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Part 1and 2 virtual child

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Part 1and 2 virtual child

  1. 1. Virtual Child Assignment Part 1 (Infants & Toddlers)Student Name: Yuleisi SalinaStudent Number: 300627348Professor Name: Ms. Christine Cadieux
  2. 2. The Infant Years (0- 4months)How does your baby„s physical, social/ emotional and Intellectual domains compare to thedevelopmental milestones patterns? Is it typical?Physical Development:At 4 months old my baby is doing fine; her development is quite typical compare with themilestone. Based on my virtual child report at 4 months Aurora is able to focus her eyes on me.For example: She spends a lot of time studying my face and the faces of anyone who comesclose to her.My little princess has a typical development because according to the text book Ages and Stagesby the age of 4 months babies usually are able to hold both eyes in a fixed position.Social Emotional Development:At 3 months my lovely baby Aurora is quite excellent but, she is just a little ahead compare tothe Milestones Ages and Stages chart.According to my baby reports, Aurora is showing more interest in her surroundings. She smilesat familiar people and toys, is able to laugh at surprising or funny things (such as a little dog).But based on the Age and Stages book infant`s usually starts to squeals, laughs, babbles, andsmiles in response, at the age of 8 months.Intellectual Development:My baby Aurora seem to have a typical development compare to the developmental milestones.Based on my virtual child reports at 3 months Aurora can learn a thing or two.According to the text book Chronological Approach (Chapter 6 p. 169) Infants are born withmany abilities that allow them to learn from experience. This learning can take many forms,including habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and imitation.For example:Remember Louise, the newborn in the vignette, who initially jumped when trucks acceleratedpast her home? Her response was normal not only for infants but also for children andadolescents. When presented with a strong or unfamiliar stimulus, and orienting response usuallyoccurs. The orienting response and habituation are both useful to infants. Orienting makes theinfant aware of potentially important or dangerous events in the environment. (Rovee- Collier,1987).
  3. 3. The Infant Years (5- 8months)How does your baby„s physical, social/ emotional and Intellectual domains compare to thedevelopmental milestones patterns? Is it typical?Physical Development: At 8 months my baby Aurora seems quite typical and she is meeting her developmentalmilestones. According to my virtual child report Aurora has been in a very good health, andgenerally tolerates baby foods well. Aurora is beginning to be interested in trying new solidfoods, even pizza crust!According to the text book Ages and Stages is usually that by 8 months children demonstratedinterest and enjoys some finely- chopped solid foods.Introduction of only one food at a time is a good rule. 7- Months – old having cheese for the firsttime, for instance, should have no other new foods for a few days. In this way, allergies thatmight develop – skin rash or diarrhea – can be linked to a particular food, making it easier toprevent recurrences. Health Organization strongly advocates breast – feeding as the primarysource of nutrition for infants and toddlers in developing nations. (Chronological Approach,p.121)Intellectual Development:At 8 months, my baby intellectual development seems quite typical and she met herdevelopmental milestones.Based on my virtual child report when Aurora was eight months old I try the object permanencetest. She is able to find a hidden object, as long as you don‟t wait too long or distract her in themiddle of the search. Aurora really likes this hidden place, Aurora has a strong tendency to lookin the old hiding place, and get confused about where the object is, or forget about it. Thiscurious error was first discovered by Piaget, but researchers have some new explanations for theerror.Subsequent researchers have found other ways to explain children‟s performance on Piagetiantasks. For example, Piaget thought that a fundamental task of infancy was mastering objectpermanence- understanding that objects exist independently of oneself and one‟s actions. Heclaimed that 1- to 4- month- olds believe that objects no longer exist when they disappear fromview- out of sight means out of mind. If you take a favourite toy from a 3- month- old and, inplain view of the infant, hide under a cloth the infant will not look for it, even though the shapeof the toy is clearly visible under the cloth and within reach!
