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Build a Balanced Speech <ul><li>Introduction-10% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain audience attention via an exampl...
Build a Balanced Speech (continued) <ul><li>Body-80% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 3-5 main points </li></ul></u...
Employ Frequent Transitions <ul><li>Transitions help adult learners know what to expect </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions link...
Examples of Transitions <ul><li>“Now that we have reviewed the problem of homelessness, let’s examine three main causes…” ...
Employ Humor With Care <ul><li>Where humor is concerned, there are no standards - no one can say what is good or bad, alth...
Use Varied and Multiple Types of Evidence and Support <ul><li>Examples  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivid success stories or bri...
There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies and  statistics . Benjamin Disraeli
Statistics  always remind me of the fellow who drowned in a river whose average depth was three feet. Woody Hayes Coach, O...
Always provide people with a context to help them understand. Richard E. Moran
A talk is a voyage with a purpose, and it must be charted. The man who starts out going nowhere, generally gets there. Dal...
Strategically Choose Your Organizational Pattern(s) <ul><li>Chronological (in order of occurrence, as in a historical pers...
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create interest in the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence  (continued) <ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbally depict the world as it will ...
Delivery Tips <ul><li>A speaker is always “on stage”  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are “on” from moment they are announced, ...
(Sometimes, “less” is “more”) Talk low, talk slow and don’t say too much. John Wayne
The right word may be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed pause. Mark Twain
To Minimize Anxiety <ul><li>Convert anxiety to presentational energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize that mild arousal is ...
Practice the Presentation <ul><li>Rehearse  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your emotional state  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transit...
Become Familiar With the Room <ul><li>Messages are perceived better in an attractive room </li></ul><ul><li>Check-out the ...
Always Have A Back-Up Plan <ul><li>What if the AV fails? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a lo-tech back-up </li></ul></ul><ul><...
FAQ’s <ul><li>What if I make a mistake? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that most speakers make them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
FAQ’s <ul><li>How can I slow down? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pause between sections. Stop at the end of sentences. Underline k...
FAQ’s <ul><li>What about eye contact? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t bob your head up and down  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do...
FAQ’s <ul><li>What do I do with my hands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t play with your hair, clothes, objects or jingle mone...
Audience Q&As <ul><li>Anticipate potential questions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft answers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listen to...
I’m glad this question came up, in a way, because there are so many ways to answer it that one if them is bound to be righ...
In Closing <ul><li>Speaking in public represents an opportunity to enhance knowledge, change attitudes, and promote action...
Source: Cohn, E. Public Speaking, University of Pittsburgh Center for Instructional Development & Distance Education, Fift...
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香港六合彩 » SlideShare

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也不知道为了什么事,不过,现在风言风语很多,都是对你不利的。你在黑道打打闹闹,特别最近,和什么洪门闹得天翻地覆,不可开交,中央已经难以容忍,而在这时候,你又将魂组的总部炸了,对于中央来说,这是一件好事,但却又不能不考虑到日本那方面的压力,如果因为此事必须要做出一个牺牲的话,你说中央会牺牲你一条命还是会牺牲中日之间的外交关系?

