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Schiffman cb10 ppt_02

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Schiffman cb10 ppt_02

  1. 1. CHAPTER TWO The ConsumerResearch Process
  2. 2. Learning Objectives1. To Understand the Importance of Consumer Research for Firms and Their Brands, as Well as Consumers.2. To Understand the Steps in the Consumer Research Process.3. To Understand the Importance of Establishing Specific Research Objectives as the First Step in the Design of a Consumer Research Project.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued)4. To Understand the Purposes and Types of Secondary Consumer Research That Is Available for Making Decisions or Planning Future Consumer Research.5. To Understand Specific Features and Applications of Different Research Methods to Be Carried Out in Consumer Research Studies.6. To Understand Where Data Analysis and Reporting of Findings Fit in the Research Process.7. To Understand How Each Element of the Consumer Research Process Adds to the Overall Outcome of the Research Study.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 3
  4. 4. Why Do Marketers Regularly Test Print Ads Like This One Before They Are Placed in the Media?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 4
  5. 5. To Test the Impact of the Message Before Spending Large Amounts of MoneyCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 5
  6. 6. The Importance of the Consumer Research Process• Marketers must understand customers to design effective: – marketing strategies – products – promotional messagesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 6
  7. 7. The Consumer Research Process Figure 2.2Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 7
  8. 8. The Consumer Research Process• Secondary research• Primary research – Qualitative – QuantitativeCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 8
  9. 9. Developing Research Objectives• Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design.• A written statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 9
  10. 10. Discussion Questions• Assume you are planning to open a new pizza restaurant near your campus. – What might be three objectives of a research plan for your new business? – How could you gather these data?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 10
  11. 11. Secondary Data • Data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand • Includes internal and external dataCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 11
  12. 12. Types of Secondary Data Internal Data External Data• Data generated in-house • Data collected by an outside• May include analysis of organization customer files • Includes federal• Useful for calculating government, periodicals, customer lifetime value newspapers, books, search engines • Commercial data is also available from market research firmsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 12
  13. 13. Discussion Questions Personal Privacy• Many people do not like the fact that their personal data are used for marketing.• How can marketers justify their need for data?• How can they acquire data and maintain customer privacy?Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 13
  14. 14. Designing Primary ResearchCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 14
  15. 15. Qualitative Collection Method Depth Interview• Also called one-on-one interview• Usually 20 minutes to 1 hour• Nonstructured• Interviewer will often probe to get more feedback (see following slide for probing)• Session is usually recordedCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 15
  16. 16. Probing Options for Interviews Figure 2.3Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 16
  17. 17. Qualitative Collection Method Focus Group• 8-10 participants• Respondents are recruited through a screener questionnaire• Lasts about 2 hours• Always taped or videotaped to assist analysis• Often held in front of two-way mirrors• Online focus groups are growingCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 17
  18. 18. Discussion Guides for Research• Step-by-step outline for depth interviews and focus groups• Interviewers will often “improvise” and go beyond the discussion guideCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 18
  19. 19. Focus Group Discussion Guide - Figure 2.4Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 19
  20. 20. Qualitative Collection Method Projective Techniques• Research procedures designed to identify consumers’ subconscious feelings and underlying motivations• Consist of a variety of disguised “tests”Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 20
  21. 21. Common Projective Exercises Table 2.1 (excerpt) DescriptionWord The researcher has a list of words, some of them to be studied and someAssociations just as “filler.” The researcher asks the respondent(s) to react, one-at-a time, to each word by stating or (in a focus group setting) writing on a pad the first word that comes to mind, and to explain the link.Sentence The researcher has a series of incomplete sentences that theCompletion respondent(s) needs to complete with a word or phrase.Photo/Visual The researcher creates/selects a series of photos of consumers, differentfor brands or products, range of print ads, etc., to serve as stimuli. TheStorytelling respondents are asked to discuss or tell a story based on their response to a photo or some other visual stimulus.Role Playing Is quite similar to storytelling; however, instead of telling a story, the participant(s) will be given a situation and asked to “act out” the role(s), often with regard to a product or brand, or particular selling situation. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 21
  22. 22. Qualitative Collection Method Metaphor Analysis• Based on belief that metaphors are the most basic method of thought and communication• Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) combines collage research and metaphor analysis to bring to the surface the mental models and the major themes or constructs that drive consumer thinking and behavior.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 22
  23. 23. Qualitative Collection Method “Looking-In”• Look at information from threads and postings on social media, including blogs and discussion forums• Methodology to capture consumers’ experiences, opinions, forecasts, needs, and interestsCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 23
  24. 24. Designing Primary ResearchCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 24
  25. 25. Data Collection Methods Observational Research• Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products• Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 25
  26. 26. Data Collection Methods Mechanical Observational Research• Uses mechanical or electronic device to record consumer behavior or response• Consumers’ increased use of highly convenient technologies will create more records for marketers• Audits are a type of mechanical observation which monitor salesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 26
  27. 27. Data Collection Methods Experimentation• Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables• An experiment is usually controlled with only some variables manipulated at a time while the others are constant• Test markets are conducted on a single market area• Experimentation can be conducted in laboratories or in the field Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 27
  28. 28. Discussion Questions• What might direct marketers test in experiments?• How can they use the results? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 28
  29. 29. Data Collection Methods Table 2.2 Mail Telephone Personal Online InterviewCost Low Moderate High LowSpeed Slow Immediate Slow FastResponse rate Low Moderate High Self-selectedGeographic Excellent Good Difficult ExcellentflexibilityInterviewer N/A Moderate Problematic N/AbiasInterviewer N/A Easy Difficult N/ASupervisionCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 29
  30. 30. Validity and Reliability• If a study has validity, it collects the appropriate data for the study.• A study has reliability if the same questions, asked of a similar sample, produce the same findings. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 30
  31. 31. Attitude ScalesCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 31
  32. 32. Customer Satisfaction Measurement • Customer Satisfaction Surveys – Analysis of Expectations versus Experience • Mystery Shoppers • Customer Complaint AnalysisCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 32
  33. 33. Sampling and Data Collection• Samples are a subset of the population used to estimate characteristics of the entire population.• A sampling plan addresses: – Whom to survey – How many to survey – How to select them• Researcher must choose probability or nonprobabililty sample. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 33
  34. 34. Data Analysis and Reporting Findings• Open-ended questions are coded and quantified.• All responses are tabulated and analyzed.• Final report includes executive summary, body, tables, and graphs.Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Two Slide 34
  35. 35. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallCopyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 35

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