  4. 4. At 8 months, infants search for objects, but their understanding of object permanent incomplete.If 8- to 10- month- olds see an object hidden under one container and then see it hidden under asecond container, they routinely look for the toy under the first container. Piaget claimed that hisbehaviour showed only a fragmentary understanding of object because infants did not distinguishthe object from the actions they used to locate it, such as lifting a particular container.Social/ Emotional Development:At 8 months my baby Aurora Social/ Emotional Development is very impressive. According tomy virtual child report Aurora is Aurora is communicating much better nonverbally in the pasttwo months, for example: she is making gestures to indicate what she wants.According to Piaget infant‟s perceptual and motor skills improve quickly throughout the firstyear. He propose that these rapidly changing skills in the first two years of life form a distinctphase in child development, the sensorimotor stage, because they primarily involve infant‟scognitive understanding of the world through simple and, later, complex motor schemas.Consisting of six stages, the sensorimotor stage extends from birth to approximately 2 years.During this time, the infant progresses from simple, reflex actions to symbolic processing in anorderly sequence.After infancy, schemas become based primarily on functional or conceptual relationships, notsensorimotor actions. Children‟s advancing awareness of speech sounds, coupled with theirincreased locomotion, enable them to access more parts of their world and them level those partswith particular words. These words and their associated meanings help children developcategories of information based on the appearance and function of objects. As they develop,children come to understand that words, numbers, and actions can symbolize aspects of theirworld. However, while still in infancy, they cannot rely on language, so they use the basicsensorimotor skills they have to explore their surroundings. The Infant Years (9- 12 Months)How does your baby‟s physical, social/ emotional and intellectual domains compare to thedevelopmental milestones patterns? Is it typical?Physical Development:At 9 months my baby physical development is above the normal, especially in her gross motorskills. Based on my virtual child report at 9 months old my baby Aurora is able to walk and even
  5. 5. know how to climb. For example: she is constantly into everything!Sometimes she doesdangerous things, such as running into the street or climbing onto the back of the couch.Based Ages and Stages: A Brief Overview Birth to 12 Years. The average for a child to walkwithout help is at 2 years old.Locomotion:In a little more than a year, advances in posture and locomotion change the newborn from aperson with limited movement into an upright, standing individual who walks through theenvironment. By about 4 months, most babies can sit upright with support. By 7 months, theycan sit without support, and by 9 months, they can stand if they hold on to an object for support.A typical 14- months – old can stand alone briefly and walk with assistance. By 24 months, mostchildren can walk without assistance, climb steps, walk backwards, and kick a ball.In the case of walking not until 12 to 15 months of age has the child mastered the componentsskills so that they can be integrated to allow independent, unsupported walking. Researchers atthe Universities of Manitoba (Campbell, Eaton, &McKeen, 2002) have found that, overtime,children ability to integrate behaviours into appropriate motor movements depends in part, onknowing when to inhibit movements that are not appropriate, as well.Intellectual Development:At 12 months my baby is doing pretty well. Aurora is meeting the ages and stages milestonespattern. Base on my virtual child at twelve months old, Aurora now clearly understands a coupleof dozen words. In fact, Aurora just recently pronounced her first clear word and pointed at theobject in question....It was the name of my parent‟s dog!When the ability to produce sound is coupled with the 1- years olds advance ability to perceivespeech sounds, the stage is set for the infant first true words. Soon after their first birthday, mostinfant begin to talk. Typically, their first world are an extension of advanced babbling, consistingof a consonant- vowel pair that is repeated. Other North American early vocabulary words ofteninclude animals, food and toys (Nelson, 1973).Social/ Emotional Development:At 9 months Aurora is seems perfect and her social/development is typical compare with themilestones. Base on my virtual child report. As Aurora turns 9 months, the paediatrician has thefollowing to say after a routine physical exam.
  6. 6. Aurora has an obvious attachment to mom and prefers her over other people, but seems to havefun playing with dad. She was caution at first with the nurse and the doctor, a normal reaction tostrangers at this age.By approximately 6 or 7 months, most infants have singled out the primary attachment figure-usually the mother as a special individual. In Canada, attachment typically first developsbetween the infant and their mothers because mothers are usually the primary care giver ofCanadians infants. Most babies soon became attached to their father. Fathers typically muchmore time playing with their babies than taking care of them. Physical play is the norm forfathers, whereas mothers spend more time reading and taking to babies, showing them toys, andplaying games like patty cake. (Parke, 1990).For Example:Frequently Aurora becomes quite upset and clings to me while sobbing. This usually occurswhenever she is in a new situation, or meeting new people. She acts really shy wherever we haverelatives or friends in our home.Based on my age and stages textbook it`s OK that at the age of 12 months the infant`s expressthese fears or anxiety towards strangers and prefer their caregiver or parent to protect them fromthe unknown. The Infant Years (2 Years)How does your baby„s physical, social/ emotional and Intellectual domains compare to thedevelopmental milestones patterns? Is it typical?Social Emotional Development:At 24 months Aurora social/emotional development is typical compare to the developmentalmilestones. Based on my baby report I have notice that Aurora has some new emotions over thepast few months. For instance:Some things I have noticed are shy smiles when ask to be in photographs, looking guilty whenshe breaks something, and embarrassment when she has a potty accident. I realized these newemotions are related to her developing self- awareness.What is the starting point for self- concept? Following the lead of the nineteenth- centuryphilosopher and psychologist William James, modern research believe that the foundation ofself- concept is the child`s awareness that he or her exists. At some point early in life, childrenmust realized that they exist independently of other people and objects in the environment andthat their existence continues over time (Frye &Zelano, 2003).
