Ch12 wrd12e instructor_final

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Ch12 wrd12e instructor_final

  1. 1. e rm -T ng nds Lo Bo s es: ote iti b i l nd N Lia a 12 ter ap Ch c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Compute the potential impact of long-term borrowing on earnings per share. Describe the characteristics and terminology of bonds payable. Journalize entries for bonds payable. Describe and illustrate the accounting for installment notes. Describe and illustrate the reporting of long-term liabilities including bonds and notes payable. Describe and illustrate how the number of times interest charges are earned is used to evaluate a company’s financial condition.
  3. 3. Lear ning Obje ctive Co m pute lon th g-ter e m bo potentia rrow l ing o impact o n ea r ning f s per s hare . 1 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  4. 4. Financing Corporations o Corporations finance their operations using the following sources:  Short-term debt, such as purchasing goods or services on account.  Long-term debt, such as issuing bonds or notes payable.  Equity, such as issuing common or preferred stock. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  5. 5. Financing Corporations o A bond is a form of an interest-bearing note. Like a note, a bond requires periodic interest payments, and the face amount must be repaid at the maturity date. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  6. 6. Financing Corporations Huckadee Corporation is considering the following plans to issue debt and equity: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  7. 7. Financing Corporations o In deciding among financing plans, the effect on earnings per share is often considered. o Earnings per share (EPS) measures the income earned by each share of common stock. It is computed as follows: Net Income - Preferred Dividends Earnings per Share = Number of Common Shares Outstanding c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  8. 8. Financing Corporations o Assume the following data for Huckadee Corporation:  Earnings before interest and income taxes are $800,000.  The tax rate is 40%.  All bonds or stocks are issued at their par or face amount. The effect of the preceding financing The effect of the preceding financing plans is shown in Exhibit 1 (next slide). plans is shown in Exhibit 1 (next slide). c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  9. 9. FINANCING CORPORATIONS Highest EPS
  10. 10. FINANCING CORPORATIONS Highest EPS
  11. 11. Lear ning Obje ctive De s c ribe the c term h arac inolo teris gy o tics a f bon n ds p ayab d le. 2 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  12. 12. Bond Characteristics and Terminology o The underlying contract between the company issuing bonds and the bondholders is called a bond indenture. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  13. 13. Bond Characteristics and Terminology o Usually, the face amount of each bond, called the principal, is $1,000, or a multiple of $1,000. Interest on bonds may be payable annually, semiannually, or quarterly. Most pay interest semiannually. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  14. 14. Bond Characteristics and Terminology o When all bonds of an issue mature at the same time, they are called term bonds. o If they mature over several dates, they are called serial bonds. o Bonds that may be exchanged for other securities are called convertible bonds. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  15. 15. Bond Characteristics and Terminology o Bonds that a corporation reserves the right to redeem before their maturity are called callable bonds. o Bonds issued on the basis of the general credit of the corporation are called debenture bonds. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  16. 16. Proceeds from Issuing Bonds o When a corporation issues bonds, the proceeds received for the bonds depend on:  The face amount of the bonds, which is the amount due at the maturity date.  The interest rate on the bonds.  The market rate of interest for similar bonds. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  17. 17. Proceeds from Issuing Bonds o The face amount and the interest rate on the bonds are identified in the bond indenture. o The interest rate to be paid on the face amount of the bond is called the contract rate or coupon rate. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  18. 18. Proceeds from Issuing Bonds o The market rate of interest, or effective rate of interest, is determined by transactions between buyers and sellers of similar bonds. o The market rate of interest is affected by a variety of factors, including investors’ expectations of current and future economic conditions. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  19. 19. PROCEEDS FROM ISSUING BONDS
  20. 20. PROCEEDS FROM ISSUING BONDS
  21. 21. PROCEEDS FROM ISSUING BONDS
