HIMPUNAN NASKAH (II-B)SEMINAR-WORKSHOP-FORUM DISKUSI-ORASI ILMIAH-RISET(INTERNASIONAL)Dr. Moedjiono, M.Sc.POGRAM STUDI: MA...
iKATA PENGANTARDengan selalu mengucap puji dan syukur kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa atas rahmat, taufik danhidayah-Nya, penyu...
iiDAFTAR ISIII-B Internasional: Halaman1. “Capacity Building in Internet Governance”, Country Paper in Regional Workshop 1...
iiiLanguage”, Country Presentation in Internet Governance Forum III, Hyderabad,India, 3-6 December 2008.18. “Toward Multil...
1Ministry of Communications and Information TechnologyRepublic of Indonesia“Capacity Building in Internet Governance”Count...
2To realize the concepts of connectivity in building the information society needs the basic ICTpolicy that is difficult e...
3- Total IT market in Indonesia for 2007: will reach US$1.9 billion with a Compound Annual GrowthRate (CAGR) of 10% from 2...
4Policy decisions in this area influence a wide array of the Internet’s practical characteristicsincluding costs for acces...
5j. Discuss, inter alia, issues relating to critical Internet resources.k. Help to find solutions to the issues arising fr...
6on the culture of the country, hotel reservations and local activities. However, the WebPages may notbe reflective of all...
719182021221819202122Domain names with non-Roman character sets (IDN)Access to technical standards and their adaptabilityD...
8Secure Server/EncryptionTechnical StandardsIDNsDNS ManagementIP Address44373735323339234440In general, the survey clearly...
9Another findings, there are a number of specific opportunities that can be identified to fostercultural inclusion in the ...
10[Drake 2005] Drake, William J. (Editor), Reforming Internet Governance: Perspectives from theWorking Group on Internet G...
11Ministry of Communications and Information TechnologyRepublic of Indonesia“Internet Governance in Indonesia”Country Pape...
12To realize the concepts of connectivity in building the Information Society needs the basic ICTpolicy that is difficult ...
13- The prediction of bandwidth consumption, internet users and computer population, based on thestudy by the Palapa Ring ...
14from the benefits of the Information Society and much remains to be done to make new ICTs, inparticular the Internet, wo...
15e. Advise all stakeholders in proposing ways and means to accelerate the availability and affordabilityof the Internet i...
16Finally, the significantly high price for basic communication infrastructure that is critical forIndonesia’s transition ...
17Compared to Asia-Pacific concerns and priorities (ranked by level of dissatisfaction) is as follows.Issue % dissatisfied...
18Indonesia’s progress on the governance of Wi-Fi technologies that could set an encouraging precedencefor the treatment o...
19Internet for business development that aims to serve as a policy making reference, principally, for seniorto middle leve...
20Access may be the single most important issue to most people, in particular in developingcountries. Access is vital to e...
21with information and knowledge that is available on the Internet is a critical objective of an inclusiveInformation Soci...
22- Empowerment and access to ideas and knowledge;- Equal footing principle;Bibliography[Butt 2005] Butt, Danny, Internet ...
23Indonesian Languages Diversity on the InternetHammam Riza1, Moedjiono2, Yoshiki Mikami31: Agency for the Assessment and ...
24For Indonesia, telecommunication companies who profit from the demand for communication andtechnology services have a sp...
25The objectives of this paper are firstly to give an overview for Asian languages on the web, in particularfor Indonesian...
26Indonesia id 1,690 5,742,097 22,100,0000.26 4,250,000 1.35Israel il 18,30930,943,02952,300,0000.59 26,400,0001.17India i...
27Table 2: List of Language/Script/Encoding[1]trained, grouped by language family[Austronesian] [Indo-Iranian] [Dravidian]...
28divided into smaller sub-groups. For example, the Turkic, Mongolian and Tungus language families canbe regrouped into la...
29It can be observed a high degree of “divide” in terms of usage level of languages can beobserved even among Asian langua...
30Punjabi Arabic 25,700,000 14,544 0.02Sindhi Arabic 19,675,000 12,945 0.02Achehnese Latin 3,000,000 11,102 0.02Sinhala Si...
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Himpunan naskah internasional (ii b) - moedjiono
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Himpunan naskah internasional (ii b) - moedjiono

  1. 1. HIMPUNAN NASKAH (II-B)SEMINAR-WORKSHOP-FORUM DISKUSI-ORASI ILMIAH-RISET(INTERNASIONAL)Dr. Moedjiono, M.Sc.POGRAM STUDI: MAGISTER ILMU KOMPUTER (MKOM)PROGRAM PASCASARJANAUNIVERSITAS BUDI LUHURJAKARTA2011
  2. 2. iKATA PENGANTARDengan selalu mengucap puji dan syukur kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa atas rahmat, taufik danhidayah-Nya, penyusun dapat menghimpun naskah-naskah seminar, workshop, forum diskusi, orasiilmiah, dan paper laporan hasil riset, yang pernah disampaikan pada forum-forum internasional baik didalam maupun di luar negeri, mewakili komunitas atau sebagai Delegasi Republik Indonesia, dalamjangka waktu mulai bulan Oktober 2006 sampai dengan Juni 2011, yang diberi judul ”Himpunan Naskah(II-B) Seminar-Workshop-Forum Diskusi-Orasi Ilmiah-Riset (Internasional)”.Buku himpunan naskah ini disusun sebagai bahan untuk berbagi pengalaman dan pengetahuanyang pernah dialami dan disampaikan penghimpun bagi rekan-rekan sejawat, komunitas teknologiinformasi dan komunikasi, para mahasiswa, dan bagi diri sendiri, yang suatu saat mungkin memerlukanbahan atau referensi dalam penugasan terkait, penulisan karya-karya ilmiah, maupun pengetahuanpraktis.Seperti kata pepatah, bahwa tak ada gading yang tak retak, tak ada karya tulis yang sempurna, takada lembaran putih yang tak berbercak, penyusun sangat mengharapkan tanggapan, kritik dan saran-saran penyempurnaan.Semoga buku himpunan naskah ini bermanfaat bagi yang membutuhkan, Amin.Jakarta, 31 Desember 2011Penyusun,Dr. Moedjiono, M.Sc.
  3. 3. iiDAFTAR ISIII-B Internasional: Halaman1. “Capacity Building in Internet Governance”, Country Paper in Regional Workshop 1on Capacity Building in Public Policy Issues of Internet Use for Business Developmentin Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 18-20 October 2006.2. ‘Internet Governance in Indonesia”, Country Paper in Internet Governance Forum I, 11Athens, Greece, 30 October – 2 November 2006.3. “Indonesian Languages Diversity on the Internet”, Country Paper in The Regional 23Consultation on Local Language Computing Policy in Developing Asia, Thimphu,Bhutan, 22-24 January 2007.4. “Multilingualism in Indonesia”, Country Paper in The Regional Consultation on Local 34Language Computing Policy in Developing Asia, Thimphu, Bhutan, 22-24 January 2007.5. “Indonesia Country Report On Local Language Computing Policy Initiatives”, 48Country Presentation in The Regional Consultation on Local Language ComputingPolicy in Developing Asia, Thimphu, Bhutan, 22-24 January 2007.6. “The Development of the Indonesia’s Internet Governance 2007”, Position Paper in 64The Internet Governance Forum II, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 12-15 November 2007.7. “The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Role for the Capacity 72Building and Innovation in the National, Regional, and International Level”, KeynoteSpeech in IT ASIA 2007 CONGRESS, Jakarta, 21-22 November 2007.8. “Community Access Point Blue Print (CAP 2.0): Mapping Out to Fill the Gap on e-Literacy, 75e-Skill to attain e-Learning for Community Members”, Indonesia Country Report –APECTEL, Tokyo, 15 January 2008.9. “The Broadband Policy & Regulation in Indonesia”, iBurst International Forum 2008, 101Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 19-20 March 2008.10. “Cyber Law Grand Design in Indonesia”, Workshop on Cyber Law Design and 113Principal”, Hongkong, 7-12 April 2008.11. “ICT Development for National Competitiveness and Bridging the Digital Divide in 129Indonesia”, Country Paper in IPPSO Seminar: E-Government Development forNational Competitiveness, Seoul and Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 19-28 October 2008.12. “The Government ICT Strategies in Supporting Indonesia Higher Learning Capacity 141Building”, Country Presentation in SEAAIR Conference, Surabaya, 5 November 2008.13. “The Development and Utilization of Free/Open Source Software (FOSS)”, Keynote Speech 152– Asia-Africa Conference on Open Source, Jakarta, 18 November, 2008.14. “Creative Business on the Next Generation Network”, Opening Remark in IMOCA 155Conference and Exhibition 2008, Denpasar, Bali, 27 November 2008.15. “Strategy And Policy In The Development Of Broadband Wireless Access Technology 157Best Suited To Reduce The Digital Divide Problem In Indonesia”, Background Paper inBroadband Wireless Acess Seminar, Jimbaran, Bali, 27 November 2008.16. “Strategy And Policy In The Development Of Broadband Wireless Access Technology 160Best Suited To Reduce The Digital Divide Problem In Indonesia”, Keynote Speech inBroadband Wireless Acess Seminar, Jimbaran, Bali, 27 November 2008.17. “Toward Multilingual Internet in Indonesia: Local Computing for Local Indigenous 163
  4. 4. iiiLanguage”, Country Presentation in Internet Governance Forum III, Hyderabad,India, 3-6 December 2008.18. “Toward Multilingualism of Internet Content in Indonesia: Local Computing for 172Indigenous Languages”, Country Paper in Internet Governance Forum III, Hyderabad,India, 3-6 December 2008.19. “Lawful Interception Managememnt Systems”, Keynote Speech in The Lawful 178Interception Management Systems (LIMS) Workshop, Nikko Hotel, Jakarta,18 December 2008.20. “Development of Community Access Point in Indonesia”, Country Report at 3rdWorld 181Summit on Information Society Forum, Geneva, Swiss, 18-22 May 2009.21. “The Strategy and Policy of Broadband Communication Infrastructure in Indonesia”, 192at 7thiBurst International Forum: Strategy and Policy of Mobile BroadbandCommunication Network, Jakarta, 17 June 2009.22. “Strategy and Policy of Mobile Broadband Communication Network”, Keynote 195Speech at 7thiBurst International Forum: Strategy and Policy of MobileBroadband Communication Network, Jakarta, 17 June 2009.23. “Strategy and Policy Toward the Indonesian Information Society”, in Expert Group 208Meeting on Regional Cooperation towards Building an Information Society inAsia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 20-22 July 2009.24. “The Government Regulation Concept on Lawful Interception in Indonesia”, in 225The Government Regulation Concept on Lawful Interception Seminar, Nikko Hotel,Jakarta, 9 November 2009.25. “Using Local Language To Improve Internet-Based Information Access In Indonesia”, in 234The Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity, Internet Governance Forum IV, SharmEl Sheikh, Egypt, 15 November 2009 (http://freedownloadbooks.net/wsis-ppt.html).26. “Using Local Language to Improve Internet-based Information Access in Indonesia”, 238in Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity, Internet Governance Forum IV, Sharm ElSheikh, Egypt, 15-18 November 2009 (http://freedownload books.net/wsis-ppt.html).27. “Indonesian Languages Diversity on the Internet”, Country Paper: in Best Practice 251Forum on Access and Diversity, Internet Governance Forum IV, Sharm El Sheikh,Egypt, 15-18 November 2009 (http://freedownloadbooks.net/wsis-ppt.html).28. “Local Language Computing Policy Initiatives To Bridge The Digital Divide Problem In 263Indonesia”, in Best Practice Forum on Access and Diversity, Internet GovernanceForum IV, Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, 15-18 November 2009(http://freedownloadbooks.net/wsis-ppt.html).29. “Strategy and Policy toward the Indonesian Information Society”, in the 2nd MSC 280Malaysia Global Exchange Programme Series, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,6-11 December 2009.30. “Cloud and Green Computing Implementation for the Next Generation”, in ASEAN+3 295Youth Inventors Expo 2011 Talk Show “Appropriate Technology for Better Live”,Budi Luhur University, Jakarta, 6 June 2011.