谢文东颔了颔首,凝目看着自己的鞋尖,摇头道:我的命,恐怕还没有那么值钱。

你明白这个道理就好。东方易疲惫的靠在车椅上,仰着头,喃喃道:所以,我说你是不应该来的。

世上没有后悔药。谢文东笑眯眯道:既来之,则安之,更何况,我还没有后悔呢。因为,你是疯子。

要见谢文东的这个香港六合彩,确实是个高官,高到什么程度,'一香港六合彩之下,万香港六合彩之上'来形容香港六合彩,一点不过分。

北京,钓鱼台。园内雄伟的建筑气势磅礴,古香古色,绿草茵茵,古树参天,数万平米的内胡清澈见底,明如镜面。对于谢文东来说,钓鱼台是神秘

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香港六合彩 » SlideShare

  1. 1. Build a Balanced Speech <ul><li>Introduction-10% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain audience attention via an example, quote, statistics or a visual aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State the Central Thesis (the main idea) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish your credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify with the audience and recognize the occasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview the main points, in the same order they will appear in the speech </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Build a Balanced Speech (continued) <ul><li>Body-80% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 3-5 main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give balanced attention to each section </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion-10% of the speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a mirror image of introduction, with a review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer back to the attention-getter in the introduction (e.g., a vivid example) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t introduce new information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End with authority, and always on time </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Employ Frequent Transitions <ul><li>Transitions help adult learners know what to expect </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions link the main parts of the speech, and create a smooth flow </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions can review, and then preview main points </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions can be long or short </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single words, phrases or sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of Transitions <ul><li>“Now that we have reviewed the problem of homelessness, let’s examine three main causes…” </li></ul><ul><li>“The second major problem is…” </li></ul><ul><li>“Next, we will consider..” </li></ul><ul><li>“That brings us to…” </li></ul><ul><li>“The final point…” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Employ Humor With Care <ul><li>Where humor is concerned, there are no standards - no one can say what is good or bad, although you can be sure that everyone will! </li></ul><ul><li>John Kenneth Galbraith </li></ul>
  6. 6. Use Varied and Multiple Types of Evidence and Support <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivid success stories or brief scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual aids or models </li></ul><ul><li>Expert testimony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quotes attributed to an expert enhance the speaker’s credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure to round off and interpret </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies and statistics . Benjamin Disraeli
  8. 8. Statistics always remind me of the fellow who drowned in a river whose average depth was three feet. Woody Hayes Coach, Ohio State Football
  9. 9. Always provide people with a context to help them understand. Richard E. Moran
  10. 10. A talk is a voyage with a purpose, and it must be charted. The man who starts out going nowhere, generally gets there. Dale Carnegie
  11. 11. Strategically Choose Your Organizational Pattern(s) <ul><li>Chronological (in order of occurrence, as in a historical perspective) </li></ul><ul><li>Topical (by subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial (by physical position, as in geographic) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Cause-Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence </li></ul>
  12. 12. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create interest in the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze problem characteristics and relate these to the audience needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose a course of action that eliminates the problem and satisfies audience needs, desires and wants </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (continued) <ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbally depict the world as it will exist if the plan is or is not instituted, and contrast these possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for audience commitment and action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is commonly used in advertising to persuade… </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Delivery Tips <ul><li>A speaker is always “on stage” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are “on” from moment they are announced, to the time they return to their place in the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pause before beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Vary intonation </li></ul><ul><li>A slightly faster pace increases audience comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain good eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Assume a relaxed, open posture, with few self-adaptors/touch </li></ul>
  15. 15. (Sometimes, “less” is “more”) Talk low, talk slow and don’t say too much. John Wayne
  16. 16. The right word may be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed pause. Mark Twain
  17. 17. To Minimize Anxiety <ul><li>Convert anxiety to presentational energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize that mild arousal is normal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seek public speaking opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More speaking experience=less anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Eat and sleep enough </li></ul><ul><li>Deep breathing, activity and relaxation may help </li></ul>
  18. 18. Practice the Presentation <ul><li>Rehearse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your emotional state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions (this is where many speakers experience the most difficulty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction and Conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Become Familiar With the Room <ul><li>Messages are perceived better in an attractive room </li></ul><ul><li>Check-out the sound system and lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with audiovisual (AV) technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for water, pointer, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Always Have A Back-Up Plan <ul><li>What if the AV fails? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a lo-tech back-up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What if your available time is diminished? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate sub-points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t speed rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What if you misplace your speech? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep an extra copy, or quickly construct an outline </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. FAQ’s <ul><li>What if I make a mistake? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that most speakers make them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct it; humor is ok </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move ahead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t apologize profusely or start over </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can I avoid saying “Um?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ speaking transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerate silence </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. FAQ’s <ul><li>How can I slow down? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pause between sections. Stop at the end of sentences. Underline key words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape record your practice sessions and count the words per minute. Then, practice speaking at a deliberately slower rate to gain conscious control over rate. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. FAQ’s <ul><li>What about eye contact? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t bob your head up and down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t fix your gaze at one person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look up at the end of a section, rather than lose your place, or train of thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face the audience, not your slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look more at friendly, supportive people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t favor one side of the room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased eye contact increases audience learning </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. FAQ’s <ul><li>What do I do with my hands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t play with your hair, clothes, objects or jingle money in your pockets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t worry about your gestures--they will emerge naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your hands on or near the podium, or at your sides. Don’t cross your arms, or clasp your hands in front of your body. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Audience Q&As <ul><li>Anticipate potential questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft answers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listen to the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t get defensive and never embarrass an audience member </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain an open and relaxed posture </li></ul><ul><li>Admit to not having an answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“I really can’t speak to that; I will refer that concern to….” </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. I’m glad this question came up, in a way, because there are so many ways to answer it that one if them is bound to be right. Robert Benchley I was gratified to be able to answer promptly. I said, “I don’t know.” Mark Twain
  27. 27. In Closing <ul><li>Speaking in public represents an opportunity to enhance knowledge, change attitudes, and promote action </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly, strive to communicate with your audience and to meet their unique needs </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker has a responsibility to communicate publicly in an informed and ethical manner </li></ul>
  28. 28. Source: Cohn, E. Public Speaking, University of Pittsburgh Center for Instructional Development & Distance Education, Fifth Edition, January 2001.

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