  22. 22. Proceeds from Issuing Bonds o Summary  If the market rate equals the contract rate, bonds will sell at the face amount.  If the selling price of the bonds is less than the face amount, the bonds are selling at a discount.  If the selling price of the bonds is more than the face amount, the bonds are selling at a premium. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  23. 23. Proceeds from Issuing Bonds o The price of a bond is quoted as a percentage of the bond’s face value.  A $1,000 bond quoted at 98 could be purchased or sold for $980 ($1,000 x 0.98).  A $1,000 bond quoted at 109 could be purchased or sold for $1,090 ($1,000 x 1.09). c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  24. 24. Lear ning Obje ctive Journ alize e entri es f o r b on paya ds ble. 3 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  25. 25. Bonds Issued at Face Amount o On January 1, 2013, Eastern Montana Communications Inc. issued the following bonds: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  26. 26. Bonds Issued at Face Amount o Since the contract rate of interest and the market rate of interest are the same, the bonds will sell at their face amount. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  27. 27. Bonds Issued at Face Amount o Every six months (on June 30 and December 31) after the bonds are issued, interest of $6,000 ($100,000 × 0.12 × 6/12) is paid. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  28. 28. Bonds Issued at Face Amount o The bond matures on December 31, 2017. At this time, the corporation pays the face amount to the bondholders. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  29. 29. Bonds Issued at a Discount o On January 1, 2013, Western Wyoming Distribution Inc. issued $100,000, 12%, fiveyear bonds when the market rate was 13%. (Interest will be paid semiannually on June 30 and December 31.) Reminder: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  30. 30. Bonds Issued at a Discount The firm issued the $100,000 bonds for $96,406 (a discount of $3,594). The discount may be viewed as the amount required by investors to accept a bond rate of interest below the market rate. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  31. 31. Amortizing a Bond Discount o The two methods of computing the amortization of a bond discount are:  Straight-line method  Effective interest rate method, sometimes called the interest method o Both methods amortize the same total amount of discount over the life of the bonds. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  32. 32. Amortizing a Bond Discount o The effective interest rate method is required by generally accepted accounting principles. o However, the straight-line method may be used if the results do not differ significantly from the interest method. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  33. 33. Amortizing a Bond Discount o On June 30, 2013, Western Wyoming Distribution Inc. pays six-months’ interest on the five-year bond issued earlier, and the bond discount is amortized ($3,594 × 1/10). The interest payment and amortization entries can be combined as follows: *$100,000 × 12% × 6/12 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  34. 34. Bonds Issued at a Premium o On January 1, 2013, Northern Idaho Transportation Inc. issued $100,000, 12%, fiveyear bonds for $103,769. The market rate of interest is 11%. Reminder: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  35. 35. Amortizing a Bond Premium o The entry to record the first interest payment and the amortization of the premium on the $100,000, 12%, five-year bonds issued on January 1, 2013, is made on June 30, 2013. The combined entry is as follows: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  36. 36. Bond Redemption o A corporation may call, or redeem, bonds before they mature. Callable bonds can be redeemed by the issuing corporation within the period of time and at the price stated in the bond indenture. Normally, the call price is above the face value. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  37. 37. Bond Redemption o The carrying amount of bonds payable is the face amount of the bonds less any unamortized discount or plus any unamortized premium. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  38. 38. Bond Redemption o A gain or loss may be realized on a bond redemption as follows:  A gain is recorded if the price paid for the redemption is below the bond carrying amount.  A loss is recorded if the price paid for the redemption is above the carrying amount. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  39. 39. Bond Redemption o On June 30, 2013, a corporation has a bond issue of $100,000 outstanding, on which there is an unamortized premium of $4,000. The corporation redeems one-fourth of the bonds for $24,000. Gains on the redemption of bonds are reported in the Other Income section of the income statement. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  40. 40. Bond Redemption o The corporation calls the remaining $75,000 of outstanding bonds, which are held by a private investor, for $79,500 on July 1, 2013. Losses on the redemption of bonds are reported in the Other Loss section of the income statement. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  41. 41. Lear ning Obje ctive acco Describ e u nting a nd illust for in stallm rate th e ent n o t es . 4 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  42. 42. Installment Notes o An installment note is a debt that requires the borrower to make equal periodic payments to the lender for the term of the note. Unlike bonds, a note payment includes the following:  Payment of a portion of the amount initially borrowed, called the principal  Payment of interest on the outstanding balance c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  43. 43. Installment Notes o Installment notes are often used to purchase specific assets, such as equipment, and are often secured by the purchased asset. o When a note is secured by an asset, it is called a mortgage note. o If the borrower fails to pay a mortgage note, the lender has the right to take possession of the pledged asset. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  44. 44. Issuing an Installment Note o Lewis Company issues a $24,000, 6%, five-year note to City National Bank on January 1, 2013. The annual payment is $5,698. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  45. 45. ANNUAL PAYMENTS $24,000 x 0.06
  46. 46. ANNUAL PAYMENTS $5,698 – $1,440
  47. 47. ANNUAL PAYMENTS $24,000 – $4,258
  48. 48. Annual Payments o The entry to record the first payment on December 31, 2013, is as follows: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  49. 49. Annual Payments o The entry to record the second payment on December 31, 2014, is as follows: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  50. 50. Annual Payments o The entry to record the final payment on December 31, 2017, is as follows: o After the entry is posted, the balance in Notes Payable related to this note is zero. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  51. 51. Lear ning Obje ctive repo Describe r t i ng a inclu of lo nd illust ding rate bond ng-ter t he m lia s and biliti note es s pay able . 5 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  52. 52. REPORTING LONG-TERM LIABILITIES
  53. 53. Lear ning Obje ctive De s c num ribe an b er d il are e of time llustrat ar ne s inte e how d com pany is used rest char the t g ’s fin anciao evaluat es ea l con ditio n. 6 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  54. 54. Number of Times Interest Charges are Earned o Analysts assess the risk that bondholders will not receive their interest payments by computing the number of times interest charges are earned during the year as follows: Number of Times Interest Charges are = Earned Income Before Income Tax + Interest Expense Interest Expense c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  55. 55. 1:d dicx ts anle enCon ePayab p alue ds p Ap V n n sent V ing Bo Pre Pric c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  56. 56. Present Value Concept/Pricing Bonds Payable o When a corporation issues bonds, the price that investors are willing to pay for the bonds depends on the following:  The face amount of the bonds, which is the amount due at the maturity date.  The periodic interest to be paid on the bonds.  The market rate of interest. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  57. 57. Present Value Concept o The time value of money concept recognizes that an amount of cash received today is worth more than the same amount of cash to be received in the future. o Present value is the current worth of a future sum of money or stream of cash flows given a specified rate of return. o The amount to be received in the future if you make a deposit now is the future value. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  58. 58. Present Value of an Amount o A $1,000, 10% bond is purchased. It pays interest annually and will mature in one year. Present value of $1,000 Present value of $1,000 to be received one to be received one year from today year from today Today $1,000 10% payable annually One Year from TODAY c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  59. 59. PRESENT VALUE OF AN AMOUNT
  60. 60. Present Value of an Amount $1,000 X .90909 = $909.09 Present value of $1,000 Present value of $1,000 to be received one to be received one year from today year from today $1,000 10% payable annually Today $909.09 One Year from TODAY
  61. 61. Present Value of an Amount o A $1,000, 10% bond is purchased. It pays interest annually and will mature in two years. Present value of $1,000 Present value of $1,000 to be received two to be received two years from today years from today Today $1,000 10% payable annually End of Year 1 End of Year 2 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  62. 62. PRESENT VALUE OF AN AMOUNT
  63. 63. Present Value of an Amount $1,000 X .82645 = $826.45 Present value of $1,000 Present value of $1,000 to be received two to be received two years from today years from today Today $826.45 $1,000 10% payable annually End of Year 1 End of Year 2