  5. 5. 1Ministry of Communications and Information TechnologyRepublic of Indonesia“Capacity Building in Internet Governance”Country PaperPresented by:MoedjionoSenior Advisor to the Minister for International Relations and Digital DivideinRegional Workshop on Capacity Building in Public Policy Issues of Internet Use for Business Developmentin Asia and the PacificBangkok, Thailand18-20 October 2006AbstractThis paper discusses the basic ICT condition especially the Internet Governance to support BusinessDevelopment in Indonesia and the Asia-Pacific region. Started with identifying the current condition ofIndonesian ICT infrastructure and internet governance compared to Asia-Pacific region, then identifyingthe Public Policy issues needed, by ranking from the most to the least needed based on the survey doneby ORDIG and taking input from private sector especially internet stakeholders. In order to support thepublic policy issues capacity building, list of learning exchanged experiences or trainingmodules/programmes are identified and proposed.IntroductionAfter struggeling with many different problems of development and poverty reduction in theworld, United Nations make a strategic decision to solve the problems using the power of Informationand Communication Technology (ICT). Access to ICT is seen as an essential factor for development andthe improvement of the well-being of society.The Information Society is characterized by the profound impact of ICT across the socio-economic,political and cultural areas of society. Economic activities at the supply and demand levels aretransformed, giving the emphasis to the transmission of information and knowledge. Vast amounts ofinformation are disseminated through ICTs worldwide and those who have no access to thesetechnologies are left at a disadvantage, being unable to participate and share fully in the benefits of theinformation society.The World Summit on the Information Society’s (WSIS) Declaration of Principles underscores theimportance of ICT infrastructure for the establishment of an inclusive information society. ([WSIS 2005],14) paragraph 21, it states that:“Connectivity is a central enabling agent in building the Information Society. Universal, ubiquitous,equitable and affordable access to ICT infrastructure and services constitutes one of the challenges of theInformation Society and should be an objective of all stakeholders involved in building it”.
  6. 6. 2To realize the concepts of connectivity in building the information society needs the basic ICTpolicy that is difficult enough of a challenge for developing states. Don MacLean summarizes the keyfactors in the lack of developing country participation in relation to international ICT policies as: a) lackof awareness of the importance of ICT-related issues in relation to development goals; b) lack oftechnical and policy capacity; c) lack of easy, affordable and timely access to information; d) weaknessesin governance processes; and e) financial barriers ([MacLean 2004], 8). These are not easily addressed,and greater participation in Internet governance bodies will be a long-term process for many nationsand groups. However, the issues are not always a mere lack of policy development expertise. Somecountries have robust policies on information and communication with governance components, whichhave never been implemented. There is a great for sharing experiences through regional groups to forgeshared priorities and collaborative projects, for example, Open Regional Dialog on Internet Governance(ORDIG) - a project of United Nations Development Programme in Asia-Pacific Development InformationProgramme (UNDP-APDIP), and WSIS as an opportunity to strengthen a new model of global governancethrough multilateral and multistakeholders public private partnership.Indonesia’s Great ChallengesThe Republic of Indonesia has great challenges in ICT industry with the unique characteristicscompared to other countries in particular, as follows.- Geographically, Indonesia is located in South East Asia, have a total area of 9.8 million squarekilometers, of which 81% is sea. It is the world’s largest archipelagic country comprising of 5 main islandsand 30 small islands and over 17,000 islands, of which a third are inhabited. The country is divided into33 provinces, 268 regencies, 73 municipalities, 4,044 subdistricts and 69,065 villages. The population ofthe country projected at 222,6 millions, the fourth most populous country in the world, with unevendistribution. The culture is very diversified with more than 520 ethnic groups and 742 languages, ofwhich 737 are indigenous languages. The country has more rural than urban areas with urbanteledensity of 11-25%, rural density 0.2%, around 43.022 villages (62.3% from 69,065 villages) withoutphones.- Today’s infrastructures (in early 2006) are:= Telephone lines : 9.4 millions (fixed) and27.9 millions (mobile).= Public phone : 382,000 units.= Internet penetration : 1,2 millions subscriber and 12 millions users.= Internet Kiosks : 261,000.= Internet Exchanges (IX) : 3.= Internet users per 100 population : 3.76.= Computers penetration : 2,519,000.= Computers per 100 population : 1.19.= Internet host computers : 62,036.= Internet host computers per 100 population : 0.03.= Total International bandwith (Mbps) : 573 Mbps.= Bits per inhabitant : 2.7.= Internet access cost (20 hours/month) in US$: 22.26= ISP : 140 licenses, 35 operational.= Radio Broadcasting : 1,400 stations (nation-wide and local).= TV Broadcasting : 10 nation-wide networks.= Pay TV : 4 TV cables, 2 DBS TV.
  7. 7. 3- Total IT market in Indonesia for 2007: will reach US$1.9 billion with a Compound Annual GrowthRate (CAGR) of 10% from 2002 to 2007 (source: IDC).- The Indonesian ICT vision is “To establish a global competitive Indonesian Knowledge-Based Societybased on national values and cultures”.Why care about Internet governance?The Internet is recognised as the foundation of the information society. It provides an innovativeenvironment that enables faster and cheaper communication. It is becoming the basis of global tradeand important means to help achieve many essential development goals. But the price of this successincludes not only the effects of increased scale but also tensions arising from operating in a globalenvironment which is multilingual, multicultural, multi-jurisdictional and cross-border. These tensionsmanifest themselves in problems associated with the allocation of Internet resources such as thoseICANN oversees, multilingualism, interconnection arrangements and pricing, spam, cyber crime andsecurity, and they are also the issues most often and most emphatically raised.The Internet is a public facility that plays an increasing role in social and economic development. Adevelopment-oriented approach to Internet Governance is critical for ensuring that the benefits of theinformation society are available to all.The internet has evolved into a global facility available to the public and its governance shouldconstitute a core issue of the Information Society agenda. The international management of the internetshould be multilateral, transparent and democratic, with full involvement of governments, the privatesector, civil society and international organizations. It should ensure an equitable distribution ofresources, facilitate access for all and ensure a stable and secure functioning of the internet, taking intoaccount multilingualism.The Internet Governance is an essential element for a people-centred, inclusive, development-oriented and non-discriminatory Information Society.The stability and security of the Internet as a global facility and to ensuring the requisite legitimacyof its governance, based on the full participation of all stakeholders, from both developed anddeveloping countries, within their respectives roles and responsibilities.Internet use in the Asia-Pacific region has grown in leaps and bounds over the last decade.Between 2000 and 2003 alone the Internet population in the region grew by an annual average of 38 to250 million users, making the Asia-Pacific region the world’s largest Internet community. Estimates putthis number today over 300 million and predict further strong growth. These impressive numbersnotwithstanding, overall penetration rates are still very low in most countries. Many remain excludedfrom the benefits of the information society and much remains to be done to make new informationand communication technologies (ICTs), in particular the Internet, work for inclusive humandevelopment.Following the definition adopted from (*WSIS 2005+, 75), “A working definition of InternetGovernance is the development and application by governments, the private sector and civil society, intheir respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision making procedures, and programmesthat shape the evolution and use of the Internet”.It refers to all policies and interventions that influence the structure, operation and use of theInternet. These policies and interventions are linked to development objectives in many ways. Thechoice of technical Internet standards determines how easy it is to adopt Internet technologies to localneeds, such as multilingual capabilities. Likewise, the rules for the global Internet naming and addressingsystem determine who has access to critical infrastructure components that ensure global connectivity.
