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Educación basada en evidencias: luces y sombras de un reto para la escuela, la investigación y la política educativa

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Ponencia presentada el 27 de octubre de 2019 en las III Jornadas de Ciencias de la Educación, Psicología y Tecnología del Instituto de Estudios Campogibraltareños (San Roque, Cádiz).

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Educación basada en evidencias: luces y sombras de un reto para la escuela, la investigación y la política educativa

  1. 1. Educación basada en evidencias: luces y sombras de un reto para la escuela, la investigación y la política educativa Fernando Trujillo Sáez - @ftsaez https://unsplash.com/photos/RdLw6AuTH6Y
  2. 2. ¡Gracias! https://unsplash.com/photos/nI8YlkExQoI
  3. 3. Educación basada en evidencias: ¿suena bien, no? https://unsplash.com/photos/zE6ZQ3wp7E8
  4. 4. “Evidence-based educational policymaking has become a global phenomenon.” Wiseman, A. W. (2010). The Uses of Evidence for Educational Policymaking: Global Contexts and International Trends. Review of Research in Education, 34(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X09350472
  5. 5. What Works Clearinghouse https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
  6. 6. What Works Clearinghouse https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide/16
  7. 7. Best Evidence Encyclopedia http://www.bestevidence.org/index.cfm
  8. 8. Campbell Collaboration https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/18911803
  9. 9. Campbell Collaboration: Mindfulness https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/CSR.2017.5
  10. 10. Campbell Collaboration: Mindfulness https://www.campbellcollaboration.org/media/k2/attachments/ 0232_ECG_Maynard_Mindfulness_PLS_ES.pdf
  11. 11. ¿Cuál es su origen? ¿Qué significa EbE? https://unsplash.com/photos/z6NZ76_UTDI
  12. 12. Guyatt G, Cairns J, Churchill D, et al. (1992) Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Approach to Teaching the Practice of Medicine. JAMA, 268(17):2420–2425. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490170092032
  13. 13. “Evidence based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.” Sackett David L, Rosenberg William M C, Gray J A Muir, Haynes R Brian, Richardson W Scott. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't BMJ 1996; 312 :71 https://unsplash.com/photos/8rj4sz9YLCI
  14. 14. La MbE no es encontrar soluciones universales sino maneras de abordar problemas concretos.
  15. 15. “Real evidence based medicine has the care of individual patients as its top priority, asking, “what is the best course of action for this patient, in these circumstances, at this point in their illness or condition?”” https://unsplash.com/photos/EMZxDosijJ4 Greenhalgh Trisha, Howick Jeremy, Maskrey Neal. Evidence based medicine: a movement in crisis? BMJ 2014; 348 :g3725
  16. 16. https://unsplash.com/photos/yIStB66P6qU “EBM advocates want patients, practitioners, health care managers and policy makers to pay attention to the best findings from health care research that meet the dual requirements of being both scientifically valid and ready for clinical application.” Haynes, R. B. (2002). What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?. BMC health services research, 2(1), 3.
  17. 17. “The practice of evidence based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research.” Sackett David L, Rosenberg William M C, Gray J A Muir, Haynes R Brian, Richardson W Scott. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't BMJ 1996; 312 :71 https://unsplash.com/photos/jw3GOzxiSkw
  18. 18. “Individual clinical expertise” = competencia y buen juicio derivada de la práctica clínica Sackett David L, Rosenberg William M C, Gray J A Muir, Haynes R Brian, Richardson W Scott. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't BMJ 1996; 312 :71 5
  19. 19. “Evidence-based education operates at two levels. The first is to utilise existing evidence from worldwide research and literature on education and associated subjects… The second level is to establish sound evidence where existing evidence is lacking or of a questionable, uncertain, or weak nature.” http://www.shutterstock.com/es/pic-245658421/stock-photo-education-college-diverse-diversity-ethnic-ethnicity-team-concept.html Davies, P. (1999), What is Evidence-based Education?. British Journal of Educational Studies, 47: 108-121. doi:10.1111/1467-8527.00106
  20. 20. La mejor evidencia clínica disponible: 1. ensayos clínicos controlados y aletorizados (aunque en la MbE actual se amplían las metodologías); 2. revisiones sistemáticas de la literatura (PICO). https://unsplash.com/photos/AMssSjUaTY4 https://library.health.nt.gov.au/litreview/searching
  21. 21. “Evidence based medicine is not “cookbook” medicine.”Sackett David L, Rosenberg William M C, Gray J A Muir, Haynes R Brian, Richardson W Scott. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't BMJ 1996; 312 :71 http://www.shutterstock.com/es/pic-271036229/stock-photo-open-recipe-book-with-fresh-herbs-and-spices-on-wooden-background.html
  22. 22. “Evidence from research can be no more than one component of any clinical decision.” Haynes, R. B. (2002). What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?. BMC health services research, 2(1), 3. https://unsplash.com/photos/XSQHuGGRO3g
  23. 23. “Good doctors use both individual clinical expertise and the best available external evidence, and neither alone is enough. Sackett David L, Rosenberg William M C, Gray J A Muir, Haynes R Brian, Richardson W Scott. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't BMJ 1996; 312 :71 https://unsplash.com/photos/flsFQ3UTuKw
  24. 24. ¡Qué maravilla, no! https://unsplash.com/photos/YNSdNgcseLo
  25. 25. https://unsplash.com/photos/fjT3Zn2IhIk N. Black. Evidence based policy: Proceed with care. British Medical Journal, 323 (2001), pp. 275-279. “Evidence is not static, but rather, is characterised by its emergent and provisional nature, being inevitably incomplete and inconclusive… Evidence may simply describe the state of knowledge at a particular time and place.”
