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Digital Entreprelearning: challenges for the 21st century school


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Ponencia presentada en Bruselas dentro de la jornada "Educating for the 21 century: boosting digital skills and entrepreneurial thinking", organizada por i-Linc (

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Digital Entreprelearning: challenges for the 21st century school

  1. 1. Digital entreprelearning: challenges for the 21st century school Fernando Trujillo Sáez University of Granada
  2. 2.
  3. 3. My digital identity
  4. 4. Let’s invoke the spirit of Charles Dickens
  5. 5. It was the best of times,
  6. 6. it was the worst of times,
  7. 7. it was the age of wisdom,
  8. 8. it was the age of foolishness,
  9. 9. it was the epoch of belief,
  10. 10. it was the epoch of incredulity,
  11. 11. it was the season of Light,
  12. 12. it was the season of Darkness,
  13. 13. it was the spring of hope,
  14. 14. it was the winter of despair,
  15. 15. we had everything before us,
  16. 16. we had nothing before us…
  17. 17. in short, the period was so far like the present period.
  18. 18. We live a time of fuzzy questions and open answers.
  19. 19. We live a time of possibilities
  20. 20. We live a time for critical minds
  21. 21. Is school a reproductive or a creative system?
  22. 22. The “reproductive” school was successful in many respects.
  23. 23. Particularly at creating a workforce of consumers.
  24. 24. But we needn’t reproduce the system
  25. 25. It reproduces itself quite well.
  26. 26. We need to improve the system
  27. 27. Only a creative school can help us hack the system.
  28. 28. So, let’s hack the school to hack the system!
  29. 29. Step 1: awareness & agency
  30. 30. The problem of learning today is not scarcity of data.
  31. 31. “Our own neurological limits, which lead us to forgetfulness and oversights, will be supplemented by information systems designed to support our needs. Two such examples are memory prosthetics - calendar reminders and to-do lists - and social prosthetics, which instantly connect you with your friend who has relevant expertise in whatever task you are facing.” Eric Schmidt y Jared Cohen. 2014. The New Digital Age. Londres: John Murray, pg. 16.
  32. 32. Learning is understanding.
  33. 33. Awareness implies critical literacy and connections.
  34. 34. But awareness without agency leads to frustration, or worse.
  35. 35. Agency is the capacity to face a challenge and take action.
  36. 36. Agency is an exercise of responsibility and compromise.
  37. 37. “Entrepreneurship is when you act upon opportunities and ideas and transform them into value for others. The value that is created can be financial, cultural, or social." EntreComp: The Entrepreneurship Competence Framework
  38. 38. “An «entrepreneurial perspective» can be developed in individuals. This perspective can be exhibited inside or outside an organization, in profit or in not-for- profit enterprises, and in business or nonbusiness activities for the purpose of bringing forth creative ideas.” Donald F. Kuratko. 2005. “The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Education: Development, Trends, and Challenges”. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29 (5), pp. 577-97.
  39. 39. “The numbers are stark.  Entrepreneurship classes and programs in colleges around the U.S. have quadrupled in the past 25 years.  Meanwhile rates of private business ownership for households under 30 have declined over 60% during the same period. So, the more we teach entrepreneurship, the fewer young people actually start businesses.” Andrew Yang, “Why Entrepreneurship Education Does Not Work”, Forbes, February 2016.
  40. 40. There may be structural and cultural problems but…
  41. 41. “Part of the reason that efforts in entrepreneurship education have failed can be attributed to a reliance on pedagogical techniques that are not suited to today’s students.” John A. Dobson, Elizabeth Jacobs and Lisa Dobson. 2017. “Toward an Experiential Approach to Entrepreneurship Education”, Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Vol. 17 (3), 57-69.
  42. 42. The question is how «entreprelearning» can be put into practice effectively.
  43. 43. “Rather than focusing on learning about entrepreneurship, the experiential methodology requires that students practice entrepreneurship as part of class assignments. Students are required to come up with their own ideas, and then attempt to transform them into entrepreneurial opportunities.” John A. Dobson, Elizabeth Jacobs and Lisa Dobson. 2017. “Toward an Experiential Approach to Entrepreneurship Education”, Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, Vol. 17 (3), 57-69.