  8. 8. 4Policy decisions in this area influence a wide array of the Internet’s practical characteristicsincluding costs for access and content, speed, reliability and privacy of network services. In a nutshell,Internet governance critically determines how widely and how fairly the opportunities of theinformation society can spread and thus, what benefits the Internet holds in store for all users.Making the Internet work for sustainable human development requires policies and interventionsthat are responsive to the specific needs of all countries. It requires a strong voice from differentstakeholders and their constructive engagement in the policy-making processes related to the Internetgovernance. This is a huge challenge, especially for developing countries because presently, Internetgovernance comprises a range of different rule-making bodies and systems. The Internet Corporation forAssigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), for example, manages the domain name system and is underthe control of the U.S. government. Helping to set technical standards are the InternationalTelecommunication Union, an international organization; the private-sector-led Internet EngineeringTask force; and the more academic W3C. They vary dramatically in their structures and operatingmodels, in their degree of openness and transparency and thus, in their accountability, inclusiveness todevelopmental concerns.Developing countries are further challenged by the global nature of the Internet that puts manyareas of internet governance beyond the direct control of any individual country and into the realm ofglobal cooperation. Furthermore, participation in far-away for a is often costly and complicated forstakeholders from developing countries. Timing also poses a problem. The most fundamental rules forInternet governance are already well established or under long-trem negotiation and newcomers to theInternet have had little opportunity to generate awareness across all stakeholder groups, mobilize therequired policy expertise and coordinate strategies for effective engagement. In sum, the march ofInternet governance continues and threatens to leave behind developing countries that are forfeitingopportunities for an inclusive information society.In order for developing countries to participate in policy-making, there must be a forum to allowthem to do so. The WSIS meeting in Tunis 2005 has decided to form a forum called Internet GovernanceForum (IGF). Internet Governence Forum (IGF) is a forum for multi-stakeholder policy dialogue. Themandate of the forum is to: ([WSIS 2005], 82)a. Discuss public policy issues related to key elements of internet governance in order to foster thesustainability, robustness, security, stability and development of the Internet.b. Facilitate discourse between bodies dealing with different cross-cutting international publicpolicies regarding the Internet and discuss issues that do not fall within the scope of any existing body.c. Interface with appropriate intergovernmental organizations and other institutions on mattersunder their purview.d. Facilitate the exchange of information and best practices, and in this regard make full use of theexpertise of the academic, scientific and technical communities.e. Advise all stakeholders in proposing ways and means to accelerate the availability and affordabilityof the internet in the developing world.f. Strengthen and enhance the engagement of stakeholders in existing and/or future InternetGovernance mechanisms, particularly those from developing countries.g. Identify emerging issues, bring them to the intention of the relevant bodies and the general public,and, where appropriate, make recommendations.h. Contribute to capacity building for Internet Governance in developing countries, drawing fully onlocal sources of knowledge and expertise.i. Promote and assess, on an ongoing basis, the embodiment of WSIS principles in InternetGovernance processess.
  9. 9. 5j. Discuss, inter alia, issues relating to critical Internet resources.k. Help to find solutions to the issues arising from the use and misuse of the Internet, of particularconcern to everyday users.l. Publish its proceedings.The IGF would have no oversight function and would not replace existing arrangements,mechanisms, institutions or organizations, but would involve them and take advantage of theirexpertise. It would be constituted as a neutral, non-duplicative and non-binding process. It would noinvolvement in day-to-day or technical operations of the internet.The development of multi-stakeholder processes at the national, regional and international levelsis needed to discuss and collaborate on the expansion and diffusion of the internet as a means tosupport development efforts to achieve internationally agreed development goals and objectives,including the Millennium Development Goals.Indonesia’s and Asia-Pacific Region’s Internet GovernanceThe status of Internet in Indonesia is still at the stage of development both at the urban and rurallevels. Currently, Internet in Indonesia is expanding in the urban segments and multi pronged efforts arebeing made by government and private enterprises to improve infrastructure, reduce costs and to makeit accessible to the people. The real challenge for the Internet for improving the quality of life of ruralIndonesian society is inequality or imbalance (digital divide) of internet accessability. The majority ofIndonesians cannot afford individual internet access. Additionally, roughly 90% of homes do not havetelephone lines let alone computers. Thus, if the Internet is to become widespread in the country, itwould have to be through public locations. Indeed, statistics indicate that the majority of Indonesiansalready access the Internet from public locations such as Warnets.The high price of internet access is caused by two major variable cost components of a large ISPoperating from Indonesia, i.e., the cost of domestic lines and the international bandwith. The Indonesianprices for international bandwith are significantly higher compared to other country, even whencompared to its Asia-Pacific peer countries. For example, the price of a 2Mbps full-circuit internationallink in Indonesia costs four to five times the price charged in Tndia and EU benchmark. Since leased linesare a critical producer good for ISPs, high leased line prices naturally results in high retail price forInternet services. In the Indonesian case, the inadequate supply of network infrastructure, both ofbackbone and leased lines, resulted in Wi-Fi being chosen as a substitute for filling the missing link in thenetwork. The high price of last mile infrastructure, i.e., domestic leased lines prices, meant that ISPs andothers relied on a more cost-effective solution in the form of Wi-Fi links. High price of internationalbandwith saw ISPs connecting directly to satellites for their link to the Internet backbone. The high retailprice of Internet service spawned a large number of unlicensed reseller-ISPs using Wi-Fi to recoup thehigh price.Finally, the significantly high price for basic communication infrastructure that is critical forIndonesia’s transition into a developed economy, indicate a failure of the market and the regulatorystructure that has allowed such high prices. In order to address the problem of not enough supply ofnetwork infrastructure, the government could invest in creating more backbone by lying submarine andterrestrial cable and creating a fiber ring connecting the main islands, as it has proposed to do under thePalapa Ring Project.On the other hand, Indonesian e-commerce and e-business content on the internet is quiteextensive. A good example of such content can be found at http://www.indo.com. It is one of the mostpopular websites for tourism in Indonesia. It carries various tourism-related pages, such as information
  10. 10. 6on the culture of the country, hotel reservations and local activities. However, the WebPages may notbe reflective of all Indonesian e-commerce and e-business activities.Indonesia’s Internet Governance priorities based on the Open Regional Dialog on InternetGovernance (ORDIG) survey, a project of UNDP-APDIP (ranked by dissatisfaction with management ofstatus quo) ([Butt 2005], 126), is as follows:Rank inrest ofAsia-PacificRegionRankinIndo-NesiaIssue %dissatis-fied%satis-fied%noview31246981316147510171211151234567891011121314151617SpamCybercrime, online fraudVirus attackIllegal contentAvailability and cost of InternetOnline access to government informationReliability and Speed of InternetAvailability of local language softwareNetwork interconnection/backbone accessInternet telephony (VoIP)Wireless Internet: spectrum and accessPrivacy onlinee-Commerce payment systemsISP market conditionsAvailability of local contentFair access to/protection of intellectual propertySecure server/encryption95.69594.484.980.576.175.567.967.166.566.062.760.460.158.553.239.24.455.615.118.221.423.926.428.523.423.934.233.329.740.337.343.100001.32.50.65.74.410.110.13.26.310.11.39.517.631.0
  11. 11. 719182021221819202122Domain names with non-Roman character sets (IDN)Access to technical standards and their adaptabilityDomain name managementIP address allocation/managementOwn skills for using Internet34.234.032.729.313.334.850.657.254.884.815.410.115.91.9Compared to Asia-Pacific concerns and priorities (ranked by level of dissatisfaction) is as follows.Issue % dissatisfied % satisfiedCybercrimeVirusSpamIllegal contentPrivacyAvailability/CostReliability/SpeedWirelessAvailability of Public Informatione-Commerce PaymentLocal Language SoftwareIPRLocal ContentInternet TelephonyNetwork InterconnectionISP Market Conditions9493938266615959585353525251474656716313840253937393142303934
  12. 12. 8Secure Server/EncryptionTechnical StandardsIDNsDNS ManagementIP Address44373735323339234440In general, the survey clearly points out a number of eminent problems in Internet governance thatrequire urgent attention. Most respondents were not happy with the current situation of several majortopics of Internet governance, pointing to a governance system that is far from perfect and leaves muchto be improved.In case of Indonesia, there are several major findings, as follows:1. In line with all other countries in the Asia-Pacific the Internet community in Indonesia regardscyber attacks, spam and viruses as the most pressing issues for Internet governance. Virus attacks andonline fraud are on the rise and becoming ever more sophisticated and although Indonesia’s spamproblem is still relatively small, it is growing steadily. Developing effective policy responses to theseproblems is very demanding. It requires a concerted effort by all stakeholder groups and cooperation atnational, regional and international levels.2. Infrastructure issues, such as access, affordability and reliability of the Internet continue tofeature very high on the list of concerns in Indonesia, higher in fact than in most other countries in theregion. Indonesia’s difficult geography is partly responsible for this situation. But policy also matters.The right policy framework which removes artificial barriers to service choice and market access, andpreserves spaces for new business models and experimentation with new technologies can make asignificant difference. Current regulations and practices in Indonesia with regard to backbone access,Internet exchange points and Internet telephony are not optimally supportive. However, worth noting isIndonesia’s progress on the governance of Wi-Fi technologies that could set an encouraging precedencefor the treatment of future wireless technologies.3. Topics related to multilingualism, such as the availability of local language software and localcontent, are major concerns for the Indonesian Internet community. Indonesians are significantly moredissatisfied with the protection of privacy on the Internet and the availability of governmentinformation online. The latter is a challenge that relates directly to e-government strategies of the stateand thus, could be most directly addressed through appropriate policy changes.4. Internet governance problems are highly interrelated and cut across sectoral, political, andgeographical boundaries. This poses considerable challenges for existing governance structures andrequires a new quality of cooperation and openness to adequately address the most pressing Internetgovernance priorities in a transparent, inclusive and accountable manner. The UN Working Group onInternet Governance in its final report consequently recommends, in this respect, the “creation of anew space for dialogue for all stakeholders on an equal footing”, thereby setting the stage for movingproductively forward with the Internet governance agenda during the World Summit on the InformationSociety in Tunis in November 2005.