  7. 7. We don`t need to rely solely on the mirror task to know that self- awareness emerges between 18and 24 months. During this same period, toddlers look more at photograph of themselves than atphotos of others children. Like Meagan in the Vignette, they also refer to themselves by name orwith a personal pronoun, such as “I” or “me” sometimes they know their age and their gender.These changes suggest that self- awareness is well established in most children by age 2 (Lewis,1987).Physical Development:At 2 years old my baby physical development is above the ages and stages chart. According tomy virtual child report Aurora is very advanced in her gross motor skills. For example:At the age of two years my baby is able to ride a tricycle. She is ahead of the game and that isperfectly fine because, like Piaget said, every child is unique individual and they grow at theirown pace but, based on the Age and Stages text book, children are expected to pedals a tricycleby the age of 3 years old.Intellectual Development:At the age of 2 years (24 months) Aurora is a little ahead the ages and stages chart. Based on myvirtual child report Auroras communication skills are growing by leaps and bounds. She isspeaking mostly in three to four word sentences and her vocabulary is expanding greatly becauseof her intense desire to learn new words.But according to the Ages and Stages book; children uses 2 to 3 words sentences at the age of 2years.Sentence Cues. Children hear many unfamiliar words embedded in sentences containing wordsthey already know. The other word and the overall sentence structure can be helpful clues to aword meaning.For example, when a parent describes and event using familiar words but unfamiliar verb,children often infer that the verb refers to the action performed by the subject of the sentence(Fisher, 1996; Woodward & Markham, 1998).
  8. 8. The Infant Years (0 - 1year)Identify specific health and safety considerations that you will have to consider during the infantyears. How will you address these issues?Hand WashingProper hand washing is essential to keeping infants healthy as their immune system is low. Handwashing is the most important health practice that parent/ educators and children must implementto reduce the spread of infections. (Pimento, p. 129) This was seen when my baby had manycolds and ear infections within the first year. Although it is common for infant to catch colds andinfections, I need to use proper hand washing.Breast FeedingBreastfeeding is the best way to ensure that babies get the nourishments they need. Human milkcontains the proper amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals for babies.(Statistics Canada, 2007). There are also benefits for the mother, breastfeeding promotesmother- baby attachment, which increases baby`s cognitive development. (Canadian Child CareFederation, 2001, p. 2). This was seen when my baby Aurora was suddenly been stricken withbouts of indigestion within the first year. Although it`s common on the first few months that theinfant experience bouts of indigestion, I will continue to breastfeed because babies also are lesslikely to prone to diarrhea and constipation. And besides breastfeed babies typically make thetransition to solid foods more easily, apparently because they are accustomed to changes in thetaste of breast milk that reflects the mother‟s diet. (Shelov, 1993; Sullivan & Birch, 1990).ImmunizationImmunizations are one of the most important ways of promoting the health of children. (NationalAdvisory Committee on Immunization, 2006, p. 31)... The vaccination almost always results inlifelong immunity. There are other vaccinations that do required booster shot at regular intervalsto maintain this immunity. (e.g., tetanus). I will make sure to keep up – to – day immunizationschedules to keep my baby immune system strong.SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)Babies must be put to sleep on their backs to help prevent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome(SIDS). SIDS is the leading cause of death in babies that are 1 to 12 months of age (Center forDisease Control and Prevention, 2006). Unless a doctor orders otherwise, babies should alwaysbe placed on their backs to sleep. Firm mattress and an uncluttered sleeping area (no softbeddings, bumper pads, and stuffed animals) are also important in decreasing suffocation risks. Iwill follow this safety rule to promote the health of my child and I will also develop anenvironment that is conducive to sleep.
  9. 9. Introducing new foodsIntroduction of only one food at s time is a good rule. A-7 months- old having cheese for the firsttime, for instance, should have no other new foods for a few days. In this way, allergies thatmight develop- skin rash or diarrhea- can be linked to particular food, making it easier to preventrecurrences. I will gradually introduce my baby to new food and I will keep observing thereaction to the new food. The Infant Years (1-2 year)SupervisionWe need to live in a home that provides us which the basic needs of clean water, sewagedisposal, and confortable temperature, and we need warm clothes, coats, shoes, and boots in thewinter. Because if we were always using our energy to keep warm in the winter, our bodywouldn`t have any energy left for everything else we must do to keep healthy. (IllnessPrevention, p. 115) Since my baby Aurora has started to go regularly to a "Mommy and me"toddler play-group at the community center I need to continue supervising my baby and herenvironment. Besides now that she is exposed to others children I will need to keep vaccinations,up to date. And keep teaching Aurora to be careful when playing with other so she don`t hurtothers and vice- versa.Cleaning and SanitizingYou know that germs are everywhere. You know that germs can live on surfaces for hours, days,or even weeks. (Illness preventionp.139).I will keep practice regular cleaning and sanitizing of the objects, surfaces, toys, and the areaswhere my baby Aurora likes to spend time the most. I will make sure my child environment isclean to continue promoting her healthy development.Car SafetyMotor vehicle accidents are the most common cause of accidental death in infants and toddlers.Regrettably, many of these deaths could be prevented if the youngster were restrained properlyin an approved infant car seat. (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000) I will alwaysmake sure that my baby is well in a safety- approved car and booster seats that can protect herfrom serious injuries.PetsDiseases can be passed from the animal to us and can pose issues for children, parents withallergies or weakened immune systems. In Well Beings (2008b) Considering this pet`s will notbe part of our house. Because my child is still young and developing, I will keep herenvironment free from anything that represents hazards for my baby well- being.