  64. 64. Present Value of the Periodic Receipts o A series of equal cash receipts spaced equally in time is called an annuity. o The present value of an annuity is the sum of the present values of each cash receipt. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  65. 65. Present Value of the Periodic Receipts o Assume that $100 is to be received annually for two years and that the market rate of interest is 10%. o The next slide illustrates that the present value of the amount ($100) at 10% for one year and the present value of the amount ($100) at 10% for two years is summed to arrive at the present value of the annuity. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  66. 66. Present Value of the Periodic Receipts $100 Interest payment Today $90.91 $82.64 $173.55 $100 Interest payment End of Year 1 $100 × 0.90909 $100 × 0.82645 Present value, at 10%, of $100 interest payments to be received each year for 2 years (rounded) End of Year 2
  67. 67. Present Value of the Periodic Receipts o When the present value of an annuity (a series of equal cash receipts at fixed intervals) is involved, the present value of an annuity of $1 at compound interest (Exhibit 5) can be used. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  68. 68. PRESENT VALUE OF THE PERIODIC RECEIPTS $100 x 1.73554 = $173.55 The same amount as derived earlier
  69. 69. Pricing Bonds o Southern Utah Communications Inc. issued $100,000, 12%, five-year bonds on January 1, 2013. The bonds pay interest semiannually on June 30 and December 31. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  70. 70. Market Rate of Interest at 12% o Present value of face amount of $100,000 due in 5 years = $ ? 6% used because the bonds are semiannual c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  71. 71. Market Rate of Interest at 12% o Present value of face amount of $100,000 due in 5 years = $ ? 10 semiannual periods in 5 years c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  72. 72. Market Rate of Interest at 12% o Present value of face amount of $100,000 due in 5 years ($100,000 × 0.55840) = $55,840. o This amount gives us one part of the total present value of the bonds. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  73. 73. Market Rate of Interest at 12% o Next, we need to determine the present value of 10 semiannual interest payments of $6,000 at 12% compounded semiannually. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  74. 74. Market Rate of Interest at 12% o Present value of 10 semiannual interest payments of $6,000 at 12% compounded semiannually ($6,000 x 7.36009) = $ 44,160 c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  75. 75. Market Rate of Interest at 12% Present value of face amount of $100,000 due in 5 years ($100,000 × 0.55840) = Present value of 10 semiannual interest payments of $6,000 at 12% compounded semiannually ($6,000 × 7.36009) = Total present value of bonds When the face interest rate is the When the face interest rate is the same as the market rate of interest, same as the market rate of interest, the total present value of the bonds the total present value of the bonds will equal the total face value. will equal the total face value. $ 55,840 44,160 $100,000
  76. 76. Market Rate of Interest at 11% o Present value of face amount of $100,000 due in 5 years ($100,000 × 0.58543) = $58,543. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  77. 77. Market Rate of Interest at 11% Present value of face amount of $100,000 due in 5 years ($100,000 × 0.58543) = Present value of 10 semiannual interest payments of $6,000 at 11% compounded semiannually ($6,000 × 7.53763) = $ 58,543 45,226
  78. 78. Market Rate of Interest at 11% Present value of face amount of $100,000 due in 5 years ($100,000 × 0.58543) = $ 58,543 Present value of 10 semiannual interest payments of $6,000 at 11% compounded semiannually ($6,000 × 7.53763) = Total present value of bonds 45,226 $103,769
  79. 79. 2: dixt Rate enInteres ation pp ive rtiz A ffect of Amo E thod Me c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  80. 80. Effective Interest Rate Method o The effective interest rate method of amortization, sometimes called the interest method, provides for a constant rate of interest over the life of the bonds. c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  81. 81. AMORTIZATION OF DISCOUNT
  82. 82. Amortization of Discount o The entry to record the first interest payment on June 30, 2013, and the related discount amortization is as follows: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  83. 83. AMORTIZATION OF PREMIUM
  84. 84. Amortization of Premium o The entry to record the first interest payment on June 30, 2013, and the related premium amortization is as follows: c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  85. 85. e rm -T ng nds Lo Bo s es: ote iti b i l nd N Lia a nd eE Th c. 2014 Cengage Learning.   All Rights Reserved.  May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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