  13. 13. 9Another findings, there are a number of specific opportunities that can be identified to fostercultural inclusion in the Asia-Pacific region, as follows: ([Butt 2005], 85)1. Localization. The building of Internet related software and operating systems to local languages. Aslanguage is the basis of culture, the most urgent and basic priority is to provide opportunities for allpeople to use their native languages with information technology.2. Shared infrastructure for local content initiatives. With many local content providers facing similarmarket and technical issues with respect to their initiatives, there may be opportunities to support themat a regional level. This could be through policy vision mechanisms to develop a shared understanding oflocal content issues and potentials, as well as coordination bodies to share infrastructure.3. Regional Taskforces on Intellectual Property. Intellectual Property is one of the key issuesthreatening cultural diversity online. This is due to the harmonization of lawas, treaties, technologies,language and genre that the Internet’s global network facilitates.4. Supporting collective Ownership Mechanisms and Alternative Programmes. The traffic of bothconcept and law in global Intellectual Property arrangements follows clear geo-political lines: it emergesfrom the most developed nations to be implemented in the lesser developed. It is crucial that thediverse ways that cultures generate and circulate intellectual products can be maintained. Whileharmonization of particular arrangements can be useful for international cooperation, care must betaken in committing to IP agendas whose full implications for local cultures may not be clear. A strongcommitment to multistakeholder approaches in policy development will be the surest way of gaining thediversity of local perspectives needed for responsive policy.ConclusionBridging the digital divide is a major challenge facing the global community for the establishmentof an inclusive information society. To meet this challenge, the future evolution of Internet governancemechanisms must be designed to take into account the need to increase participation of developingcountries in the international policy-making and coordination of Internet development. The creation ofpolicy-making forum with involvement of stakeholders, inline with the roles defined by the WSIS, willincrease awareness and enable developing countries to push forward their agendas. It will also facilitatethe coordination of local development policies with the international direction.RecommendationBased on several findings mentioned above, either in Indonesia as well as in the Asia and thePacific region, capacity building and awareness in public policy issues of Internet Use for BusinessDevelopment must contain all of the Internet governance issues with several priorities mentioned in theabove findings, including: Basic concepts about Digital Divide, Internet and security, cybercrime andcyberlaw, privacy and data protection, spam and viruses, incidents/cyber-attacks, Electronic/DigitalSignatures and Public Key Infrastructure/Cryptography, Certification of Authority legislation/rules,Intellectual Property Rights, content regulation, e-commerce and e-business, ICTs for Small and MediumEnterprises (SMEs), ICT infrastructure, ISPs responsibilty, cost of Internet connectivity and access,universal access policy, Human Rights in Information Society, cultural diversity and multilingualism inInternet governance, multilateral and multistakeholders public private partnership mechanisms,technology neutral and software interoperability, and best practices.Bibliography[Butt 2005] Butt, Danny, Internet Governance: Asia-Pacific Perspectives, UNDP-APDIP, ELSEVIER,New Delhi, 2005.
  14. 14. 10[Drake 2005] Drake, William J. (Editor), Reforming Internet Governance: Perspectives from theWorking Group on Internet Governance (WGIG), UNICT-Task Force, New York, 2005.[Karan 2004] Karan, Kavita, Cyber Communities in Rural Asia (A study of Seven Asian Countries),Marshall Cavendish Academic, Singapore, 2004.[MacLean 2004] MacLean, Don, Herding Schrodinger’s Cats: Some Conceptual Tools for thinkingabout Internet Governance, Background paper for the ITU Workshop on Internet Governance,Geneva, 26-27 February 2004, http//:www.itu.int/osg/spu/forum/intgov04/ contributions/itu-workshop-feb-04-internet-governance-background.pdf, accessed 9 October 2006, p.8.[MacLean 20041] MacLean, Don (Editor), Internet Governance: A Grand Collaboration, UNICT- Taskforce, New York, 2004.[Stauffacher 2005] Stauffacher, Daniel and Wolfgang Kleinwachter (Editor), The World Summit on theInformation Society: Moving from the Past into the Future, UNICT Task Force, New York, 2005.[WSIS 2005] International Telecommunication Union (ITU), World Summit on the InformationSociety (WSIS) Outcome Documents: Geneva 2003 – Tunis 2005, ITU, Geneva, December 2005.[Yoon 2006] Yoon, Chin Saik, Digital Review of AsiaPacific 2005/2006, Claude-Yves Charron,Southbound, Penang, 2006.
  15. 15. 11Ministry of Communications and Information TechnologyRepublic of Indonesia“Internet Governance in Indonesia”Country PaperPresented by:MoedjionoSenior Advisor to the Minister for International Relations and Digital DivideinInternet Governance ForumAthens, Greece30 October - 2 November 2006AbstractThis paper discusses the basic ICT condition especially the Internet Governance in Indonesia.Started with identifying the current condition of Indonesian ICT infrastructure and Internet Governancecompared to Asia-Pacific region, then identifying the Public Policy issues needed, by ranking from themost to the least needed based on the survey done by the Open Regional Dialog on InternetGovernance (ORDIG), and taking into account some inputs from private sector, especially Internetstakeholders. Based on the survey result related to the overall theme in this forum, i.e. “InternetGovernance for Development”, the list of public policy issues to be discussed on the First IGF arerecommended.IntroductionAfter struggling with many different problems of development and poverty reduction in the world,United Nations made a strategic decision to solve the problems using the power of Information andCommunication Technology (ICT). Access to ICT is seen as an essential factor for development and theimprovement of the well-being of society, what we are going to reach as target of the World Summit ofthe Information Society (WSIS) in 2015, i.e., the Information Society.The Information Society is characterized by the profound impact of ICT across the socio-economic,political and cultural areas of society. Economic activities at the supply and demand levels aretransformed, giving the emphasis to the transmission of information and knowledge. Vast amounts ofinformation are disseminated through ICTs worldwide and those who have no access to thesetechnologies are left at a disadvantage, being unable to participate and share fully in the benefits of theInformation Society.The WSIS’s Declaration of Principles underscores the importance of ICT infrastructure for theestablishment of an inclusive Information Society. ([WSIS 2005], 14) paragraph 21, states that:“Connectivity is a central enabling agent in building the Information Society. Universal, ubiquitous,equitable and affordable access to ICT infrastructure and services constitutes one of the challenges of theInformation Society and should be an objective of all stakeholders involved in building it”.
  16. 16. 12To realize the concepts of connectivity in building the Information Society needs the basic ICTpolicy that is difficult enough of a challenge for developing states. Don MacLean summarizes the keyfactors in the lack of developing country participation in relation to international ICT policies as: a) lackof awareness of the importance of ICT-related issues in relation to development goals; b) lack oftechnical and policy capacity; c) lack of easy, affordable and timely access to information; d) weaknessesin governance processes; and e) financial barriers ([MacLean 2004], 8). These are not easily addressed,and greater participation in Internet Governance bodies will be a long-term process for many nationsand groups. However, the issues are not always a mere lack of policy development expertise. Somecountries have robust policies on information and communication with governance components, whichhave never been implemented. There is a great for sharing experiences through regional groups to forgeshared priorities and collaborative projects, for example, Open Regional Dialog on Internet Governance(ORDIG) - a project of United Nations Development Programme in Asia-Pacific Development InformationProgramme (UNDP-APDIP), and WSIS as an opportunity to strengthen a new model of global governancethrough multilateral and multistakeholders public private partnership.Indonesia’s Great ChallengesThe Republic of Indonesia has great challenges in ICT industry’s development, with the uniquecharacteristics compared to other countries in particular, as follows:- Geographically, Indonesia is located in South East Asia, have a total area of 9.8 million squarekilometers, of which 81% is sea. It is the world’s largest archipelagic country comprising of 5 main islandsand 30 small islands and over 17,000 islands, of which a third are inhabited. The country is divided into33 provinces, 268 regencies, 73 municipalities, 4,044 subdistricts and 69,065 villages. The population ofthe country projected at 222,6 millions, the fourth most populous country in the world, with unevendistribution. The culture is very diversified with more than 520 ethnic groups and 742 languages, ofwhich 737 are indigenous languages. The country has more rural than urban areas with urbanteledensity of 11-25%, rural density 0.2%, around 43.022 villages (62.3% from 69,065 villages) withoutphones.- Today’s infrastructures (in early 2006) are:= Telephone lines : 9.4 millions (fixed) and27.9 millions (mobile).= Public phone : 382,000 units.= Internet penetration : 1,2 millions subscriber and 12 millions users.= Internet Kiosks : 261,000.= Internet Exchanges (IX) : 3.= Internet users per 100 population : 3.76.= Computers penetration : 2,519,000.= Computers per 100 population : 1.19.= Internet host computers : 62,036.= Internet host computers per 100 population : 0.03.= Total International bandwith (Mbps) : 573 Mbps.= Bits per inhabitant : 2.7.= Internet access cost (20 hours/month) in US$: 22.26= ISP : 140 licenses, 35 operational.= Radio Broadcasting : 1,400 stations (nation-wide and local).= TV Broadcasting : 10 nation-wide networks.= Pay TV : 4 TV cables, 2 DBS TV.
