The Political Dimension of Language Teaching and the Participatory Approach


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The Political Dimension of Language Teaching and the Participatory Approach

  2. 2. Many people around the world want to learn English because they believe that it will give them a greater chance for having good education and economic advancement. Graddol notes that : “ On the one hand the availability of English as a global language is accelerating globalization. On the other, the globalization is accelerating the use of English. Although learning English benefits the individual who learns it, some people are worry about losing ability in another language , educational inequality and endangered languages.
  3. 3. We know that there are clear differences within and among the variety of English speakers, so whose English should be the language of instruction? The language of native speakers English such as USA? Or the language of those who Kachru calls them “inner circle” such as Australia ? Or maybe the language of “outer circle” countries? You will get the answer!!!
  4. 4. Millions of users of English in the expanding circle learned English as an additional language. They use it primarily to communicate in multilingual context. In other words, English is used as a contact language. This variety has been called English as a lingua franca , English as an international language, global English or ELF . The norms for English as a lingua franca are determined by its users. One example for ELF speakers: they frequently omit the „s‟ on the end of third person singular present tense verbs. . . but it would not be seen as an error because comprehensibility is more important than conformity.
  5. 5. First answer: English belongs to those for whom it is a mother tongue. Second answer: English owned by whoever uses it regularly, for whatever purpose.
  6. 6. Critical discourse analysis is the study of how identity and power relations are constructed in language. Critical discourse analysts observe and comment on how language is linked to social practice that is sometimes conveyed. Look at the headline of an apartheid-era South African newspaper: “Jubilant Blacks Clashed with Police” It would have been possible for this headline to have a different word order. “Police Clashed with Jubilant Blacks” But this would have been assigned responsibility for initiating the confrontation to the Blacks. It means that texts are not ideologically neutral.
  7. 7. It is important for teachers to develop an awareness of political issues around the use of language. Critical Pedagogy is an approach to teaching that aims to create a more egalitarian society by raising awareness of social injustice as a necessary part of the curriculum.
  8. 8. Some educators have explored literacies as a plural rather than singular concept, stressing the fact that participation in literate English culture means more than being able to read it. So students beside the learning to read English, learn the discourse of politics, education or business. In this case teachers may decide to work with students on a sample of language, looking at the authors word choices, grammar structure and other aspects of language use. This activity might increase students ability to make vocabulary and grammar choices.
  9. 9. To keep one language from complete domination, teachers can foster positive attitudes towards all languages. All language learning should be additive not subtractive. It means language learning should enrich the learners language capacity. Many learners of English are plurilingual, which refers to an individuals ability to speak more than one language without sacrificing any language they have acquired. The goal of language teaching should be successful language use and multicompetence, not trying to get students to imitate monolingual native-speaker use.
  10. 10. Many language education programs prefer to hire native speakers, however, in actual fact non-native speakers bring a great number of strengths to language teaching. Besides, if they speak the language of their students, they know the obstacles to acquisition and how to surmount them.
  11. 11. A teacher should be aware of hidden curriculum of a language class- what is being taught and learned that is not explicit.
  12. 12. It begins with meaningful content. Form emerges from content. The content is not about subject matter, but about issues of interest. Freire engaged the students with immediate social problems (unemployment, low income, addiction). The purpose is not just linguistic development, but for taking actions and thinking about the problems. Education is not value free (it is value loaded where feelings are involved) As an example: compare discussing addiction with talking about the use of elevators in carrying things.
  13. 13. 1. what arevthe goals of teacher who use the participatory approach? the teachers'goals areto teach languge that is meaningfulnan to raise the political consciousness of her stuents. teachers want their stuents to be empowered to use the language theyv are learning in order to solve political probles in their lives. 2. what is the roal of the tacher? what is the roal of the stuents? the teacher dialogues with the students in order to identify problems they are having. she then looks for ways to incorporate these problems in to the lessos. these problems become the content she focuses on in language in struction. the stuents are encourage to share the daily concerns of their ives with the teacher and the class.
  14. 14. 3. what are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? the teacher leads the students in a iscussion about their lives. from this discussion, she identifies problems that the class can work on as a whole. she then posesthese problems to the students. students learn how to use language in real-world situations in order to address their problems. knowledge is jointly constructed with the teacher asking questions and the students responding. collaboration aong students is also encouraged. focusing on language form occures within a focus on content relevant to stuents' lives. students are encourage to evaluate their own learning.
  15. 15. 4. what is the nature of student-teacher interaction? what is the nature of studentstudent interaction? the teacher is supportive of her students. she helps them advocate for themselves. she helps the students find solutions to problems while also teaching them the necessary language to understand, discuss and, address these problems. students work supportively with one another. 5. how are the feelings of the students dealt with? the students learn theat their feelings are important and that their study of language is relevant to their lives. the students are invited to express their feelings. they are also empowered by directing and evaluating their own learning.
  16. 16. is the language viewed? how is the culture viewd? language is an instrument of power necessary for active and equal participation in society. language is not a neutral subject. culture relates to stuents' daily experiences. 7.what areas of language are emphasized? what language skills are emphasized? language is used meaningfully, with a focus on form subordinate to communication initially. ultimately, correctness of form is taught an valued so that students can be successful in using language with authorities. literacy is thought to be very important, although no skill is neglected.
  17. 17. 8. what is the role of the students' native language? the students' native language is valued. it should not be lost when students learn a new language. 9. how is evaluation accomplished? as much as possible the students are encouraged to direct and to evaluate their own learning so that it is connecte with their lives. 10. how does the teacher respond to student errors? students are encouraged to self-correct. the teacer also points out student errors and provides feedback on how to correct errors.