  10. 10. NutritionNutrition is the third factor affecting physical growth. By 2 years, growth slows, so children needless to eat. This is also a time when many children became picky eaters. Toddlers and preschoolchildren find food yucky that they once willingly. Although finickiest can be annoying, it canactually be adaptive for increasingly independent pre-schoolers. Because toddlers don`t knowwhat is safe to eat and what isn`t, eating only familiar foods protects them from potential harm(Birch & Fisher, 1995) I will keep encouraging my child to develop a good eating habits topromote his physical growth development. The Infant Years (1-2 years)What might happen to my virtual child in the preschool and school – age years?Physical Domain:I predict that my child will be a very athletic child who will enjoys physical activities of anykind. I based all my premonitions in Aurora virtual child reports. For instance when Aurora was19 months she had an assessment done, this is what the examiner have to say:Aurora was advanced in her gross motor skills. The examiner recommended exposing Aurora toa variety of indoor and outdoor activities and letting her interests be the guide as to what topursue.Even do she is been avoided riding her tricycle lately because a scary accident in which she wentoff in the park and got scratched up. She is always open to try new things as well as I know thatshe will soon get over the accident with her tricycle and with my help and support will be willingto try again.In regards to fine motors Aurora was above age – norms for building block tower to model oneby the examiner and other spatial skills such as copying shapes, colouring within the lines andsolving pictures puzzles.My child is very determined and she likes to do things on her own. Based on the Ages and Stagesat two years children usually insist on trying to do several tasks without help. That characteristicwill give her confident and independence in her life. I really believe that one‟s Aurora start theschool that confidence will help her to do friends and to fit in.Social/ Emotional Domain:During her assessment Aurora was not very aggressive with others kids, unless one of them triedto grab a toy from her and them she resisted. The examiner recommended that Aurora continueto go to toddler play groups/ day cares to develop her skills in interacting with others childrenand to encouragements to use her words if she wanted something.Based on the Ages and Stages a two years children usually are very possessive – offers toys toother children but then wants them back.
  11. 11. Aurora is a toddler and she is in that difficult stage where she thinks she knows everything andthat everything belongs to her. But she is a good girl that has recently enrolled in a child carecentre. For example: In the child care center they have now a new leader and Aurora wasn`t very happyabout it. But after few days interacting with the new ECE she is again herself happy and open tolearn new things. That is an example that shows that Aurora can accept transitions and that isgood because in the school she will be easy going and open to socially interactions. BecauseAurora is stubborn at the school she will not give up until she gets to the root of task, conflicts,and school investigation work (assignment).Cognitive Language Domain:Aurora scored above average in all aspects of language development, and is ready to be readaloud to more frequently, as she can follow typical story lines. The examiner also noted that hermemory was pretty good and recommended that I frequently ask Aurora to recount experiencesas a way of encouraging more language growth.Aurora loves books and she really enjoys history time. Therefore; I will keep helping my baby tocontinue see books as her friend and as information source. I predict that with my support andmotivation her vocabulary will keep growing richer and stronger. Once Aurora start the schoolher grammar, vocabulary will be good and she will able to participate in class and be on top ofher game achieving good qualifications.
  12. 12. References: Children A Chronological Approach Robert V. Kail& Theresa ZolnerOriginal edition published by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Creating Environment for Learning by Julie Bullard Healthy Foundations in Early Childhood Settings, Fourth Edition by Barbara Pimento & Deborah Kernested Images: Personal USB
  13. 13. Virtual Child Assignment Part 2 (Preschool & School Age)Student Name: Yuleisi SalinaStudent Number: 300627348Professor Name: Ms. Christine Cardieux
  14. 14. When Aurora was 3 years old...How does your baby’s physical, social/emotional and intellectual domains compare to thedevelopmental milestones patterns? Is it typical?Physical Development:At 3 years old my baby Aurora Physical Development is quite typical. Based on my virtual childreports she is one of the most active children in her preschool class. For example: Aurora lovesto ride her bike around the block. She is also getting pretty good at playing catch, shooting mini-basketballs and kicking the mini-soccer ball.According to the Ages & Stages text book by the age of 3years old baby’s usually are able tothrows a ball overhead, kicks a ball forward and pedal a tricycle.Intellectual Development:My baby Aurora seems to have a typical development. According to my virtual child reportsAurora communicates very well now, relying primarily on complete sentences, and seems tounderstand most of what you say. She enjoys watching childrens TV and listening to books. Forinstance: She occasionally makes charming errors such as "I beated you in the race."Based on the text book Ages & Stages by the age of 3 year old children’s enjoy listening tostories book and talks in complete sentences of 3-5 words.Naming Errors: According to Naigles&Gelman, 19995. The rules of learning new words are notperfect. A common mistake is under- extension, defining a word too narrowly. Using card to
  15. 15. refer only to the family car and ball only to refer to a favourite toy ball are examples of under-extension. Between 1 and 3 years, children sometimes make the opposite error, overextension,defining a word too broadly. Children might use toque to refer to ball- caps and helmets, ordoggie to refer to all four-legged animals.The overextension error occurs more frequently when children are producing words that whenthey are comprehending words. Two years old Jason might say “doggie” to refer to a goat but,nevertheless, will correctly point to a picture of a goat when asked. Because overextension ismore common in word production, it might actually reflect another fast- mapping rule thatchildren follow: “If you can’t remember the name for an object, say the name of a relatedobject”. (Naigles&Gelman, 1995).Social Emotional Development:At the age of 3 years old my baby seems to be just a little ahead of chart regarding her SocialEmotional development. Based on my virtual child report my sneaky little baby has begunoccasionally lying to me about accidents or rule violations (such as sneaking a cookie beforedinner). The lies are pretty lame (e.g., there is a trail of cookie crumbs). You recognize this as asign of a theory of mind, but you wait until you catch her in the act, explain that lying is wrong,and put her in time-out. For good measure, you also explain that being lied to makes people feelbad.According to the Ages & Stages text book at the age of 4 years old children start to lie sometimesto protect self and friends, but doesn’t truly.
