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The Ways We Were By Farid Toloui September 25 th , 2011 History- 4
The Globalization of Agriculture <ul><li>A.  Agriculture spread in two ways:
1.  diffusion: gradual spread of techniques and perhaps plants and animals,but without much movement of human population
2.  colonization or migration of agricultural peoples
B.  Triumph and Resistance
1.  language and culture spread with agriculture
a.  Indo-European languages probably started in Turkey, are spoken today from Europe to India
2.  the globalization of agriculture took about 10,000 years
a.  did not spread beyond its core region in New Guinea
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Assignment 4 - Mid-term Report and Power Point

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Assignment 4 - Mid-term Report and Power Point

  1. 1. The Ways We Were By Farid Toloui September 25 th , 2011 History- 4
  2. 2. The Globalization of Agriculture <ul><li>A. Agriculture spread in two ways:
  3. 3. 1. diffusion: gradual spread of techniques and perhaps plants and animals,but without much movement of human population
  4. 4. 2. colonization or migration of agricultural peoples
  5. 5. B. Triumph and Resistance
  6. 6. 1. language and culture spread with agriculture
  7. 7. a. Indo-European languages probably started in Turkey, are spoken today from Europe to India
  8. 8. 2. the globalization of agriculture took about 10,000 years
  9. 9. a. did not spread beyond its core region in New Guinea
  10. 10. b. did not spread in a number of other regions </li></ul>3 . by the beginning of the Common Era, gathering and hunting peoples were a small minority of humankind a. expansion of agriculture destroyed gathering and hunting societie s
  11. 11. A change in population <ul><li>C. The Culture of Agriculture
  12. 12. 1. agriculture led to much greater populations </li></ul>2. changes in world population a. 10,000 years ago: around 6 million people b. 5,000 years ago: around 50 million people c. beginning of Common Era: around 250 million people 3. farming did not necessarily improve life for ordinary people a. meant much more hard work b. health deteriorated in early agricultural societies c. new diseases from interaction with animals d. the first epidemics, thanks to larger communities e. new vulnerability to famine, because of dependence on a small number of plants or animals secondary products revolution” started ca. 4000 b.c.e.: a new set of technological changes a. new uses for domesticated animals, including milking, riding, hitching them to plows and carts
  13. 13. Emergence of Civilizations <ul><li>Introducing the First Civilizations
  14. 14. 1. one of the earliest civilizations emerged in Sumer (in southern Mesopotamia) between 3500 and 3000 b.c.e.
  15. 15. a. first written language
  16. 16. b. appearance of Egyptian civilization in Nile River Valley (northeast Africa) and smaller Nubian civilization to its south at about the same time
  17. 17. 2. Norte Chico (central coastal Peru), emerged between 3000 and 1800 b.c.e.
  18. 18. a. twenty-five urban centers
  19. 19. b. Norte Chico differed in several ways from Mesopotamia and Egypt:
  20. 20. i. smaller cities without walls or signs of pervasive warfare
  21. 21. ii. less evidence of economic specialization </li></ul>
  22. 22. Six major civilizations <ul><li>Indus Valley civilization in Indus and Saraswati river valleys of present-day Pakistan arose between 3000 and 2000 b.c.e. </li></ul>around 2200 b.c.e., a First Civilization took shape in China a. from the start, China was defined by the ideal of a centralized state b. the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties enlarged the Chinese stat the Olmec produced a First Civilization much later (around 1200 b.c.e.) on coast of Gulf of Mexico, near present-day Veracruz a. cities arose from competing chiefdoms and produced elaborate ceremonial centers b. created the first written language in the Americas by about 900 b.c.e . 6. o ther smaller civilizations also flourished a. Nubian civilization south of Egypt was distinctive and independent
  23. 23. A question of origin <ul><li>The Question of Origins
  24. 24. 1. First Civilizations had their roots in the Agricultural Revolution
  25. 25. 2. First Civilizations tended to develop from earlier, competing chiefdom’s that already had some social rank and economic specialization
  26. 26. 3. process was gradual and evolutionary
  27. 27. 4. why did some chiefdom’s develop into civilizations and others did not? Robert Carneiro’s argument: population density created competition, especially when agricultural land was limited
  28. 28. all First Civilizations relied on highly productive agriculture D. An Urban Revolution
  29. 29. 1. cities were one of the most distinctive features of First Civilizations
  30. 30. 2. the scale, layout, and specialized industries of cities would have impressed visitors from villages
  31. 31. 3. cities lay at the heart of all First Civilizations because they were:
  32. 32. a. political/administrative capitals
  33. 33. b. centers of cultural production—art, architecture, literature, ritual, and ceremony
  34. 34. c. places of local and long-distance exchange </li></ul>
  35. 35. Are we Rome? <ul><li>A. The 2007 book Are We Rome? asked if the United States has become the newRoman Empire.
  36. 36. 1. collapse of the Soviet Union
  37. 37. 2. overextension of the United States
  38. 38. 3. sense of unique, global mission
  39. 39. 4. commitment to military dominance
  40. 40. 5. reminder of continuing relevance of a long-dead empire
  41. 41. B. Modern fascination with empires
  42. 42. 1. earliest empires developed in era of First Civilizations
  43. 43. a. Akkadian Empire
  44. 44. b. Babylonian Empire
  45. 45. c. Assyrian Empire
  46. 46. 2. empires have been central to world history for 4,000 years </li></ul>
  47. 47. What is an empire? <ul><li>1. simple answer: empires are political systems with coercive power
  48. 48. 2. more typical: larger, more aggressive states
  49. 49. a. conquer other states
  50. 50. b. use their resources
  51. 51. c. usually include multiple peoples and cultures under a single political system
  52. 52. 3. no clear line between empires and small multiethnic states
  53. 53. a. can have a common culture without a unified political system
  54. 54. D. Eurasian empires of the classical era include:
  55. 55. 1. Persian Empire
  56. 56. 2. Greek empire of Alexander the Great
  57. 57. 3. Roman Empire
  58. 58. 4. Chinese empire (Qin and Han dynasties)
  59. 59. 5. India (Mauryan and Gupta empires) </li></ul>
  60. 60. Collapse of all empires? <ul><li>Common problems of classical empires:
  61. 61. 1. Would they try to impose their culture on varied subjects?
  62. 62. 2. Would they rule conquered peoples directly or through local elites?
  63. 63. 3. How should they extract wealth while maintaining order?
  64. 64. 4. all eventually collapsed Why have empires always been so fascinating?
  65. 65. 1. size was imposing
  66. 66. 2. blood and violence of conquest
  67. 67. 3. satisfaction in witnessing the fall of the mighty when they collapse
  68. 68. 4. contrast to nonimperial civilizations
  69. 69. 5. empires were important
  70. 70. a. majority of humans before twentieth century lived in empires
  71. 71. b. stimulated exchange of ideas, cultures, and values </li></ul>

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