Chapter 10          Motivating          EmployeesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin      Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc...
Chapter Ten                 LEARNING GOALS    1. Explain Taylor’s theory of scientific management.    2. Describe the Hawt...
Chapter Ten                 LEARNING GOALS    6. Explain the key principles of goal-setting,       expectancy, reinforceme...
Profile          ANDREW CHERNG             Panda Express           • Cherng considers the wellness of             his staf...
Chapter Ten               NAME that COMPANY    The employees of this company are told exactly       how to do their jobs –...
The Value ofMotivation       INTRINSIC REWARDS     • Intrinsic Rewards -- Personal satisfaction you        feel when you p...
The Value ofMotivation     EXTRINSIC REWARDS     • Extrinsic Rewards -- Something given as a        recognition of good wo...
The Value ofMotivation                                 FRINGE BENEFITS                      Perks Offered to Employees at ...
Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientific          TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFICManagement      LG1              MANAGEMENT      • Sc...
Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientific          TAYLOR’S FOUR KEYManagement      LG1               PRINCIPLES      1. St...
Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientificManagement                    TIME-MOTION STUDIES      LG1      • Time-Motion Stud...
Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientificManagement                    ARE YOU STRESSED?      LG1             Warnings of E...
Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientificManagement                    TAYLOR and UPS      LG1      • UPS drivers work unde...
Elton Mayo andthe HawthorneStudies                 HAWTHORNE STUDIES:     LG2         PURPOSE AND RESULTS     • Researcher...
Motivation andMaslow’sHierarchy of          MASLOW’SNeeds    LG3          THEORY of MOTIVATION     • Hierarchy of Needs --...
Motivation andMaslow’sHierarchy of         MASLOW’SNeeds    LG3          HIERARCHY of NEEDS                               ...
Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors                 HERZBERG’S    LG4       MOTIVATING FACTORS     • Herzberg’s research centered ...
Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors                     JOB CONTENT    LG4     • Herzberg found job content       factors were mos...
Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors                  JOB ENVIRONMENT    LG4     • Job environment factors maintained satisfaction,...
Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors             HERZBERG’S MOTIVATORS    LG4       and HYGIENE FACTORS             Motivators     ...
Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors             COMPARISON of the THEORIES    LG4       of MASLOW and HERZBERG                    ...
Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors          REIGNITE EMPLOYEES’ DRIVE    LG4                                Simple Ways to Reinvi...
ProgressAssessment   PROGRESS ASSESSMENT    • What are the similarities and differences between      Taylor’s time-motion ...
McGregor’sTheory X andTheory Y               THEORY X and THEORY Y    LG5    • Douglas McGregor proposed managers had two ...
McGregor’sTheory X andTheory Y                 ASSUMPTIONS of    LG5        THEORY X MANAGERS    • Workers dislike work an...
McGregor’sTheory X andTheory Y                 ASSUMPTIONS of    LG5        THEORY Y MANAGERS    • People like work, it’s ...
Ouchi’sTheory Z            THEORY Z    LG5    • William Ouchi researched cultural differences      between the U.S. (Type ...
Ouchi’sTheory Z   THEORY Z    LG5                      10-28
Goal-SettingTheory andManagement byObjectives                GOAL-SETTING THEORY    LG6    • Goal-Setting Theory --       ...
Goal-SettingTheory andManagement by   APPLYING GOAL-SETTINGObjectives    LG6                THEORY    • Management by Obje...
Goal-SettingTheory andManagement byObjectives                ORGANIZATIONS USING MBO    LG6    • Toyota Motor Company    •...
Meeting EmployeeExpectations:Expectancy         EXPECTANCY THEORY inTheory     LG6                MOTIVATION     • Expecta...
Meeting EmployeeExpectations:ExpectancyTheory                   EXPECTANCY THEORY     LG6                                 ...
Meeting EmployeeExpectations:Expectancy         NADLER & LAWLER’STheory     LG6             MODIFICATION     • Researchers...
ReinforcingEmployeePerformance:Reinforcement          USINGTheory   LG6          REINFORCEMENT THEORY   • Reinforcement Th...
TreatingEmployeesFairly: EquityTheory                     EQUITY THEORY     LG6     • Equity Theory -- Employees try to ma...
