Schiffman cb10 ppt_11

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  • Here is an outline of the topics for Chapter Eleven.
  • Here is an outline of the topics for Chapter Eleven.
  • To understand culture , just think of the difference between two societies. How do they think, believe, and act differently? Even though many believe culture is becoming less distinct from country to country, I am sure you can identify differences in values and behaviors.
  • This theoretical model of culture’s influence on behavior gives us a sense of how culture combines with personality traits to build our beliefs and values. This forms our attitudes, which combine with social norms to determine how we intend to behave, and consequently do behave, in given situations.
  • We often don’t think about the influence that culture has on behavior. Sometimes things just seem like the “right thing to do.” The statement in this slide helps sum up culture as a lens with which people see the world.
  • Researches have developed this matrix for ages 14-24. The segments are as follows: The in-crowd is all about privilege and reinforcement Pop mavericks spread word of mouth rapidly and like individuality Networked intelligentsia are the hub of online social networks and are creative Thrill renegades are all about infamy, adrenaline, and anarchy
  • What kinds of needs does culture help satisfy? It helps us decide where to eat, when to eat, and what to eat. It helps us know which products we simply must have, like a cell phone, and what products are a luxury, like a private plane.
  • We learn about our own culture from the time we are small children. Through both informal and formal learning, we learn how to behave and the difference between right and wrong. The learning of our own culture usually happens slowly over time. Quite often, when someone moves, they must learn a new culture. This process of acculturation can be very difficult and will differ based on age, interest in the culture, and desire to become part of the new society. This web link gives you information on doing business in Japan and some cultural issues, including etiquette and manners.
  • You may have been exposed to many of these marketers if you live within a city. In addition, if you are not from the U.S. or have traveled extensively, you may have noticed marketing to local cultures.
  • There is a strong symbolic nature to human language. We use symbols to communicate with each other and marketers will use symbols to communicate to their customers.
  • You can probably think of many rituals in which you have been involved – birthday parties, weddings, graduations, or religious rites of passage. Many of these rituals involved artifacts, objects that are important to the day. Some rituals might even be informal, like poker night. Are there certain artifacts that students absolutely must have? Food, perhaps, music or objects.
  • No doubt, growing up you were involved in some rituals – high school graduation, rite of passage rituals, births, or deaths.
  • Table 11.2 presents some rituals and artifacts. These might be some of the same rituals you identified in the previous discussion question.
  • A culture can not just exist within one person. There must be a large group which is involved, a significant portion of society. We will discuss subcultures in the next chapter, which are smaller subcultural groups that exist within larger cultures.
  • Here is an example of a ritual that someone might undergo every day. Notice how it includes certain products with which the consumer is often resistant to change.
  • It is important for marketers to realize that culture is changing. The products that fulfill needs, what is cool and in style, are constantly changing. Large cultural shifts may occur due to events that affect society. Certain cultures would like to change. For example, this is a link to changing the drinking culture at colleges.
  • Measurement techniques are used to track values and social trends for government and business. Each one will be looked at individually on the following slides.
  • Researchers can look at magazines, websites, television commercials, and even blogs to see what changes might be occurring and what values are important.
  • With consumer fieldwork , researchers observe behavior. This can be done in the field or by actively involving participants to observe their own behavior and beliefs.
  • Instead of observing behavior, these techniques use surveys of consumers. As you can see, there are a variety of these studies, each a bit different in the number of questions that are asked and the categories they choose to emphasize.
  • When looking at American culture, what are the core values that reflect society? To be included on the list on the following page, the core values have to meet these three criteria. They have to be pervasive , where a significant portion of the population accepts this value. They have to be enduring , lasting for a significant period of time, and they must be consumer related , in that they help us understand consumption.
  • These eleven values can be considered the “building blocks” of American culture. Take a minute to think about each one. There is probably a good chance that you can picture an advertisement that appeals to each of these values. Most of these values are clearly stated and should be easily understandable. The ones that might need some description are progress and external conformity . Progress relates to the fact that people and the society can improve themselves. It is closely tied to the related values of achievement, success, efficiency, and practicality. External conformity relates to the fact that although consumers like freedom of choice and individualism, they all accept the reality of conformity.
  • What American Core Values do these ads represent?
  • This is a scale that is used to measure people’s attitudes toward helping others. There is a related scale that measures their attitudes toward charitable organizations, which is also given in the textbook.
  • Think back to when you were in high school. The messages are often very strong in media, through public speakers, and in the press.
  • The “shop till you drop” mentality has propelled shopping to an American pastime. People of all ages view shopping as more than a necessity but a hobby, interest, and important part of their lives. In some cases, shopping becomes an addiction. This web link takes you to WebMD which discusses this addiction.
  • Schiffman cb10 ppt_11