  16. 16. Learning about Moral Rules:The foundation of moral thinking is set in the preschool years. During these years children beginto understand that moral rules are special. Many rules are actually social conventions, arbitrarystandards of behaviours agreed to by a cultural group to facilitate interactions within the group.Social conventions say that we can eat French fries but not green beans with our fingers and thatchildren can address peers but not teachers by their first names. In contrast, moral rules, such usprohibitions against murder and rape, are designed to protect people and are not arbitrary. Byage of 3yrs, most children distinguish moral rules from social conventions. They judge hurtingother people and taking their possessions are more serious transgressions than eating ice creamwith one fingers or not paying to a story (Nucci& Weber, 1995; Smetana &Braeges, 1990).“Moral reasoning emerges in the preschool years when children distinguish moral rules fromsocial conventions”. When Aurora was 4 years old...How does your baby’s physical, social/emotional and intellectual domains compare to thedevelopmental milestones patterns? Is it typical?Physical Development:My beautiful Aurora Physical Development is fine and according the virtual child report she isreally interested in the train set you brought out of storage from your parents house, buildingand rebuilding it to get different arrangements. She also likes to build with the largerinterconnecting blocks and can work on these for long periods of time.
  17. 17. Based on the Ages & Stages text book children at the age of 4 years old are able to stacks 10 ormore blocks and has long attention span and finished activities.Social Emotional Development:My little Aurora Social/Emotional Development is typical and according with my virtual childreports she was excited about the birth of her sister a year ago and participated in the babyscare. But she occasionally shows signs of jealousy, such as taking her sisters toys. She is alsoshowing regressive behaviour (e.g. clinging, throwing temper tantrums and thumb sucking).Based on the Ages & Stages text book children at the age of 4 years old are capable of feelingjealous.Qualities of Sibling Relationships:From the very beginning, sibling relationships are complicated. On the other hand, mostexpectant parents are excited by the prospect of another child, and their enthusiasm iscontagious: Their children, too, eagerly await the arrival of the newest family member. On theother hand, the birth of a sibling is often distressing for older children, who may becomewithdrawn or return to more childish behaviour because of the changes that occur in their lifelives, particularly the need to share parental attention and affection (Gottlieb &Mendelson,1990).Intellectual Development:
  18. 18. Aurora Intellectual Development is typical and based on the virtual child report at 4 years oldshe has already learned most of the letters and their sounds from watching educational TV, andfrom games and songs at preschool, can write her own name, and read a few words. She is veryinterested in listening to books.Based on the Ages & Stages text book 4 years old children are capable to recognize some lettersif taught, and may be able to print their own name.Greater fine – motor coordination also leads to improvements in preschool children’s printingPart of this improvement comes because young children hold pens and pencils more efficientlyas they develop. By age 5, children are well on their way to gripping pens in the effective mannerthat adults use. In contrast, 3 years old, who are trying to discover forms of writing that workbest for them, are still experimenting with different ways to hold a pen.A better grip also improves pre-schoolers drawing. Given a crayon or marker, most preschoolchildren love to draw.Progression in drawing ability reflects more than improvements in fine motors skills; it alsoreflects cognitive growth that allows children to understand more of what they see about them. When Aurora was 6-8 years old...How does your baby’s physical, social/emotional and intellectual domains compare to thedevelopmental milestones patterns? Is it typical?