  44. 44. Socio-digital PBL Step 2
  45. 45. “Why should we be sitting kids down in rows to learn Maths in the abstract when it is both more engaging and effective to learn it in the real world or through meaningful social activity?” Mizuko Ito, 2016. “Learning and Literacy”. En Henry Jenkins, Mizuko Ito y danah boyd, Participatory Culture in a Networked Era. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  46. 46. “In settings of learning, a whole game is generally some kind of inquiry or performance in a broad sense. David Perkins. 2009. Making Learning Whole. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pg. 30 It involves problem solving, explanation, argument, evidence, strategy, skill, craft. Often something gets created - a solution, an image, a story, an essay, a model.”
  47. 47. Project Tasks Final Product David Perkins. 2009. Making Learning Whole. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pg. 30
  48. 48. Technologically-oriented and socially-grounded PBL is an effective and appealing way of promoting awareness and agency.
  49. 49. START Presentation Motivation INDUCEMENT Question Problem ChallengeSEARCH FOR INFORMATION Inside: Learners’ previous knowledge Outside (I): People Outside (II): Primary and Secondary Sources INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Filtering information Critical reading Synthesis PRODUCTION Solving the question/problem/challenge Creation of the final product DISSEMINATION Inside & outside the learning space D Y N A M I C A S S E S S M E N T
  50. 50. MOTIVATION/INDUCEMENT AND FINAL PRODUCT THE PBL CANVAS Which competences does the project promote? KEY COMPETENCES Which elements of the curriculum is the project related to? RELATION TO THE CURRICULUM Which assessment strategies and tools will the project include? When will they be used? ASSESSMENT Which question/challenge/problem moves us to act and learn? Which final product will be created? Which tasks will be performed to achieve the final product and solve the question/challenge/problem? TASKS Which people must get involved in the project? Which material resources are required for the project? RESOURCES Which ICT tools or services are required for the project? ICT TOOLS/SERVICES The PBL Canvas is a brainstorming template published by under a Creative Commons license (Original design: Miguel Ariza @maarizaperez y Antonio Herreros @aherrerosvega) Available at How can we make our project known inside and outside our school? How will you group the students? How will you organize the space? DISSEMINATIONGROUPING
  51. 51. “Thinking and learning always develop in a sociocultural context. We may think of problem solving as very much “in the head”, but usually it gets considerable support from interpersonal interactions (conversation, mentoring, critiquing), group enterprises (teamwork, professional organizations, projects) and cultural artifacts (language, computers, writing, desks, books).” David Perkins, 2009. Making learning whole. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, pg. 172.
  52. 52. Digital Artifacts
  53. 53. Iconos: ebooks presentations mind maps wiki augmented reality video animations digital music robots podcast Digital Artifacts
  54. 54. Digital Artifacts Iconos: screencasts digital posters timelines digital photography geotagging infography statistics and reports cartoons app design
  55. 55. Step 3: Design-Think the Challenge
  56. 56. Facing a twisted (social) challenge
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Content curation and critical literacy
  59. 59.
  60. 60. Prototype culture
  61. 61. Design Principles Trust your group Trust the process Trust the community Share your prototype 1. draw/write; 2. speak Time is a limited resource. Divergence <> convergence Try & Test1. map; 2. prototype Mapping implies research and imagination Prototyping implies design and testing cycles Remain open at divergence. Remain positive at convergence Share your ideas. Try your ideas and draw conclusions.
  62. 62. Projects as memorable experiences
  63. 63. Teachers as designers of learning situations
  64. 64.  “I believe that education is a process of living and not a preparation for future living.” John Dewey http:// dewey.pragmatism .org/creed.htm
  65. 65.
  66. 66. fernando trujillo @ftsaez