ProgressAssessment   PROGRESS ASSESSMENT    • Briefly explain the managerial attitudes behind      Theories X, Y and Z.   ...
MotivationThrough JobEnrichment                  ENRICHING JOBS     LG7     • Job Enrichment -- A motivational strategy th...
MotivationThrough JobEnrichment          MOTIVATION on a BUDGET     LG7                                  Tactics of Today’...
MotivationThrough JobEnrichment              KEY CHARACTERISTICS     LG7            of WORK       1. Skill Variety       2...
MotivationThrough JobEnrichment              TYPES of JOB ENRICHMENT     LG7     • Job Enlargement -- A job enrichment str...
MotivationThrough JobEnrichment                                ENRICHMENT     LG7                    by WAY of FLEXIBILITY...
MotivatingThrough Open           USING OPEN COMMUNICATIONCommunication    LG7                   • Create a culture that   ...
KEEPING the LINES OPEN                 (Social Media in Business)• Businesses can no longer  limit themselves to tradition...
WHEN TOO MUCH is TOO MUCH                              24/7 Access Isn’t Always a Good Thing• Schedule correspondence:   -...
Recognizing aJob Well Done   RECOGNIZING GOOD WORK    LG7    • Raises are not the only ways to recognize an      employee’...
Recognizing aJob Well Done                WORK WELL with OTHERS    LG7             Keys for Productive Teamwork    • Have ...
Recognizing aJob Well Done                WHAT’S GOOD for YOU    LG7         Most Positive Remedies for Employee Moral    ...
Recognizing aJob Well Done                 WHAT’S BAD for YOU    LG7         Most Negative Actions for Employee Morale    ...
SMALL INCENTIVES CAN be         BIG MOTIVATORS                (Spotlight on Small Business)• Things like weekly trips to t...
MotivatingEmployeesAcross the Globe   MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES     LG8             ACROSS the GLOBE     • Cultural differences...
IMPORTANCE of      CULTURAL COMPENTENCY               (Reaching Beyond Our Borders)• A better understanding of cultures he...
MotivatingEmployeesAcross          MOTIVATING ACROSS theGenerations     LG8            GENERATIONS     • Baby Boomers (194...
MotivatingEmployeesAcross        GENERATION X in theGenerations     LG8         WORKPLACE     • Desire economic security b...
MotivatingEmployeesAcross        MILLENNIALS and theGenerations     LG8          WORKPLACE     • Tend to be impatient, ske...
MotivatingEmployeesAcross        MILLENNIALS and theGenerations     LG8          RECESSION     • The recession hurt younge...
MotivatingEmployeesAcross           COMMUNICATIONGenerations     LG8      ACROSS the GENERATIONS     • Baby Boomers (1946 ...
MotivatingEmployeesAcross               The BEST COMPANIES forGenerations     LG8                    WORKERS           Sou...
ProgressAssessment   PROGRESS ASSESSMENT    • What are several steps firms can take to increase      internal communicatio...
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  • Company: UPS
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor ’s scientific management. Intrinsic means from within; when you have a drive to succeed and are motivated by purpose, passion, and mission.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor ’s scientific management. Extrinsic rewards are often temporary and driven by money, recognition and results.
