypical? vs Feeling talked behind my back Being psychotic Not reading at age 1 Struggling at age 15 vs SOCIO-EMOTIONAL VARIATION COGNITIVE VARIATION
  35. 35. summary 1) Extrinsic motivation can be good. 2) Choice, mind-set, sense of control promote motivation & resilience. 3) Encouraging bravery reduces fear. 4) Mind wandering can incubate creativity. 5) How neuroscience & technology may help transform education
  36. 36. PARTNERS R01HD067254 (Cutting, Vanderbilt) R01HD044073 (Cutting, Vanderbilt) R01HD065794 (Pugh, Haskins/Yale) P01HD001994 (Rueckl, Haskins/U Conn) R01MH104438 (Nordahl, UCDavis/MIND) R01MH103371 (Amaral, UCDavis/MIND) R01HD078351 (‘15-’20) K23HD054720 (‘08-‘13) Digital Health Award (Hancock) CTSI Catalyst Award (Hancock) Radiology & Biomed Eng (Nagarajan, Hancock) Academic Senate Award Dyslexia Center (S Carnevale, Flora Family Fndtn) CNI (Hong, Hancock)) FUNDING Liebe Patterson Dennis & Shannon Wong – DSEA ‘88 Foundation NSF1540854 SL-CN (Gazzaley, Uncapher)

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