  17. 17. 13- The prediction of bandwidth consumption, internet users and computer population, based on thestudy by the Palapa Ring Team [Postel 2006], are as follows:2006 2015= Bandwith Consumption 7,000,000 Kbps 78,067,335 Kbps= Internet Users (Fair) 8,252,437 16,518,890Internet Users (Optimist) 17,247,683 34,524,659= PC Population (Fair) 2,541,027 5,086,370PC Population (Optimist) 8,304,327 16,622,758- Total IT market in Indonesia for 2007: will reach US$1.9 billion with a Compound Annual GrowthRate (CAGR) of 10% from 2002 to 2007 (source: IDC).- The Indonesian ICT vision is “To establish a global competitive Indonesian Knowledge-Based Societybased on national values and cultures”.Based on those data mentioned above, Indonesia have a great challenges in ICT industry’sdevelopment to support the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals andobjectives, including the Millennium Development Goals. The problem is how we can manage andrealize the connectivity in the very big diversity and very wide digital divide, as well as several“affirmative action” from the government and other stakeholders to achieve the goals and objectives.Why care about Internet Governance?The Internet is a public facility that plays an increasing role in social and economic development. Itis recognised as the foundation of the information society. It provides an innovative environment thatenables faster and cheaper communication. It is becoming the basis of global trade and importantmeans to help achieve many essential development goals. But the price of this success includes not onlythe effects of increased scale but also tensions arising from operating in a global environment which ismultilingual, multicultural, multi-jurisdictional and cross-border. These tensions manifest themselves inproblems associated with the allocation of Internet resources such as those the Internet Corporation forAssigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) oversees, multilingualism, interconnection arrangements andpricing, spam, cyber-crime and security, and they are also the issues most often and most emphaticallyraised.The Internet Governance is an essential element for a people-centred, inclusive, development-oriented and non-discriminatory Information Society. A development-oriented approach to InternetGovernance is critical for ensuring that the benefits of the Information Society are available to all. Itsgovernance should constitute a core issue of the Information Society agenda. The internationalmanagement of the internet should be multilateral, transparent and democratic, with full involvementof governments, the private sector, civil society and international organizations. It should ensure anequitable distribution of resources, facilitate access for all and ensure a stable and secure functioning ofthe internet, taking into account multilingualism. The stability and security of the Internet as a globalfacility, and to ensuring the requisite legitimacy of its governance, based on the full participation of allstakeholders, from both developed and developing countries, within their respectives roles andresponsibilities.Internet use in the Asia-Pacific region has grown in leaps and bounds over the last decade.Between 2000 and 2003 alone the Internet population in the region grew by an annual average of 38 to250 million users, making the Asia-Pacific region the world’s largest Internet community. Estimates putthis number today over 300 million and predict further strong growth. These impressive numbersnotwithstanding, overall penetration rates are still very low in most countries. Many remain excluded
  18. 18. 14from the benefits of the Information Society and much remains to be done to make new ICTs, inparticular the Internet, work for inclusive human development.Following the definition adopted from (*WSIS 2005+, 75), “A working definition of InternetGovernance is the development and application by governments, the private sector and civil society, intheir respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision making procedures, and programmesthat shape the evolution and use of the Internet”.It refers to all policies and interventions that influence the structure, operation and use of theInternet. These policies and interventions are linked to development objectives in many ways. Thechoice of technical Internet standards determines how easy it is to adopt Internet technologies to localneeds, such as multilingual capabilities. Likewise, the rules for the global Internet naming and addressingsystem determine who has access to critical infrastructure components that ensure global connectivity.Policy decisions in this area influence a wide array of the Internet’s practical characteristicsincluding costs for access and content, speed, reliability and privacy of network services. In a nutshell,Internet governance critically determines how widely and how fairly the opportunities of theinformation society can spread and thus, what benefits the Internet holds in store for all users.Making the Internet work for sustainable human development requires policies and interventionsthat are responsive to the specific needs of all countries. It requires a strong voice from differentstakeholders and their constructive engagement in the policy-making processes related to the InternetGovernance. This is a huge challenge, especially for developing countries because presently, InternetGovernance comprises a range of different rule-making bodies and systems. ICANN, for example,manages the domain name system and is under the control of the U.S. government. Helping to settechnical standards are the International Telecommunication Union, an international organization; theprivate-sector-led Internet Engineering Task force; and the more academic World Wide Web Consortium(W3C). They vary dramatically in their structures and operating models, in their degree of openness andtransparency and thus, in their accountability, inclusiveness to developmental concerns.Developing countries are further challenged by the global nature of the Internet that puts manyareas of Internet Governance beyond the direct control of any individual country and into the realm ofglobal cooperation. Furthermore, participation is far-away for and is often costly and complicated forstakeholders from developing countries. Timing also poses a problem. The most fundamental rules forInternet Governance are already well established or under long-trem negotiation and newcomers to theInternet have had little opportunity to generate awareness across all stakeholder groups, mobilize therequired policy expertise and coordinate strategies for effective engagement. In sum, the march ofInternet Governance continues and threatens to leave behind developing countries that are forfeitingopportunities for an inclusive Information Society.In order for developing countries to participate in policy-making, there must be a forum to allowthem to do so. The WSIS meeting in Tunis 2005 has decided to form a forum called Internet GovernanceForum (IGF) for multi-stakeholder policy dialogue. The mandate of the forum is to: ([WSIS 2005], 82)a. Discuss public policy issues related to key elements of Internet Governance in order to foster thesustainability, robustness, security, stability and development of the Internet.b. Facilitate discourse between bodies dealing with different cross-cutting international publicpolicies regarding the Internet and discuss issues that do not fall within the scope of any existing body.c. Interface with appropriate intergovernmental organizations and other institutions on mattersunder their purview.d. Facilitate the exchange of information and best practices, and in this regard make full use of theexpertise of the academic, scientific and technical communities.
  19. 19. 15e. Advise all stakeholders in proposing ways and means to accelerate the availability and affordabilityof the Internet in the developing world.f. Strengthen and enhance the engagement of stakeholders in existing and/or future InternetGovernance mechanisms, particularly those from developing countries.g. Identify emerging issues, bring them to the intention of the relevant bodies and the general public,and, where appropriate, make recommendations.h. Contribute to capacity building for Internet Governance in developing countries, drawing fully onlocal sources of knowledge and expertise.i. Promote and assess, on an ongoing basis, the embodiment of WSIS principles in InternetGovernance processess.j. Discuss, inter alia, issues relating to critical Internet resources.k. Help to find solutions to the issues arising from the use and misuse of the Internet, of particularconcern to everyday users.l. Publish its proceedings.The IGF would have no oversight function and would not replace existing arrangements,mechanisms, institutions or organizations, but would involve them and take advantage of theirexpertise. It would be constituted as a neutral, non-duplicative and non-binding process. It would noinvolvement in day-to-day or technical operations of the internet.The development of multi-stakeholder processes at the national, regional and international levelsis needed to discuss and collaborate on the expansion and diffusion of the internet as a means tosupport development efforts to achieve internationally agreed development goals and objectives,including the Millennium Development Goals.Indonesia’s Internet GovernanceThe status of Internet in Indonesia is still at the stage of development both at the urban and rurallevels. Currently, Internet in Indonesia is expanding in the urban segments and multi pronged efforts arebeing made by government and private enterprises to improve infrastructure, reduce costs and to makeit accessible to the people. The real challenge for the Internet for improving the quality of life of ruralIndonesian society is inequality or imbalance (digital divide) of Internet accessability. The majority ofIndonesians cannot afford individual Internet access. Additionally, roughly 90% of homes do not havetelephone lines let alone computers. Thus, if the Internet is to become widespread in the country, itwould have to be through public locations. Indeed, statistics indicate that the majority of Indonesiansalready access the Internet from public locations such as Internet Café called Warnets.The high price of internet access is caused by two major variable cost components of a largeInternet Service Provider (ISP) operating from Indonesia, i.e., the cost of domestic lines and theinternational bandwith. The Indonesian prices for international bandwith are significantly highercompared to other country, even when compared to its Asia-Pacific peer countries. For example, theprice of a 2Mbps full-circuit international link in Indonesia costs four to five times the price charged inIndia and EU benchmark. Since leased lines are a critical producer good for ISPs, high leased line pricesnaturally results in high retail price for Internet services. In the Indonesian case, the inadequate supplyof network infrastructure, both of backbone and leased lines, resulted in Wi-Fi being chosen as asubstitute for filling the missing link in the network. The high price of last mile infrastructure, i.e.,domestic leased lines prices, meant that ISPs and others relied on a more cost-effective solution in theform of Wi-Fi links. High price of international bandwith saw ISPs connecting directly to satellites fortheir link to the Internet backbone. The high retail price of Internet service spawned a large number ofunlicensed reseller-ISPs using Wi-Fi to recoup the high price.