  • Fringe Benefits This slide displays the most common perks or rewards used by companies to motivate employees. Other examples of extrinsic rewards include the following: Pay Improved working environment or conditions Status Security While these rewards do offer some value, there is much research that indicates many problems with extrinsic motivation. Share with the students some of those ideas: Extrinsic rewards do not produce permanent changes. Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic interest. The use of extrinsic rewards can be controlling. Reinforcement of extrinsic rewards can lead to expectations of permanence in the form of job rewards.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor ’s scientific management.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor ’s scientific management. Taylor was looking for the most efficient way or the one right way to do something. Workers were, in a sense, thought of as machines that could be fine tuned.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor ’s scientific management.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor ’s scientific management. Are You Stressed? Employers can often spot impending stress or on-the-job stress by understanding the signs listed. Ask the students: Have you experienced any of these symptoms when trying to juggle your academic, professional, and personal lives? What did you do to cope with the rigors of stress? Share the following tips for reducing stress: Learn to plan. Recognize and accept limits. Be a positive person. Learn to tolerate and forgive. Avoid unnecessary competition. Get regular exercise. Learn a systematic, drug-free method of relaxing. Change your thinking. Source: UTexas.edu
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor ’s scientific management.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Describe the Hawthorne studies and their significance to management. The Hawthorne studies were conducted in Cicero, Illinois, at the Western Electric plant over a six-year period.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Identify the levels of Maslow ’s hierarchy of needs and apply them to employee motivation.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Identify the levels of Maslow ’s hierarchy of needs and apply them to employee motivation. Maslow ’s Hierarchy of Needs This slide reproduces the illustration of Maslow ’s Hierarchy from the chapter. Most people in the class, especially those that have taken basic psychology, may be familiar with Maslow and the premise of human needs hierarchy. Use this opportunity to relate Maslow ’s need theory to the work environment: Workers require competitive salaries, benefits and clean work environments. Employees have the need for security against termination in their jobs and the feeling of being safe against bodily harm while performing their job functions. On the job, workers have the need to feel a part of a successful group, driven by achievement. Employees seek opportunities for advancement, empowerment, recognition, and responsibility through additional work-related performance. Companies must attempt to satisfy these needs through opportunities within the organization.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg. Herzberg ’s article in the Harvard Business Review, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” is a classic and explores his idea of job content in depth.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg. Herzberg ’s Theory This slide illustrates another “need” theory regarding workers and their job needs. This theory is based on what an organization can do to fulfill the individual needs of workers while motivating them to excel. The key component of Herzberg ’s work was that the opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction.” If the basic hygiene factors are not in place, a worker is not satisfied. To have a satisfied, motivated workforce, a company needs to provide the following: Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Growth and advancement
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg. Comparison of the Theories of Maslow and Herzberg This slide gives students a good starting point to see the relationship between Maslow and Herzberg. To start a discussion ask students: Are you motivated by money? (This question always starts a discussion with most students stating that money is a real motivating factor.) Follow up this discussion with the following: If you dislike your current job and your boss offers you more money will it change your feelings about your job in the long run?
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg. Reignite Employees’ Drive Motivators don’t have to be big or grand gestures like awards. Employees can motivate themselves. Ask students: Why do you think redecorating your desk, cube or office is helpful and reinvigorating?
  • Frederick Taylor ’s time-motion studies measured output. Taylor inspired the Hawthorne studies. Originally Elton Mayo wanted to determine the optimal level of lighting necessary to increase production on the factory floor which is a type of scientific management. He later determined that people who were empowered worked harder. Ultimately Mayo ’ s study brought about behavioral management. The findings at Hawthorne plant in Cicero, Illinois, completely changed how people thought about employees and motivation. One finding was that money was not a primary motivator. These new assumptions led to to many theories about the human side of motivation. Students should be able to draw and label Maslow’s hierarchy. As Herzberg studied the results of his research study, he concluded that motivators made employees productive and gave them satisfaction. These factors related to job content. Hygiene factors related to the job environment and could, if left unattended, cause employee dissatisfaction but would not provide long-term motivation. Hygiene factors include such things as pay and working conditions.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z. McGregor ’s Theories Theory X suggests that employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, have little ambition, and are motivated by threat and fear. Theory Y argues that people like work, seek responsibility, and are motivated by empowerment. If a manager believes theory X or Theory Y, s/he would tend to treat the employees accordingly. Ask the students: Would you be a Theory X or Y manager? How do you believe employees should be treated? Would you prefer to work for a Theory X or Y manager? (The majority, if not all, would say they would rather work for a Theory Y manager. It should be pointed out that how a manager treats employees is often dictated by the situation. A manager may hold Theory Y values, but may have to use Theory X perspective depending upon the situation with the employee.)
