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  1. 1. The Starfish and the Spider:The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations<br />By OriBrafman and Rod A. Beckstrom<br />
  2. 2. Starfish and Spiders?<br />Spiders<br />Hierarchical<br />Clear leaders<br />Departments<br />Titles<br />Communication is difficult<br />Starfish<br />Horizontal Structure<br />Everyone has equal say<br />Can operate sporadically<br />Direct communication<br /><br /><br />
  3. 3. For Example…<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />;content<br /><br /><br />
  4. 4. And to a Lesser Extent…<br /><br /><br /><br />
  5. 5. Examples of Starfish<br />The following examples are explicitly stated in the book<br />Skype<br />Craigslist<br />Apache (web software, and Native Americans)<br />Wikipedia<br /><br />
  6. 6. How is Skype a Starfish?<br />Free program<br />Enabled to talk to others using the program<br />Distributed computing power using p2p<br /><br /><br />
  7. 7. What about Craigslist?<br />Direct interaction between users<br />Craigslist is only a platform to use<br />No history between users, just come and go<br />Originally just an idea between Craig and friends<br /><br />
  8. 8. Apache (web software)<br />Engineers were unhappy with being ignored<br />Contributors developed code and patches<br />These were implemented based on which ones worked the best<br />No formal direction<br /><br />
  9. 9. Apache (Native Americans)<br />Spiritual leaders called Nan’tans<br />Based on previous reputation<br />Nobody was obligated to follow<br /><br />
  10. 10. Alcoholics Anonymous<br />Formed from a previous church program using 6 steps<br />Formation of the circle group aided cohesion<br />Added and expanded to other situations<br /><br />
  11. 11. P2P Technologies<br />Based on sharing<br />Everyone contributes<br />Adds to the value of the network with new members<br />Always under development<br /><br /><br />
  12. 12. Wikipedia<br />The famous and well-known Wikipedia<br />Anyone can contribute<br />Can be applied to almost anything<br /><br />
  13. 13. Major Principles<br />First: When attacked, a decentralized organization tends to become even more open and decentralized<br />Second: It’s easy to mistake starfish for spiders<br />Third: An open system doesn’t have central intelligence; the intelligence is spread throughout the system<br />
  14. 14. Principles (cont.)<br />Fourth: Open systems can easily mutate<br />Fifth: The decentralized organization sneaks up on you<br />Sixth: As industries become decentralized, overall profits decrease<br />Seventh: When attacked, centralized organizations tend to become even more centralized<br />
  15. 15. Ingredients<br />Circles<br />The Catalyst<br />Ideology<br />The Preexisting Network<br />The Champion<br /><br />
  16. 16. Catalysts<br />Most important part of the Starfish<br />Germinate the idea and help to spread it until it can grow on its own<br />Very separate from a CEO<br /><br />
  17. 17. What are Ways to Defeat the Starfish?<br />Change the ideology<br />Make them more centralized<br />Decentralize yourself<br />
  18. 18. Are Starfish Organizations Better?<br />There’s give and take<br />Decrease in profits<br />Give up direction<br />Gain valuable information<br />Able to respond quicker<br />
  19. 19. Hybrid Organizations<br />Centralized company that decentralizes internal parts of the business<br />Jack Welch and GE<br />Centralized company that decentralizes customer experience<br />Google<br />Amazon<br />eBay<br />
  20. 20. How Can We Find a Balance?<br />Story of Toyota and GM<br />Mixing and mingling employees<br />This balance may change over time<br />
  21. 21. Rules to Keep in Mind for the New Age<br />Diseconomies of Scale<br />The Network Effect<br />The Power of Chaos<br />Knowledge at the Edge<br />Everyone Wants to Contribute<br /><br />
  22. 22. Rules (cont.)<br />Beware the Hydra Response<br />Catalysts Rule<br />Values ARE the Organization<br />Measure, Monitor, Manage<br />Flatten or be Flattened<br /><br />
  23. 23. Personal Thoughts on the Book<br />Disappointed there was no mention of Bittorrent, Freenet, Tor, or Linux<br /><br /><br /><br />