  20. 20. 16Finally, the significantly high price for basic communication infrastructure that is critical forIndonesia’s transition into a developed economy, indicate a failure of the market and the regulatorystructure that has allowed such high prices. In order to address the problem of not enough supply ofnetwork infrastructure, the government could invest in creating more backbone by lying submarine andterrestrial cable and creating a fiber ring connecting the main islands, as it has proposed to do under thePalapa Ring Project.On the other hand, Indonesian e-commerce and e-business content on the internet is quiteextensive. A good example of such content can be found at http://www.indo.com. It is one of the mostpopular websites for tourism in Indonesia. It carries various tourism-related pages, such as informationon the culture of the country, hotel reservations and local activities. However, the WebPages may notbe reflective of all Indonesian e-commerce and e-business activities.Indonesia’s Internet Governance priorities based on the ORDIG survey, a project of UNDP-APDIP(ranked by dissatisfaction with management of status quo) ([Butt 2005], 126), is as follows:Rank inrest ofAsia-PacificRegionRankinIndo-NesiaIssue %dissatis-fied%satis-fied%noview3124698131614751017121115191820212212345678910111213141516171819202122SpamCybercrime, online fraudVirus attackIllegal contentAvailability and cost of InternetOnline access to government informationReliability and Speed of InternetAvailability of local language softwareNetwork interconnection/backbone accessInternet telephony (VoIP)Wireless Internet: spectrum and accessPrivacy onlinee-Commerce payment systemsISP market conditionsAvailability of local contentFair access to/protection of intellectual propertySecure server/encryptionDomain names with non-Roman character sets (IDN)Access to technical standards and their adaptabilityDomain name managementIP address allocation/managementOwn skills for using Internet95.69594.484.980.576.175.567.967.166.566.062.760.460.158.553.239.234.234.032.729.313.34.455.615.118.221.423.926.428.523.423.934.233.329.740.337.343.134.850.657.254.884.800001.32.50.65.74.410.110.13.26.310.11.39.517.631.015.410.115.91.9
  21. 21. 17Compared to Asia-Pacific concerns and priorities (ranked by level of dissatisfaction) is as follows.Issue % dissatisfied % satisfiedCybercrimeVirusSpamIllegal contentPrivacyAvailability/CostReliability/SpeedWirelessAvailability of Public Informatione-Commerce PaymentLocal Language SoftwareIPRLocal ContentInternet TelephonyNetwork InterconnectionISP Market ConditionsSecure Server/EncryptionTechnical StandardsIDNsDNS ManagementIP Address949393826661595958535352525147464437373532567163138402539373931423039343339234440In general, the survey clearly points out a number of eminent problems in Internet Governancethat require urgent attention. Most respondents were not happy with the current situation of severalmajor topics of Internet Governance, pointing to a governance system that is far from perfect and leavesmuch to be improved.In case of Indonesia, there are several major findings, as follows:1. In line with all other countries in the Asia-Pacific the Internet community in Indonesia regardscyber attacks, spam and viruses as the most pressing issues for Internet Governance. Virus attacks andonline fraud are on the rise and becoming ever more sophisticated and although Indonesia’s spamproblem is still relatively small, it is growing steadily. Developing effective policy responses to theseproblems is very demanding. It requires a concerted effort by all stakeholder groups and cooperation atnational, regional and international levels.2. Infrastructure issues, such as access, affordability and reliability of the Internet continue tofeature very high on the list of concerns in Indonesia, higher in fact than in most other countries in theregion. Indonesia’s difficult geography is partly responsible for this situation. But policy also matters.The right policy framework which removes artificial barriers to service choice and market access, andpreserves spaces for new business models and experimentation with new technologies can make asignificant difference. Current regulations and practices in Indonesia with regard to backbone access,Internet exchange points and Internet telephony are not optimally supportive. However, worth noting is
  22. 22. 18Indonesia’s progress on the governance of Wi-Fi technologies that could set an encouraging precedencefor the treatment of future wireless technologies.3. Topics related to multilingualism, such as the availability of local language software and localcontent, are major concerns for the Indonesian Internet community. Indonesians are significantly moredissatisfied with the protection of privacy on the Internet and the availability of governmentinformation online. The latter is a challenge that relates directly to e-government strategies of the stateand thus, could be most directly addressed through appropriate policy changes.4. Internet Governance problems are highly interrelated and cut across sectoral, political, andgeographical boundaries. This poses considerable challenges for existing governance structures andrequires a new quality of cooperation and openness to adequately address the most pressing InternetGovernance priorities in a transparent, inclusive and accountable manner. The UN Working Group onInternet Governance in its final report consequently recommends, in this respect, the “creation of anew space for dialogue for all stakeholders on an equal footing”, thereby setting the stage for movingproductively forward with the Internet Governance agenda during the World Summit on the InformationSociety in Tunis in November 2005.Another findings, there are a number of specific opportunities that can be identified to fostercultural inclusion in the Asia-Pacific region, as follows: ([Butt 2005], 85)1. Localization. The building of Internet related software and operating systems to local languages. Aslanguage is the basis of culture, the most urgent and basic priority is to provide opportunities for allpeople to use their native languages with information technology.2. Shared infrastructure for local content initiatives. With many local content providers facing similarmarket and technical issues with respect to their initiatives, there may be opportunities to support themat a regional level. This could be through policy vision mechanisms to develop a shared understanding oflocal content issues and potentials, as well as coordination bodies to share infrastructure.3. Regional Taskforces on Intellectual Property. Intellectual Property is one of the key issuesthreatening cultural diversity online. This is due to the harmonization of lawas, treaties, technologies,language and genre that the Internet’s global network facilitates.4. Supporting collective Ownership Mechanisms and Alternative Programmes. The traffic of bothconcept and law in global Intellectual Property arrangements follows clear geo-political lines: it emergesfrom the most developed nations to be implemented in the lesser developed. It is crucial that thediverse ways that cultures generate and circulate intellectual products can be maintained. Whileharmonization of particular arrangements can be useful for international cooperation, care must betaken in committing to Intellectual Property agendas whose full implications for local cultures may notbe clear. A strong commitment to multistakeholder approaches in policy development will be the surestway of gaining the diversity of local perspectives needed for responsive policy.First IGF MeetingAs broadcasted worldwide, the overall theme chosen of the Athens First IGF meeting is InternetGovernance for Development, with capacity building as a cross cutting priority. In preparation to thismeeting, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) incooperation with the Asia Pacific Development Information Programme of the United NationsDevelopment Programme (UNDP-APDIP) organized a three days Regional Workshop on CapacityBuilding in Public Policy Issues of Internet Use for Business Development in Asia and the Pacific, atUnited Nations Conference Centre (UNCC), Bangkok, Thailand, from 18-20 October 2006. The mainobjective of the workshop was discussing and developing a set of training modules on the use of
  23. 23. 19Internet for business development that aims to serve as a policy making reference, principally, for seniorto middle level ICT and Internet policy makers and implementors of public policy issues of InternetGovernance in developing countries and countries with economies in transition in Asia and the Pacific.The developed modules are expected to serve as an introductory guide to the various issues andlegislative/policy options that, especially, encourage small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to takeadvantages of the Internet to actively participate in the global and national markets.The IGF overall theme will be divided into four broad themes, i.e., Openness, Security, Diversity,and Access. Based on the findings in Indonesia’s Internet Governance priorities above, the four broadthemes that will be discussed, are as follows.1. Security.WSIS recognized that increasing confidence and security in the use of ICTs is a key principle forbuilding an open Information Society. The Geneva Declaration of Principles calls for “building confidenceand security in the use of ICTs and strengthening the trust framework, including information securityand network security, authentication, privacy and consumer protection” as a key principle for thedevelopment of the Information Society. Furthermore, the Geneva Declaration states that “a globalculture of cyber-security needs to be promoted, developed and implemented in cooperation with allstakeholders and international expert bodies. These efforts sholud be supported by increasedinternational cooperation. Within this global culture of cyber-security, it is important “to enhancesecurity and to ensure the protection of data and privacy, while enhancing access and trade”.As describe above, the Internet has the potential to enable all users to communicate and acess andgenerate a wealth of information and opportunity. Achieving its full potential to support commercialand social relationships requires an environment that promotes and ensures users’ trust and confidenceand provides a stable and secure platform for commerce. Internet security is a key element of buildingconfidence and trust among users of ICTs.Each new device and interconnected network increases the capacity for users and theircommunities to make beneficial economic and social advances. However, each of them also increase theexposure of individuals and organizations to potential harm. Threats such as phishing, malicious virusesand other forms of cybercrime and spam undermine users’ confidence, while security and privacybreaches threaten users’ trust. Solving these problems depends on a heightened awareness andunderstanding among all stakeholders of the importance of a secure Internet infrastructure. It willinvolve a combination of initiatives, first and foremost awareness raising among the differentstakeholders at all levels dealing with legislative, regulatory, law enforcement, and technologicalaspects. It also requires enhancing the users’abilities to control their data and personal information. Onemajor concern is to find the appropriate balance between ensuring freedom of expression, protectingprivacy and fighting crime. Ultimately, the responsibility for ensuring Internet security rests with allstakeholders, including the end users, and requires cooperation among them.2. Access.WSIS recognized the importance of an enabling environment to enhance the development of theICT infrastructure. The Geneva Declaration specified that such an enabling environment should beaccompanied by a supportive, transparent, pro-competitive, technologically neutral and predictablepolicy and regulatory framework. WSIS also called for the development and use of open, interoperable,non-discriminatory and demand-driven standards that take into account needs of users and consumersas a basic element for the development and greater diffusion of ICTs and more affordable access tothem, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, WSIS raised concerns regarding InternationalInternet Connectivity (IIC) and called for the development of strategies for increasing affordable globalconnectivity to facilitate access for all.