  26. 26. Los “prácticos” tienen un tiempo limitado. Recursos, también. https://unsplash.com/photos/qDY9ahp0Mto Haynes, R. B. (2002). What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?. BMC health services research, 2(1), 3.
  27. 27. Cabe el riesgo de pensar la evidencia como respuesta definitiva a los problemas. https://unsplash.com/photos/GUYCM0jhuSA
  28. 28. La toma de decisiones es más gestión de la incertidumbre que control de las variables. https://unsplash.com/photos/D_5iQVxKkPY Haynes, R. B. (2002). What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?. BMC health services research, 2(1), 3.
  29. 29. https://unsplash.com/photos/xxeAftHHq6E Una aproximación positivista a la “evidencia” elimina el componente cultural y contextual de la investigación. Maya J. Goldenberg, On evidence and evidence-based medicine: Lessons from the philosophy of science, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 62, Issue 11, 2006, pages 2621-2632, ISSN 0277-9536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.11.031.
  30. 30. “Even within the confines of strictly evidence-based practice, empirical evidence undergoes numerous subjective interpretations.” https://unsplash.com/photos/4qIawjLB0aY Maya J. Goldenberg, On evidence and evidence-based medicine: Lessons from the philosophy of science, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 62, Issue 11, 2006, pages 2621-2632, ISSN 0277-9536.
  31. 31. “While we may want to refer to the activities of teachers as interventions (…) we should not think of these interventions as causes but as opportunities for students to respond and, through their response, to learn something from them.” Biesta, G. (2007). Why “what works” won’t work: Evidence- based practice and the democratic deficit in educational research. Educational theory, 57(1), 1-22. https://unsplash.com/photos/C7B-ExXpOIE
  32. 32. “The most important question for educational professionals is therefore not about the effectiveness of their actions but about the potential educational value of what they do, that is, about the educational desirability of the opportunities for learning that follow from their actions.” Biesta, G. (2007). Why “what works” won’t work: Evidence-based practice and the democratic deficit in educational research. Educational theory, 57(1), 1-22. https://unsplash.com/photos/WjIB-6UxA5Q
  33. 33. Otra visión de la MbE: “A more pragmatic definition is a set of tools and resources for finding and applying current best evidence from research for the care of individual patients.” Haynes, R. B. (2002). What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?. BMC health services research, 2(1), 3. https://unsplash.com/photos/-nIrhwOCRY8
  34. 34. http://www.shutterstock.com/es/pic-320971742/stock-photo-success-creative-concept-pencil-ladder-with-copy-space.html Logros de la MbE Creación de estructuras nacionales e internacionales de formación y acceso al conocimiento Establecimiento de estándares de publicación para investigación primaria y secundaria Una estructura colaborativa para recoger y sintetizar los resultados de ensayos clínicos (Cochrane Collaboration) Greenhalgh Trisha, Howick Jeremy, Maskrey Neal. Evidence based medicine: a movement in crisis? BMJ 2014; 348 :g3725
  35. 35. Retos de la Educación basada en Evidencias y propuestas para el debate
  36. 36. La clave es la construcción comunitaria y personal de conocimiento a partir de la información científica disponible ante los problemas concretos a los que se enfrentan los profesionales de la Educación. https://unsplash.com/photos/IQAHnPOYZOw
  37. 37. Los profesionales de la Educación como lectores y como investigadores: el “práctico reflexivo”. https://unsplash.com/photos/TFxGbCTDUHM
  38. 38. La identidad profesional de los educadores como agentes de conocimiento o como “replicantes” de conocimiento. https://unsplash.com/photos/fbgFbOTOWz4
  39. 39. La “identidad pública (digital)” de los profesionales de la educación como “científicos” y “divulgadores” https://unsplash.com/photos/wn-KYaHwcis
  40. 40. El acceso universal a publicaciones científicas por parte de los profesionales de la Educación http://www.shutterstock.com/es/pic-312295037/stock-photo-teenagers-young-team-together-cheerful-concept.html
  41. 41. El acceso a recursos para la investigación por parte de profesionales de la Educación Steven Mintz. 2017. Reimagining the Academic Experience. Inside Higher Ed. Disponible en https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/higher-ed-gamma/reimagining-academic-experience https://unsplash.com/photos/Wj1D-qiOseE
  42. 42. El diseño educativo como experimento - y la toma de datos para la investigación. https://unsplash.com/photos/mRMQwK513hY
  43. 43. La publicación científica como mérito y factor identitario en la carrera profesional de educadores y educadoras https://unsplash.com/photos/u3ajSXhZM_U
  44. 44. La formación del profesorado para la investigación https://unsplash.com/photos/jfkD2buRaxA
  45. 45. La necesidad de estructuras (y tiempos) para la colaboración en investigación https://unsplash.com/photos/D9kOnC_1AHw
  46. 46. Estrategia nacional y regional de promoción de la investigación educativa http://www.shutterstock.com/es/pic-211638187/stock-photo-beautiful-smiling-girl-against-chalkboard-school-concept.html
  47. 47. “Los problemas del mundo —y en particular los relativos a la educación— son intrínsecamente complejos e interdependientes y no admiten soluciones simplistas.” Ferran Ruiz Tarragó, “Tiempos postnormales”, En https://notasdeopinion.com/2018/03/20/tiempos-postnormales/ https://unsplash.com/photos/9XTyIiFceKM
  48. 48. Gracias https://unsplash.com/photos/ka7REB1AJl4 Una ponencia de Fernando Trujillo Sáez http://fernandotrujillo.es http://twitter.com/ftsaez http://conocimientoabierto.ugr.es http://conecta13.com

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