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z. Demographic changes, the worst recession in their country’s history and fierce global competition have forced Japanese managers to reevaluate the way they conduct business. The effects of the 2011 earthquake on Japanese businesses reinforced the need to change.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories. Peter Drucker developed the idea of MBO in his 1954 book The Practice of Management.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories. Organizations Using MBO Management By Objectives (MBO) was popularized by Peter Drucker in the 1950s. Ask students: What are the benefits of MBO? (This theory is based on the notion that setting attainable goals with all employees of the organization will create more support for the goals leading to greater motivation.) To better understand Peter Drucker visit the following website: http://www.druckerinstitute.com/
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories. Victor Vroom developed the expectancy theory.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • Douglas McGregor developed Theories X and Y after observing that managers ’ attitudes fall into one of two different assumptions. Theory X assumes the following: People dislike work and will avoid work, workers must be forced, controlled, directed or threatened with punishment to make them work toward the organization’s goals, the average worker prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has little ambition and wants security, and the primary motivators are fear and money. Theory Y managers have completely different views on managing people. Theory Y managers believe: Most people like to work, the depth of a person’s commitment to goals depends on the perceived rewards for achieving them, under certain circumstances people will seek responsibility, employees tend to be imaginative, creative, and clever, and employees are motivated by a variety of rewards. Theory Z was developed by William Ouchi of UCLA and is a blending of American management style, Theory A, with Japanese management style, Theory J, into Theory Z. 2. The idea behind goal-setting theory is the process of setting attainable goals to motivate employees and improve performance. The key to goal-setting theory is that the goals must be accepted and accompanied by feedback to truly be effective. 3. Victor Vroom created the expectancy theory. His central premise was the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome. He contends that employees will ask three specific questions before committing maximum effort: Can I accomplish the task? If I do accomplish it, what ’s my reward? Is the reward worth the effort? Like goal-setting theory the key to expectancy theory is setting attainable goals. If the goal is not attainable employees will simply give up, thus reducing motivation. 4.. Equity theory looks at how employee ’s perceptions of fairness affect their willingness to perform. Employees will try to balance or maintain equity between what they put into the job and what they get out of it, comparing those inputs and outputs to those of others in similar positions.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. Herzberg argued factors such as responsibility, achievement and recognition were more important motivational factors in the long run than pay. He believed that if you wanted to motivate employees you should focus on enriching the job.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. Motivation on a Budget In this recent recession, companies have had to ease up on offering monetary rewards for employee performance. Ask students: Would you be satisfied with these options, excluding monetary rewards?
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. Enrichment by Way of Flexibility Many employees see time outside of the office as a perk. This may include work from home, library or remote location. Some companies are following this trend. However, the majority of people surveyed said their company still doesn‘t offer the possibility. Ask students: Would you take a job with lower pay if it meant you could work remotely? Would you prefer to work only in the office?
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. When Too Much is Too Much We have become accustomed to checking our emails, calls, and Facebook wall at all hours of the day. Maintaining constant contact has caused some employees to lose track of the tasks at hand. Ask students: How often do you check your email? How much time do you spend on Facebook daily? Do you tweet all day? Do you let your phone go to voicemail?
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. Remember rewarding performance can come in different formats than money. What are other ways to recognize good performance?
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. High Performance Teams This slide presents characteristics of high performance teams. This list is compiled from the Wall Street Journal on high performance teams. Ask the students in teams to explore these characteristics as they relate to teams they have been on. Which of these characteristics apply to their team and which are lacking? What modifications do they need to make to move toward being a high performance team?
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. What ’s Good for You This slide offers simple tips for motivating employees in your business. A motto to remember is the Golden Rule: Treat others like you want to be treated. Ask the students: Where do the recommendations in the slide fit in Maslow ’s or Herzberg’s theories?
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. What ’s Bad for You This slide ties into the previous slide and offers tips on what to avoid in order to enhance employee morale. Ask students why these factors negatively impact employee morale.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations. In a globalized world managers must recognize that what is appropriate in one culture might not work in another.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations. Managers must consider cultural differences, and they must also contend with employees in different age groups. To start a discussion ask students: What issues might you encounter if you manage employees of various generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y)? The main constant in the lives of Gen Xers and Millennials is inconstancy. Consider the unprecedented change in the past 10-20 years in every area (i.e. economic, technological, scientific, social, and political). Gen Xers and Millennials expect change. It is the absence of change that they find questionable.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations. Unemployment for 18- to 29-year-olds was the highest it ’s been in more than three decades. In fact, today Millennials are less likely to be employed then Gen Xers or boomers were at the same age.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations. Ask the students: How can the differences in how the generations prefer to communicate affect the workplace?