  19. 19. Intellectual Development:At 6 years old my baby Aurora is doing fine. I’m very happy because she is meeting thedevelopmental milestones. Based in my virtual child report Auroras memory is getting better.She can beat you on certain memory games such as Concentration because she rememberswhere the cards are located. For instance: when Aurora tells people about things that happenedto her, she leaves a lot of details out and sometimes gets the order wrong.Memory Skills: Children’s memory improves rapidly during middle childhood, primarily due totwo factors (Kail, 1990; Schneider &Bjorklund, 1998). First, as children grow, they use moreeffective strategies for remembering. Second, children’s growing factual knowledge of the worldallows them to organize information more completely and, therefore, remember better.Strategies to Remember: Every day, children encounter new situations and information that theymight or might not remember very well. One thing for certain, however – strategies aid memory.Recall from earlier chapters that working memory is used for briefly storing a small amount ofinformation, such as the words in these sentences. However, as you read additional sentences,they displace words read earlier from working memory. For you to learn what you are reading,the content must be transferred to long- term memory. Anything not transferred from workingmemory to long- term memory is lost.Though knowledge can improve memory, it can also distort memory. If a specific experiencedoes not correspond to children’s knowledge, the experience is likely to be forgotten or distortedso that it conforms to the child’s knowledge. For example, when told a story about a femalehelicopter pilot, many youngsters will remember the pilot as a man because their networkspecifies that pilots are men (Levy & Boston, 1994). In addition, exposure to information that
  20. 20. conflicts with a child’s experience of an event can confused the child and “distort recollection”of the source for the information the child remembers (Roberts & Powell, 2001).Physical Development:My baby Aurora Physical Development meets the Developmental Milestones. But unfortunatelyshe is been having a new round of colds and stomach aches, and has had to miss several days ofschool this fall.Threats to Children’s Development:If you ask a group of parents about their preschool children’s health – related problems, you arelikely to get a long list. Some items on the list, like colds and coughs, are mainly annoying. Manyparents would claim that a runny nose is a permanent state in their preschool children! Otherproblems on the list are much more serious, sometimes requiring hospitalization.Minor Illness: Most preschoolers are all too familiar with coughs and sniffles. The averagepreschool children are particularly vulnerable to respiratory illness because their lungs are stilldeveloping. Fortunately, most children are ill for only a few days. While nobody likes to be sick,minor illness helps a child’s body develop immunity to more serious diseases. Also, by being illand recovering, young children begin to learn about the way that their bodies work and canbecome prepared to deal with future, more serious illness (Parmalee, 1986).Social Emotional:Aurora is been perfectly fine and meeting the Developmental Milestones. According to my virtualchild report my little Mss. Aurora has been imitating what Mom does more and more, even down
  21. 21. to gestures and turns of phrase. For instances she wants to hang around whenever Mom is doinganything interesting, such as fixing the computer printer or making a cake.Learning by Observing:Children learn a great deal from parents simply by watching them. The parent’s modelling andthe youngster’s observational learning thus lead to imitation, so children’s behaviour resemblesthe behaviour they observe. When Aurora was 9-11 years old...How does your baby’s physical, social/emotional and intellectual domains compare to thedevelopmental milestones patterns? Is it typical?Physical Developmental:My daughter Aurora Physical Development is absolutely typical and she meets the Milestones.Based on my virtual child reports she is really advancing in dance and the dance studio directorrecommends that Aurora join the Dance Competition team.Motor skills improve remarkably over the elementary school years. Elementary school children’sgreater size and strength contributes to improved motor skills. During these years, childrensteadily run faster and jump farther. Girls also excel in gross – motor skills requiring flexibilityand balance, such us tumbling.Intellectual Development:
  22. 22. My baby girl Intellectual Development seems quite typical and based on the virtual child reportsAurora is very verbally adept and witty, and enjoys jokes, stories and riddles. She is continuingto be a strong reader, and always seems to have a fiction book she is reading. She also has beenwriting some stories at home with your help and at school and they are pretty good!Verbal Ability:Janet Hyde and Marcia Linn (1988) summarized research on gender differences in verbal abilityin 75 percent of the 165 studies that they analyzed. Usually the difference was small. But it waslarger for general measures of verbal ability, unscrambling scrambled words, and quality ofspeech production. Girls also read, write, and spell better than boys (Feingold, 19993; Hedges&Nowell, 1995), and more boys have reading and other language – related problems such asstuttering (Halpern, 1986).Why are girls more talented than boys? Part of the explanation may lie in biology. The lefthemisphere of the brain, which is central to language, may mature more rapidly in girls than inboys (Diamond et al., 1983). But experience also contributes. Reading, for instance, is oftenstereotype as for girls (Huston, 1983). Consequently, girls are more willing than boys to investtime and effort in mastering verbal skills like reading.Social Emotional Development:Now my beautiful Aurora is 11years old and she presented a typical Physical Development.According to the virtual child report Aurora has become more interested in her appearance as aresult of some compliments from a guy in her grade (relayed through another guy, of course!).Measuring Self – Esteem