  24. 24. 20Access may be the single most important issue to most people, in particular in developingcountries. Access is vital to empowering more and more individuals to explore the powerful resourcethat the Internet represents. There are several factors that condition the availability and affordability ofthe Internet. The right regulatory environment at national level can do much to foster the deploymentand growth of the Internet. National policies can encourage investment in capacity and growth, supportthe local exchange of traffic including the establishment of local Internet exchange points (IXPs). Theycan create a favourable legal climate for supporting e-commerce, promote the extension of broadbandnetworks, and encourage competition in the ISP industry that lowers prices. Another element thatinfluences the availability and affordability of the Internet are international connectivity prices andcosts. Interconnection standards and agreements, including peering arrangements, are critical to thesuccessful functioning of the Internet and for maintaining its end-to-end and cost effective availability,and reliability.3. Diversity.WSIS recognized that fostering and respecting cultural diversity is one of the key principles forbuilding an open Information Society. In this context, multilingualism emerged as one of the key issues.The Tunis Agenda includes a commitment “to work towards multilingualization of the Internet, as partof a multilateral, transparent and democratic process, involving governments and all stakeholders, intheir respective roles”. It also supports “local content development, translation and adaptation, digitalarchives, and diverse forms of digital and traditional media”, and recognizes that these activities can alsostrengthen local and indigeneous communities. The consultations and the contributions received in thepreparatory process of the Athens meeting emphasized the importance all stakeholders attach to thisissue.By now, almost one billion people use the Internet. Many of these people cannot read or write inEnglish and they use languages that do not use scripts derived from the Latin alphabet. They would liketo use the Internet in their own language and with their native script. A multilingual Internet will fosteran inclusive, democratic, legitimate, respectful, and locally empowering Information Society. A keyelement of promoting multilingualism on the Internet is creating the availability of information in locallanguages. Building the capacity of both individuals and institutions in creating this local content is oneof the key development issues to be discussed under this theme. Additionally, many task specificmultilingual applications need to be developed. The domain names are incapable of displayingcharacters not contained in the English alphabet. The challenge is to develop Internationalized DomainNames (IDNs) while preserving the security and stability of the Domain Name System (DNS). This is adifficult technological and policy challenge.4. Openness.The Geneva Declaration of Principles and the Tunis Commitment refer to and underline theimportance of freedom of expression and the free flow of information, ideas and knowledge as essentialbuilding blocks for the Information Society which relies and depends on these for its continueddevelopment.Openness is one of the key founding principles and characteristics of the Internet. The open natureof the Internet is part of its uniqueness, and its importance as a tool to advance human development.Internet users trade ideas and information and build on both, thus increasing the wealth of knowledgefor everyone. Never have so many people been able to communicate and therefore to expressthemselves (i.e. to hold, receive and impart information and ideas regardless of frontiers) as richly andas clearly at such a low cost as they can today using Internet. The communications possibilities of theInternet are enhanced over any previous medium as they allow for rapid communication by voice,printed text, picture and video across the same network. Access to knowledge and empowering people
  25. 25. 21with information and knowledge that is available on the Internet is a critical objective of an inclusiveInformation Society and to continued economic and social development.Conclusion and RecommendationBridging the digital divide is a major challenge facing the global community for the establishmentof an inclusive Information Society. To meet this challenge, the future evolution of Internet Governancemechanisms must be designed to take into account the need to increase participation of developingcountries in the international policy-making and coordination of Internet development. The creation ofpolicy-making forum with involvement of stakeholders, inline with the roles defined by the WSIS, willincrease awareness and enable developing countries to push forward their agendas. It will also facilitatethe coordination of local development policies with the international direction.Based on several findings mentioned above, several recommendations on public policy issues/programmes coordination in Internet Governance to be discussed, in order to increase the security,access, diversity, and openness, are as follows:1. Enhance the capacity building programmes through exchange of experiences and knowledge, bestpractices, support of expertise, technology transfer, pilot project priorities, etc.;2. Multilevel, multistakeholders Public Private Partnership in the programmes development;3. The discussion in Security theme should examine the role of technology, legislation and greaterawareness among end users and new models of cooperation across law enforcement agencies andbusiness to address security issues. Sub-theme issues, are:- Creating trust and confidence through collaboration;- Protecting users from spam, phishing and viruses while protecting privacy, by inter alia,developing the early warning alert to the internet threat;- Enhanced network security, by inter alia, close coordination among institutions to overcomethe security threat, cybercrime, and to be able to create a condusive and save internetnetwork;4. The discussion in Access theme should explore various barriers to access that people face in termsof availability and affordability including connection costs, national policies that influence thespread of the Internet, and the role of open standards in facilitating access. Sub-theme issues, are:- Interconnection policies and costs;- Interoperability and open standards;- Availability and affordability;- Regulatory and other barriers to access;- Capacity building to improve access;5. The discussion in Diversity theme should focus on how to build a multilingual Internet to increaseaccess to and participation on the Internet and in Internet Governance processes, and to inform betteron who the various actors are and on current efforts to promote a multilingual Internet and localcontent and overcoming barriers to the development of content in different languages. Sub-themeissues, are:- Promoting multilingualism, including IDN;- Developing local content;6. The discussion in Openness theme should identify the appropriate enabling legal, policy andregulatory frameworks that preserve openness as one of the key founding principles of the Internet.Sub-theme issues, are:- Free flow of information;- Freedom of expression;
  26. 26. 22- Empowerment and access to ideas and knowledge;- Equal footing principle;Bibliography[Butt 2005] Butt, Danny, Internet Governance: Asia-Pacific Perspectives, UNDP-APDIP, ELSEVIER,New Delhi, 2005.[Drake 2005] Drake, William J. (Editor), Reforming Internet Governance: Perspectives from theWorking Group on Internet Governance (WGIG), UNICT-Task Force, New York, 2005.[Karan 2004] Karan, Kavita, Cyber Communities in Rural Asia (A study of Seven Asian Countries),Marshall Cavendish Academic, Singapore, 2004.[MacLean 2004] MacLean, Don, Herding Schrodinger’s Cats: Some Conceptual Tools for thinkingabout Internet Governance, Background paper for the ITU Workshop on Internet Governance,Geneva, 26-27 February 2004, http//:www.itu.int/osg/spu/forum/intgov04/ contributions/itu-workshop-feb-04-internet-governance-background.pdf, accessed 9 October 2006, p.8.[MacLean 20041] MacLean, Don (Editor), Internet Governance: A Grand Collaboration, UNICT- Taskforce, New York, 2004.[Postel 2006] Ditjen Postel, Proyeksi Kebutuhan Bandwith Nasional untuk Internet Protokol diIndonesia 2006-2025, Tim Palapa Ring Ditjen Postel, 30 Agustus 2006.[Stauffacher 2005] Stauffacher, Daniel and Wolfgang Kleinwachter (Editor), The World Summit on theInformation Society: Moving from the Past into the Future, UNICT Task Force, New York, 2005.[WSIS 2005] International Telecommunication Union (ITU), World Summit on the InformationSociety (WSIS) Outcome Documents: Geneva 2003 – Tunis 2005, ITU, Geneva, December 2005.[Yoon 2006] Yoon, Chin Saik, Digital Review of AsiaPacific 2005/2006, Claude-Yves Charron,Southbound, Penang, 2006.
  27. 27. 23Indonesian Languages Diversity on the InternetHammam Riza1, Moedjiono2, Yoshiki Mikami31: Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT),Indonesiahammam@iptek.net.id2: Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Indonesiamoedjiono@depkominfo.go.id3: Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata, Japanmikami@kjs.nagaokaut.ac.jpCountry Paper:The Regional Consultation on Local Language Computing Policy in Developing AsiaThimphu, Bhutan22-24 January 2007Abstract. The paper gives an overview and evaluation of language resources of Asian languages, inparticular of Indonesian official and local languages that are currently used on the Internet. We havecollected over 100 million of Asian web pages downloaded from 43 Asian country domains, andanalyzed language properties of them. The presence of a language is measured primarily by number ofpages written in each language. Through the survey, it is revealed that the digital language divide doesexist at serious level in the region, and the state of multilingualism and the dominating presence ofcross-border languages, English in particular, are analyzed. From this survey as well, the diversity ofIndonesian official and local languages on the Internet is observed.Keywords: Asian language, Indonesian languages, web statistics, language identification, standards,multilingualism, encoding, digital language divideLanguage diversity can itself be interpreted in a number of different ways. Indonesia has more than 740local languages and India has 427 local languages in its country. Residents of English countries may havemany other language skills, but few other countries can match Indonesia for diversity within onecountry. The numbers of speakers of neo-Latin languages, including those in the US, may be more thantwice the numbers of people of English mother tongue but the US controls much of the machinerybehind the World Wide Web (Mikami 2005). The relationship between languages on the Internet anddiversity of language within a country indicates that even with a globalize network, nation states have arole to play in encouraging language diversity in cyberspace. Language diversity can be viewed as muchwithin a country as within the Internet as a whole.It is a common assumption that English is the dominant force in the Internet. We, as do most otherswho see English as dominant, view this is a problem. It is reported that English covers about half of allWeb pages and its proportion of them are falling as other nations and linguistic groups expand theirpresence on the Web. Paolillo (2005) points to US dominance of the force behind the Web, bothcommercial and regulatory, to the extent that the latter exist.