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations. The Best Companies for Workers This list is generated annually by Fortune Magazine . Ask students: What makes a company “employee friendly? ” (Answers will vary.) Use the Fortune research to profile one or all of the companies, so students can understand what programs these companies have implemented to enhance worker satisfaction.
  • To increase communication managers can: Reward listening across the organization, train supervisors and managers to listen using effective questioning techniques, remove barriers to communication, avoid vague and ambiguous communication, make it easy to communicate, and ask employees what is important to them. Focusing on communication is important, but managers can also focus on job enrichment, such as skill variety and task significance. Participative management if implemented properly can be successful, but like everything in life, there are benefits and weaknesses to this type of management style. One problem with this approach is that it is difficult to implement and workers may spend more time formulating suggestions than actually solving the problem at hand. In today ’s multicultural workplace managers cannot use one motivational formula for all employees. While they must adjust motivational styles, it is essential that managers give all employees the keys to do a good job: the tools, right information, and the right amount of cooperation. Motivating employees across cultures and generations can be simple, if managers acknowledge a job well done.
  • Chap010

    1. 1. Chapter 10 Motivating EmployeesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Chapter Ten LEARNING GOALS 1. Explain Taylor’s theory of scientific management. 2. Describe the Hawthorne studies and their significance to management. 3. Identify the levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and apply them to employee motivation. 4. Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg. 5. Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z. 10-2
    3. 3. Chapter Ten LEARNING GOALS 6. Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories. 7. Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. 8. Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the globe and across generations. 10-3
    4. 4. Profile ANDREW CHERNG Panda Express • Cherng considers the wellness of his staff as an important key to the company’s success. • Managers are urged to eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and attend company motivational seminars that often include hugs! • He hopes to have 2,300 American stores in operation by 2015. 10-4
    5. 5. Chapter Ten NAME that COMPANY The employees of this company are told exactly how to do their jobs – and we do mean exactly. For instance they are instructed to carry their keys on their ring finger with the teeth up. If they are considered too slow, a supervisor will shadow them with a stopwatch and clipboard and prod them along. Name that company! 10-5
    6. 6. The Value ofMotivation INTRINSIC REWARDS • Intrinsic Rewards -- Personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals. • Examples of Intrinsic Rewards: - Pride in your performance - Sense of achievement 10-6
    7. 7. The Value ofMotivation EXTRINSIC REWARDS • Extrinsic Rewards -- Something given as a recognition of good work. • Kinds of Extrinsic Rewards: - Pay Raises - Promotions - Awards 10-7
    8. 8. The Value ofMotivation FRINGE BENEFITS Perks Offered to Employees at Top 50 Employers Source: Bloomberg BusinessWeek, www.businessweek.com, accessed June 2011. 10-8
    9. 9. Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientific TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFICManagement LG1 MANAGEMENT • Scientific Management -- Studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques. • Three Key Elements to Increase Productivity 1. Time 2. Methods of Work 3. Rules of Work 10-9
    10. 10. Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientific TAYLOR’S FOUR KEYManagement LG1 PRINCIPLES 1. Study how a job is performed. • Gather time & motion information. • Check different methods. 2. Codify the best method into rules. 3. Choose workers whose skill matches the rules. 4. Establish a fair level of performance and pay. 10-10
    11. 11. Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientificManagement TIME-MOTION STUDIES LG1 • Time-Motion Studies -- Studies of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task. • Led to the development of the Principle of Motion Economy -- Every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions; developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. 10-11