    1. 1. CHAPTER ELEVENInfluence of Culture on Consumer Behavior
    2. 2. Learning Objectives1. To Understand What Culture Is and How It Impacts Consumer Behaviors.2. To Understand How Culture Acts as an “Invisible Hand” That Guides Consumption- Related Attitudes, Values, and Behavior.3. To Understand How Culture Sets Standards for What Satisfies Consumers’ Needs.4. To Understand How Culture Is Learned and Expressed in Language, Symbols, and Rituals. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 2
    3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued)5. To Understand How Consumers Are Always Adapting to Culture-Related Experiences.6. To Understand How the Impact of Culture on Consumer Behavior Is Measured.7. To Understand How Core Cultural Values Impact American Consumers.8. To Understand How the American Culture Became a “Shopping Culture.” Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 3
    4. 4. To Which Cultural Value or Values IsThis Product’s Advertising Appealing? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 4
    5. 5. Convenience in Food PreparationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 5
    6. 6. The sum total of learned beliefs, values, and customs that serve to Culture regulate the consumer behavior of members of a particular society.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 6
    7. 7. A Theoretical Model of Culture’s Influence on Behavior - Figure 11.2Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 7
    8. 8. The Invisible Hand of CultureEach individual perceives the world through his own cultural lensCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 8
    9. 9. Lifestyle Matrix for Global Youth Figure 11.3Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 9
    10. 10. Culture Satisfies Needs• Food and Clothing• Needs vs. LuxuryCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 10
    11. 11. In Terms of “Culture,” Do You Consider This Productto Be a “Good Morning” Beverage? Why or Why Not? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 11
    12. 12. Many Will Say “NO” Due to Lack of Nutritional Value and Competing Products (Coffee). Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 12
    13. 13. Culture Is Learned Issues • Enculturation and • Enculturation acculturation – The learning of one’s own culture • Language and • Acculturation symbols – The learning of a new or • Ritual foreign culture • Sharing of cultureCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 13
    14. 14. Discussion Questions• How do U.S. marketers target consumers who have moved to the U.S. and are new to the U.S. culture?• How do U.S. marketers target consumers who live outside the U.S. and are adopting parts of the U.S. culture?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 14
    15. 15. Culture Is Learned Issues • Without a common language ,shared meaning could not exist • Enculturation and acculturation • Marketers must choose appropriate symbols in • Language and advertising symbols • Marketers can use • Ritual “known” symbols for • Sharing of culture associationsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 15
    16. 16. How Does a Symbol Convey the Product’s Advertised Benefits?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 16
    17. 17. They Provide Additional Meaning to the Ad.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 17
    18. 18. Culture Is Learned Issues • A ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting • Enculturation and of a series of steps acculturation • Rituals extend over the • Language and human life cycle symbols • Marketers realize that • Ritual rituals often involve • Sharing of culture products (artifacts)Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 18
    19. 19. Discussion Questions• What are some rituals (religious, educational, social) that you have experienced?• What artifacts or products were part of that ritual?• How did marketers influence the choice of these artifacts?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 19
    20. 20. Selected Rituals and Associated Artifacts - Table 11.2SELECTED RITUALS TYPICAL ARTIFACTSWedding White gown (something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue)Birth of child U.S. Savings Bond, silver baby spoonBirthday Card, present, cake with candles50th Wedding anniversary Catered party, card and gift, display of photos of the couple’s life togetherGraduation Pen, U.S. Savings Bond, card, wristwatchValentine’s Day Candy, card, flowersNew Year’s Eve Champagne, party, fancy dressCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 20
    21. 21. Culture Is Learned Issues • Enculturation and • To be a cultural acculturation characteristic, a belief, • Language and value, or practice must be symbols shared by a significant • Ritual portion of the society • Sharing of Culture • Culture is transferred through family, schools, houses of worship, andCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall media Chapter Eleven Slide 21
    22. 22. Facial Beauty Ritual of a Young TV Advertising Sales Representative - Table 11.3 1. I pull my hair back with a headband. 2. I take all of my makeup off with L’Oreal eye makeup remover. 3. Next, I use a Q-tip with some moisturizer around my eyes to make sure all eye makeup is removed. 4. I wash my face with Noxzema facial wash. 5. I apply Clinique Dramatically Different Lotion to my face, neck, and throat. 6. If I have a blemish, I apply Clearasil Treatment to the area to dry it out. 6. Twice weekly (or as necessary) I use Aapri Facial Scrub to remove dry and dead skin. 7. Once a week, I apply Clinique Clarifying Lotion 2 with a cotton ball to my face and throat to remove deep-down dirt and oils. 8. Once every three months, I get a professional salon facial to deep-clean my pores. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 22
    23. 23. Culture is Dynamic• Evolves because it fills needs• Certain factors change culture – Technology – Population shifts – Resource shortages – Wars – Changing values – Customs from other countries Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 23
    24. 24. The Measurement of Culture• Content Analysis• Consumer Fieldwork• Value Measurement InstrumentsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 24
    25. 25. A method for systematically analyzing the content of verbal and/or pictorial Content communication. The Analysis method is frequently used to determine prevailing social values of a society.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 25
    26. 26. Which Cultural Value Is Portrayed, and How So?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 26
    27. 27. Progress – The Fridge has Superior DesignCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 27
    28. 28. Which Cultural Value Is This Ad Stressing, and How So?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 28
    29. 29. Fitness and Health – Low CalorieCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 29
    30. 30. Consumer Fieldwork• Field Observation – Natural setting – Subject unaware – Focus on observation of behavior• Participant ObservationCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 30
    31. 31. Value Measurement Survey InstrumentsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 31
    32. 32. American Core Values Criteria for Value Selection• The value must be pervasive.• The value must be enduring.• The value must be consumer-related.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 32
    33. 33. American Core ValuesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 33
    34. 34. American Core ValuesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 34
    35. 35. Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Helping OthersCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 35
    36. 36. Discussion Questions• Have you observed changes in any of the core values over the past 4 years?• Why did those changes occur?• How have they affected marketers?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 36
    37. 37. Toward a Shopping Culture• Is shopping what we do to create value in our lives?• The younger generation is shopping more• This has an effect on credit card debtCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 37
    38. 38. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Eleven Slide 38

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