  23. 23. Preschool children’s self – esteem is typically measured by showing pictures and askingyoungsters to judge which of two hypothetical children they resemble (e.g., a child who makesfriend easily, or a child who does not make friends easily). With older children (andadolescents), self – esteem is often measured with questionnaires in which children readcomparison statements about two different individual.The most widely used self - esteem questionnaires of this sort is the Self – Perception Profile forChildren (SPPC for short) devised by Susan Harter (1985, 1988), who has made a pioneeringeffort in self – esteem research. The SPPC is designed to evaluate self – worth in children age 8and older across five domains (Harter, 1988, p. 62): Scholastic competence: How competent or smart the child feels in doing schoolwork. Athletic competence: How competent the child feels at sports and games requiring physical skill or athletic abilities. Social acceptance: How popular or accepted the child feels in social interaction with peers. Behavioural conduct: How adequate the child feels about behaving the way one is supposed to. Physical Appearance: How good – looking the child feels and how much the child likes his or her physical characteristics, such as height, weight, face, and hair. The Preschool years (2 – 5 years)Identify specific health & safety considerations that you will have to consider during thepreschool years. How will you address these issues?Enough Sleep:
  24. 24. Sleep is an important element in children grow because, most growth hormones (GH) is secretedwhen children are sleeping. (Lozoff, Wolf, & Davis, 1985).Therefore now that I know the benefits that sleep have in the children’s I will establishedsleeping routines to positively improve my daughter Physical Grow development.Nutrition:Because preschoolers grow more slowly than infants and toddlers, they need to eat less perkilogram than before. Preschoolers should consume about 90 calories per kilogram of bodyweight, which works out to be roughly 1500 to 1700 calories daily for many preschool children.(Canadian Paediatric Society, 2004).I will teach my child the important of living healthy through a daily healthy nutrition andphysical activities.Hands Washing:Proper hands’ washing is essential to keep children’s healthy. Hand washing is the mostimportant health practice that parents, educators and children must implement to reduce thespread of infections. (Pimento, p. 129) Although it’s common for preschoolers to catch colds andinfections, I need to use proper hand washing as well as modeling and explaining my childAurora the importance of a proper and daily hand washing.Immunization:Immunizations are one of the most important ways of promoting the health of children. (NationalAdvisory Committee on Immunization, 2006, p. 31)… The vaccination almost always results inlifelong immunity. There are other vaccinations that do required booster shot at regular
  25. 25. intervals to maintain this immunity. (e.g., Tetanus). I will make sure to keep up – to – dayimmunization schedules to keep my princess immune system strong and developing.Minor Illness:Most preschoolers are all too familiar with coughs and sniffles. The average preschool child hasseven or eight colds a year. Preschool children are particularly vulnerable to respiratory health– related problems, because their lungs are still developing. While nobody likes to be sick, minorillness helps a child’s body to develop immunity to more serious diseases. Also, by being ill andrecovering, young children begin to learn about the way that their bodies work and becomeprepared to deal with future, more serious illness (Parmalee, 1986).I will keep providing a clean and healthy environment with daily hand washing routines, healthyfood and immunizations up to days in order to promote the physical, Social/ Emotional andCognitive Development of my child Aurora.Accidents:Preschool children are often eager to explore the unknown but often lack the cognitive skills todetermine whether they are endangering themselves. As a consequence, many preschoolers arehurt in accidents. Many childhood accidents are falls that result in bruising, some bleeding, anda few tears but no lasting harm. However some are more serious. In fact, accidents are theleading cause of death in preschool children. Thousands of young children die every year in autoaccidents, drowning, and fires (Heath Canada, 1998). Farm – related accidents are one cause ofchildhood injury and death that persists across the age range from birth to age 19 (HealthCanada, 1998).
  26. 26. As a mother I will be 100% supervising my daughter Aurora, by making sure her environmentallows her to explore and be safe. I also will teach her to play with careful to avoid hurtingherself of others. The Middle Childhood (7- 12 years)Identify specific health & safety considerations that you will have to consider during MiddleChildhood years. How will you address these issues?Obesity:Obesity occurs when a child’s body weight is at least 20 percent over the ideal body weight forthe child’s age and height. Overweight youngsters often are unpopular and have low self –esteem (Braet, Mervielde, &Vandereycken, 1997). Furthermore, they are at risk for manymedical problems, including high blood pressure and diabetes, throughout life because the vastmajority of overweight children and adolescents become overweight adults (Serdula et al.,1993).I will protect my child from obesity by providing a healthy and well balanced diet. I also willencourage and support Aurora involvement in any sports or any other physical activities of herchoice to strengthen her physical development as well as her self – esteem.Tooth Development:The health of baby teeth can affect the permanent teeth coming in after them. Severe tooth decayin baby teeth can work its way down far enough to affect the health of permanent teeth coming inafterwards. Therefore, care is important for both baby and permanent teeth. Food that is notremoved from the teeth combines with bacteria in the mouth to produce acid that eats through
  27. 27. the tooth’s enamel surface, creating a cavity. Regular brushing and flossing can prevent toothdecay. Care of children primary teeth is particularly important, as disease in primary teeth canaffect development of the permanent that are forming and emerging from below them. (CanadianDental Association, 2003).I will protect the health of my child teeth by providing healthy food, fewer sweets and adequateteeth brushing routines. I will also educate my daughter to learn the importance and the benefits,of teeth brushing, fluoride treatment, and regular check-ups, to prevent teeth decay.Vision and Hearing:For the most part, children’s sensory systems mature early in infancy and change little after thefirst two years. However, some physical changes continue to occur in children’s sensory systemsduring the elementary school years, such as those we observe with the auditory system. TheEustachian tube, which links the inner ear to the upper part of the throat, becomes longer andmore curvy, helping to reduce the incidence of otitis media (ear infection), which causestemporary hearing loss and permanent loss if left uncorrected.A common sensory disorder that can have psychosocial implications for children in these yearsinvolves vision (Rogow, 1999). In myopia, (near-sightedness) the lens projects images of distantobjects in front of the retina instead of on it, which means they look fuzzy instead of sharp.To prevent, recognized and treat any of this sign in my daughter I will have her regularly checkby the doctor. I will also observe to recognize any sign as well as carefully listen to my childAurora.Physical Fitness:
  28. 28. Being active physically has many benefits for children: It helps promote growth of muscle andbone, promotes cardiovascular heath (National High Blood Pressure Education ProgramWorking Group, 1996), and can help establish a lifelong pattern of exercise.I will keep encouraging my child Aurora to keep practicing sports. I will also explain the benefitsof doing exercises to improve her gross motors skills and her confident.Accidents:While children often are eager to participate in physical activities, during middle childhood,improved motor skills and greater independence place them at a greater risk for injury. Forexample, children may walk to school unsupervised and need to cross busy streets, or ride a bikeon the road alongside much larger and faster vehicles.I will be always vigilant in requiring my daughter to wear helmets on bicycles or similarequipment (e.g. skateboard, scooters) and to wear seat belts in cars even when the trip is shortor seems safe.I will be aware and realistic in assessing my child owns skills and I would not overestimate herabilities, or her cognitive skills. What might happen to my virtual child in the adolescents age years?Physical Domain:
  29. 29. I predict that my child will continue to be very physically active even know at the age of 10 yearsold my daughter Aurora fell off a skateboard onto a retaining wall and hit her head prettyhard. The neurologist said that Aurora had sustained a closed head injury to the left hemisphereand it was expected to have some significant learning and concentration difficulties for at least awhile.Based on my virtual child reports my princess had overcome the accident and had beensurprising me with her new skills and talents. For instance:Aurora have been able to continue with her usual routines and have learned to be more aware ofhow to avoid danger situations by wearing her helmet while she rides her bike or skateboard.She also is so advanced in her dance classes that the Dance studio director recommends her tojoining the Dance Competition team.My sweet Aurora doesn’t stop surprise me. Her determination and passion will help her toaccomplish everything she set her mind to do in her adolescent years and the years to come.Social/Emotional Domain:I predict that Aurora will be fine in her adolescent’s years even know based on my virtual childreports Aurora still a little child around strangers. But since Aurora have been writing differentreally nice and funny histories that with my encouragement Aurora has been able to read in frontof relatives and family friends.I have learned that Aurora is started to be less shy and more willing to show her voluntaryparticipation in taking roles and responsibilities either at home or at the school. And that havegiven me confidence because Aurora is not afraid to be herself. Therefore I’m 100% sure that my
  30. 30. beautiful butterfly will continue to rise during and after her adolescent years. I feel that she alsowill make friends with whom she will develop long term relationships based on respect andconsiderations.Cognitive Language Domain:I predict that my daughter Aurora will continue to grow successfully during and after herAdolescent years. Because she is very passionate and motivated about everything she does. AlsoI will continue giving her support and encouragement to help Aurora continue to develop in allher Cognitive Language Domains areas.I also based all my predictions based on Aurora virtual child reports: For Example here aresome highlights of the 5th grade report card (the one that is being sent on to middle school withAuroras portfolio of writing samples, and standardized test scores) were as follows:Usually works cooperatively in groups, usually respects rights and property of others, andusually demonstrates appropriate peer social interaction."Demonstrates strength" in all areas of reading, and in spelling and "appropriate for gradelevel" in writing."Demonstrates strength" in the areas of speaking and listening and in content knowledge ofsocial studies and science."Appropriate for grade level" in the areas of mathematical problem solving, understanding ofdata, number concepts, graphical applications, and arithmetic computation."Demonstrates strength" in the area of art.
  31. 31. "Demonstrates strength" in the area of music.Consistently works independently, listens attentively, and follows directions and classroom rules. Write one page paper outlining how your child might have develop differently if he or she were raised in a different type of household.Social Support Networks:Support from families, friends, and communities is associated with better heath. Such us socialnetworks could be very important in helping people solve problems and deal with adversity, aswell as in maintaining a sense of mastery and control over life circumstances. The caring andrespect that occur in social relationships, and the resulting sense of satisfaction and well-being,seem to act as a buffer against health problems.Based on my virtual child reports my daughter Aurora has been quite shy around strange peoplesince she was little. But my first step to support my child to become more open was throughencouragements and positive criticism.For instance: Because Aurora enjoys to read and write so much, in many occasions I encourageher to share her little histories to our relatives and close friends where ever we were gather athome. The positive response of everyone was something that positively was improving Auroraconfident.
  32. 32. Bibliography: Children A Chronological Approach Second Canadian Edition. Robert V. Kail& Theresa ZolnerOriginal edition published by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Healthy Foundations in Early Childhood Settings, Fourth Edition by Barbara Pimento & Deborah Kernested Ages & Stages: A Brief Overview Birth to 12 Years Images: Personal USB