    12. 12. Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientificManagement ARE YOU STRESSED? LG1 Warnings of Employee Stress • Negative attitudes about work • Drops in productivity • Chronic lateness • Absenteeism • Careless with details • Unable to work with others • Withdrawal from co-workers • Easily upset or angered 10-12
    13. 13. Frederick Taylor:The Father ofScientificManagement TAYLOR and UPS LG1 • UPS drivers work under strict rules and work requirements. • How to get out of their trucks: - Right foot first • How fast to walk: - 3 ft per second • How to hold their keys: - Teeth up, third finger 10-13
    14. 14. Elton Mayo andthe HawthorneStudies HAWTHORNE STUDIES: LG2 PURPOSE AND RESULTS • Researchers studied worker efficiency under different levels of light. • Productivity increased regardless of light condition. • Researchers decided it was a human or psychological factor at play. • Hawthorne Effect -- People act differently when they know they are being studied. 10-14
    15. 15. Motivation andMaslow’sHierarchy of MASLOW’SNeeds LG3 THEORY of MOTIVATION • Hierarchy of Needs -- Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social and esteem needs to self-actualization needs. • Needs that have already been met do not motivate. • If a need is filled, another higher-level need emerges. 10-15
    16. 16. Motivation andMaslow’sHierarchy of MASLOW’SNeeds LG3 HIERARCHY of NEEDS 10-16
    17. 17. Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors HERZBERG’S LG4 MOTIVATING FACTORS • Herzberg’s research centered on two questions: - What factors controlled by managers are most effective in increasing worker motivation? - How do workers rank job-related factors in order of importance related to motivation? 10-17
    18. 18. Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors JOB CONTENT LG4 • Herzberg found job content factors were most important to workers – workers like to feel they contribute to the company. • Motivators -- Job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction. 10-18
    19. 19. Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors JOB ENVIRONMENT LG4 • Job environment factors maintained satisfaction, but did not motivate employees. • Hygiene Factors -- Job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased. 10-19
    20. 20. Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors HERZBERG’S MOTIVATORS LG4 and HYGIENE FACTORS Motivators Hygiene Factors Company policy and Work itself administration Achievement Supervision Recognition Working conditions Responsibility Interpersonal relations Growth and Salary, status and job advancement security 10-20
    21. 21. Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors COMPARISON of the THEORIES LG4 of MASLOW and HERZBERG 10-21
    22. 22. Herzberg’sMotivatingFactors REIGNITE EMPLOYEES’ DRIVE LG4 Simple Ways to Reinvigorate Work Life 1. Don’t work alone all the time; partners or teams make work more efficient and fun. 2. Redecorate your space to get away from the same- old, same-old. 3. Don’t complain; think of things to celebrate. Photo Courtesy of: Nels Highberg Source: Fast Company, March 2010. 10-22
    23. 23. ProgressAssessment PROGRESS ASSESSMENT • What are the similarities and differences between Taylor’s time-motion studies and Mayo’s Hawthorne studies? • How did Mayo’s findings influence scientific management? • Draw a diagram of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Label and describe the parts. • Explain the distinction between what Herzberg called motivators and hygiene factors. 10-23
    24. 24. McGregor’sTheory X andTheory Y THEORY X and THEORY Y LG5 • Douglas McGregor proposed managers had two different sets of assumptions concerning workers. • Their attitudes about motivating workers were tied to these assumptions. • McGregor called them Theory X and Theory Y. 10-24
    25. 25. McGregor’sTheory X andTheory Y ASSUMPTIONS of LG5 THEORY X MANAGERS • Workers dislike work and seek to avoid it. • Workers must be forced or threatened with punishment to get them to perform. • Workers prefer to be directed and avoid responsibility. • Primary motivators are fear and money. 10-25
    26. 26. McGregor’sTheory X andTheory Y ASSUMPTIONS of LG5 THEORY Y MANAGERS • People like work, it’s a part of life. • Workers seek goals to which they are committed. • Commitment to goals depends on perceived rewards. • People can use creativity to solve problems. • Intellectual capacity is only partially realized. • People are motivated by a variety of rewards. 10-26
    27. 27. Ouchi’sTheory Z THEORY Z LG5 • William Ouchi researched cultural differences between the U.S. (Type A) and Japan (Type J). • Type J committed to the organization and group. • Type A focused on the individual. • Theory Z is the hybrid approach of Types A and J. 10-27
    28. 28. Ouchi’sTheory Z THEORY Z LG5 10-28
    29. 29. Goal-SettingTheory andManagement byObjectives GOAL-SETTING THEORY LG6 • Goal-Setting Theory -- Setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated by organizational conditions. 10-29
    30. 30. Goal-SettingTheory andManagement by APPLYING GOAL-SETTINGObjectives LG6 THEORY • Management by Objectives (MBO) -- Involves a cycle of discussion, review and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors and employees. • Managers formulate goals in cooperation with everyone in the organization. • Need to monitor results and reward achievement. 10-30
    31. 31. Goal-SettingTheory andManagement byObjectives ORGANIZATIONS USING MBO LG6 • Toyota Motor Company • Emerson Electric Company • U.S. Department of Defense 10-31
    32. 32. Meeting EmployeeExpectations:Expectancy EXPECTANCY THEORY inTheory LG6 MOTIVATION • Expectancy Theory -- The amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome. • Employees ask: - Can I accomplish the task? - What’s my reward? - Is the reward worth the effort? • Expectations can vary from person to person. 10-32
    33. 33. Meeting EmployeeExpectations:ExpectancyTheory EXPECTANCY THEORY LG6 10-33
    34. 34. Meeting EmployeeExpectations:Expectancy NADLER & LAWLER’STheory LG6 MODIFICATION • Researchers Nadler and Lawler modified expectancy theory and suggested five steps for managers: 1. Determine what rewards employees value. 2. Determine workers’ performance standard. 3. Make sure performance standards are attainable. 4. Tie rewards to performance. 5. Be sure employees feel rewards are adequate. 10-34
    35. 35. ReinforcingEmployeePerformance:Reinforcement USINGTheory LG6 REINFORCEMENT THEORY • Reinforcement Theory -- Positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways. • Positive reinforcement includes praise, pay increases and recognition. • Negative reinforcement includes reprimands, reduced pay, and layoff or firing. • Extinction is a way of trying to stop behavior by not responding to it. 10-35
    36. 36. TreatingEmployeesFairly: EquityTheory EQUITY THEORY LG6 • Equity Theory -- Employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions. • Workers often base perception of their outcomes on a specific person or group. • Perceived inequities can lead to reduced quality and productivity, absenteeism, even resignation. 10-36
    37. 37. ProgressAssessment PROGRESS ASSESSMENT • Briefly explain the managerial attitudes behind Theories X, Y and Z. • Explain goal-setting theory. • Evaluate expectancy theory. When could expectancy theory apply to your efforts or lack of effort? • Explain the principles of equity theory. 10-37
    38. 38. MotivationThrough JobEnrichment ENRICHING JOBS LG7 • Job Enrichment -- A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself. • Based on Herzberg’s motivators, such as responsibility, achievement and recognition. 10-38
    39. 39. MotivationThrough JobEnrichment MOTIVATION on a BUDGET LG7 Tactics of Today’s HR Managers Source: Wall Street Journal, March 1, 2010. 10-39
    40. 40. MotivationThrough JobEnrichment KEY CHARACTERISTICS LG7 of WORK 1. Skill Variety 2. Task Identity 3. Task Significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback 10-40
    41. 41. MotivationThrough JobEnrichment TYPES of JOB ENRICHMENT LG7 • Job Enlargement -- A job enrichment strategy that involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment. • Job Rotation -- A job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another. 10-41
    42. 42. MotivationThrough JobEnrichment ENRICHMENT LG7 by WAY of FLEXIBILITY • 60% of employees think they can be productive and efficient outside of the office. • 66% of employees would take a lower-paying job if it came with more flexibility. • 59% of employees say their company doesn’t have a formal out-of-office work policy. Source: Entrepreneur, May 2011. 10-42
    43. 43. MotivatingThrough Open USING OPEN COMMUNICATIONCommunication LG7 • Create a culture that rewards listening. • Train managers to listen. • Use effective questioning techniques. • Remove barriers to open communication. • Ask employees what’s important to them. 10-43
    44. 44. KEEPING the LINES OPEN (Social Media in Business)• Businesses can no longer limit themselves to traditional intranets.• They must communicate with employees, not to them.• Employees expect 24/7 access to what they need with what they have (smartphone, iPad, notebook). 10-44
    45. 45. WHEN TOO MUCH is TOO MUCH 24/7 Access Isn’t Always a Good Thing• Schedule correspondence: - Don’t check email whenever it arrives, schedule times to check.• Pick one task: - Having too much open at once takes attention away from singular tasks.• Don’t answer the phone: - Don’t be afraid of voicemail.• Maintain human contact: - Don’t look at your computer or phone while someone is at your desk. Keep attention (and respect!) on them. Source: Entrepreneur, December 2010. 10-45
    46. 46. Recognizing aJob Well Done RECOGNIZING GOOD WORK LG7 • Raises are not the only ways to recognize an employee’s performance. Recognition can also include: - Paid time off - Flexible scheduling - Work from home opportunities - Paid child or elder care - Stock options or profit sharing - Company awards - Company events or teams 10-46
    47. 47. Recognizing aJob Well Done WORK WELL with OTHERS LG7 Keys for Productive Teamwork • Have a common understanding of your task. • Clarify roles and responsibilities. • Set rules. • Get to know each other. • Communicate openly and often. 10-47
    48. 48. Recognizing aJob Well Done WHAT’S GOOD for YOU LG7 Most Positive Remedies for Employee Moral 10-48
    49. 49. Recognizing aJob Well Done WHAT’S BAD for YOU LG7 Most Negative Actions for Employee Morale 10-49
    50. 50. SMALL INCENTIVES CAN be BIG MOTIVATORS (Spotlight on Small Business)• Things like weekly trips to the movies and Rock Band in the break room help keep employees motivated.• Communication, mentoring and group bonding are key elements to success.• Open communication and increased responsibility for employees make them feel a real part of the firm. 10-50
    51. 51. MotivatingEmployeesAcross the Globe MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES LG8 ACROSS the GLOBE • Cultural differences make worker motivation a challenging task for global managers. • High-Context cultures require relationships and group trust before performance. • Low-Context cultures believe relationship building distracts from tasks. 10-51
    52. 52. IMPORTANCE of CULTURAL COMPENTENCY (Reaching Beyond Our Borders)• A better understanding of cultures helps managers increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.• It’s not just knowing other languages, it’s knowing what’s proper.• UPS operates in over 200 countries successfully by emphasizing diversity. 10-52
    53. 53. MotivatingEmployeesAcross MOTIVATING ACROSS theGenerations LG8 GENERATIONS • Baby Boomers (1946 – 1964) - Experienced great economic prosperity, job security, optimism about their future • Generation X (1965 – 1980) - Raised in dual-career families, attended day care, feeling of insecurity about jobs • Generation Y or Millennials (1980 – 2000) - Raised by indulgent parents, used to many comforts like computers and cell phones 10-53
    54. 54. MotivatingEmployeesAcross GENERATION X in theGenerations LG8 WORKPLACE • Desire economic security but focus more on career security than job security. • Good motivators as managers due to emphasis on results rather than work hours. • Tend to be flexible and good at collaboration and consensus building. • Very effective at giving employee feedback and praise. 10-54
    55. 55. MotivatingEmployeesAcross MILLENNIALS and theGenerations LG8 WORKPLACE • Tend to be impatient, skeptical, blunt and expressive. • Are tech-savvy and able to grasp new concepts. • Able to multi-task and are efficient. • Highlight a strong sense of commitment. • Place a high value on work-life balance. • Fun and stimulation are key job requirements. 10-55
    56. 56. MotivatingEmployeesAcross MILLENNIALS and theGenerations LG8 RECESSION • The recession hurt younger workers more deeply than other workers. • In July 2010, the unemployment rate was 15.3 percent for those aged 20 to 24, while the overall unemployment rate was 9.5 percent. 10-56
    57. 57. MotivatingEmployeesAcross COMMUNICATIONGenerations LG8 ACROSS the GENERATIONS • Baby Boomers (1946 – 1964) - Prefer meetings and conference calls. • Generation X (1965 – 1980) - Prefer email and will choose meetings only if there are no other options. • Generation Y or Millennials (1980 – 2000) - Prefer to use technology to communicate, particularly through social media. 10-57
    58. 58. MotivatingEmployeesAcross The BEST COMPANIES forGenerations LG8 WORKERS Source: Fortune Magazine, February 7, 2011. 10-58
    59. 59. ProgressAssessment PROGRESS ASSESSMENT • What are several steps firms can take to increase internal communications and thus motivation? • What problems may emerge when firms try to implement participative management? • Why is it important to adjust motivational styles to individual employees? Are there any general principles of motivation that today’s managers should follow? 10-59

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