  28. 28. 24For Indonesia, telecommunication companies who profit from the demand for communication andtechnology services have a special responsibility to bear in mind the linguistic diversity of the countrieswhose markets they serve. Hardware and software companies have a similar influence on the linguisticmake up of the Internet, by producing computers with keyboards, displays and operating systems thatfavor particular languages. The acts of computer companies locked in competition for marketdominance have a detrimental effect on the climate of multilingual computing and on-line linguisticdiversity. In such circumstances, the ethno-linguistic awareness of telecommunication companies,computer companies and Internet governing authorities will begin to broaden only if a critical mass ofunder-represented ethno-linguistic groups can command their attention. Hence, the general issue ofemergent linguistic bias requires close monitoring on global, regional and local scales.The measurement of languages on the Internet can be used as a paradigm for many issues of measuringcontent. To put it bluntly if we cannot measure this seemingly simple dimension of Web site contentwhat can we measure? In this line of thought, we propose the evaluation of Indonesian official andlocal-regional languages diversity on the Internet.Measuring the languages in the overall number of pages on the Web increasingly presents challengescaused by the sheer volume of Web content, but just because a page is on the Web does not mean it isused, or even ‘visited’. If we are to truly measure the impact of the Information Society, we need tohave statistics on how the Internet is used, and by whom. In this view Web pages are simply the supplyside, in all its linguistic homogeneity or diversity, and not necessarily a reflection of use and demand. Inan oversupplied market of say English language Web pages offering a variety of services, many poorquality sites may receive few or no visits. It is also a common observation that many Web sites remainwithout updates or modification for years.Since the early days of web development, various attempts have been made to reveal the languagedistribution of the web. An estimate of language distribution in terms of the Internet users’ language hasbeen regularly reported by a marketing research group (Global Reach, 1996-2005), and estimates ofdistribution of the web documents are compiled by various groups, each with a different scope andfocus. Most of these surveys have evolved along with the development of multilingual search engineslike Inktomi, Yahoo, Google, Alltheweb, etc. The language-specific search capability of the searchengines has provided means of survey for researchers. Although these surveys have given us fairly goodpictures about European language presence on the web, far less attention has been paid on Asianlanguages, among them “less computerized languages” such as Indonesian local languages in particular.This ignorance may arise partly from the fact that the “commercial value” of Asian languages has beenlow, and partly from the technical difficulties of language identification of Asian languages. With theexceptions of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Malay, Turkish, Arabic and Hebrew, nothing is knownabout the extent of Asian languages presence on the web. We felt a strong need to implement anindependent survey instrument to observe the activity level of those languages. The UNESCO reportpresented to the Tunis phase of the World Summit on the Information Society, “Measuring LanguageDiversity on the Internet” (Paolillo et al., 2005) shares exactly the same concerns as we do.In response to this, the Language Observatory (LO) project was launched in 2003 under the sponsorshipof the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and has been implemented in collaboration withseveral international partners who have common interests (Mikami, 2005). After a few years ofdevelopment work, LOP team has trained a language identification engine to cover more than threehundred languages of the world, and has acquired the capability to collect terra-byte size webdocuments from the Internet. This paper is prepared based on the preliminary survey results of LOproject with emphasis on Indonesian languages.
  29. 29. 25The objectives of this paper are firstly to give an overview for Asian languages on the web, in particularfor Indonesian official and local languages which have been ignored up to now. Through this study, wehave tried to spotlight the presence of Asian languages as maximum extent as possible. The presence ofa language is measured primarily by the number of pages written in each language and issupplemented by additional indicators like pages per population ratio to give an indication of therelative intensity of web authorship. In terms of language coverage, we discovered more than fiftyAsian languages.Secondly the paper tries to describe the state of multilingualism in Asian country domains, with specialemphasis in Indonesian country domain. The state of multilingualism can be defined at various levels,from a personal or document level to a society level. In this study, we show a multiple languagepresence in each country domain. To give an overview of cross-border languages is a part of theseefforts.After a brief description on data collection and analytical methodologies, the Asian language presence isdiscussed, followed by the state of multilingualism in Indonesia and the presence of cross-borderlanguages.3.1 WEB PAGES COLLECTEDLOP use a web crawler that works by downloading millions of web pages from the Internet. Whiledownloading, it traces links within pages and recursively crawls to gather those newly discovered pages.The collection of downloaded web pages is then passed to the language identification engine and thelanguage properties of the pages are identified. The collection is also used for various types of webcharacterization analysis (Caminero, 2006; Nakahira, 2006).The latest Asia crawl (excluding China, Japan and Korea) focused on web pages in 43 country domains(country code Top Level domain or ccTLD) in Asia. The crawl was begun from a seed file containing13,286 URLs (see Table 1). Web pages outside of these ccTLDs were not crawled. The crawl wasperformed by using a decentralized, parallel crawler called UbiCrawler (Boldi et al., 2002). The crawler isconfigured to stop tracing further links at a depth of 8 and to download a maximum of 50,000 pages persite. The crawler waits 30 seconds for http header responds before giving up.Table 1: Number of downloaded pages by ccTLD in comparison to Google and YahooCountry ccTLD Robots.Number of downloaded / cached pagestxtfoundLanguageObservatory(LO)Google[1]LO /GoogleYahoo[1]LO /YahooUAE ae 125 934,634 4,440,000 0.21 1,140,000 0.82Afghanistan af 19 141,261 117,000 1.21 30,000 4.71Azerbaijan az 233 2,251,485 2,310,000 0.97 650,000 3.46Bangladesh bd 20 207,150 2,840,000 0.07 53,200 3.89Bahrain bh 23 246,031 1,410,000 0.17 284,000 0.87Brunei bn 5 94,788 1,240,000 0.08 155,000 0.61Bhutan bt 9 44,594 233,000 0.19 62,400 0.71Cyprus cy 127 627,056 2,440,000 0.26 962,000 0.65
  30. 30. 26Indonesia id 1,690 5,742,097 22,100,0000.26 4,250,000 1.35Israel il 18,30930,943,02952,300,0000.59 26,400,0001.17India in 2,156 4,262,378 33,300,0000.13 8,220,000 0.52Iraq iq 0 0 243 0.00 157 0.00Iran ir 6,230 4,022,270 7,760,000 0.52 5,070,000 0.79Jordan jo 20 287,341 2,200,000 0.13 545,000 0.53Kyrgyzstan kg 288 740,921 2,130,000 0.35 348,000 2.13Cambodia kh 2 64,265 358,000 0.18 192,000 0.33Kuwait kw 4 59,152 2,510,000 0.02 306,000 0.19Kazakhstan kz 1,682 6,441,378 3,940,000 1.63 1,670,000 3.86Lao la 47 146,635 1,210,000 0.12 256,000 0.57Lebanon lb 56 343,538 2,810,000 0.12 1,350,000 0.25Sri Lanka lk 37 136,519 1,620,000 0.08 973,000 0.14Myanmar mm 1 16,759 445,000 0.04 84,100 0.20Mongolia mn 169 400,141 2,660,000 0.15 273,000 1.47Maldives mv 6 37,393 414,000 0.09 127,000 0.29Malaysia my 1,401 6,865,800 25,900,0000.27 219,000 31.35Nepal np 32 395,901 1,150,000 0.34 481,000 0.82Oman om 148 145,207 474,000 0.31 179,000 0.81Philippines ph 442 2,732,525 2,480,000 1.10 6,040,000 0.45Pakistan pk 82 734,989 4,530,000 0.16 4,060,000 0.18Palestine ps 9 88,203 1,390,000 0.06 297,000 0.30Qatar qa 10 52,888 985,000 0.05 190,000 0.28Saudi Arabia sa 151 1,053,670 6,170,000 0.17 2,120,000 0.50Singapore sg 2,856 5,771,191 21,700,0000.27 221,000 26.11Syria sy 5 51,555 632,000 0.08 59,500 0.87Thailand th 4,398 12,556,80738,000,0000.33 17,100,0000.73Tajikistan tj 19 233,623 219,000 1.07 25,900 9.02Turkmenistantm 23 80,509 255,000 0.32 37,600 2.14East Timore tp 714 13,213 178,000 0.07 51,500 0.26Turkey tr 2,770 11,363,63333,900,0000.34 29,300,0000.39Uzbekistan uz 680 2,286,734 2,710,000 0.84 427,000 5.36Vietman vn 341 4,490,288 14,800,0000.30 5,300,000 0.85Yemen ye 3 34,128 115,000 0.30 120,000 0.28Total 107,141,679303,065,2430.35 118,898,3570.90[1]Numbers of Google and Yahoo’s cashed pages are as of August 8, 2006.3.2 LANGUAGE IDENTIFICATION PROCESSFollowing the downloading process, the language identification engine LIM (Language IdentificationModule) is used to simultaneously detect the triplet of language, script and encoding scheme (LSE isused below for this triplet) for each document. The identification is based on the n-gram statistics ofdocuments. The advantages of the n-gram approach are that it does not require a special dictionary orword frequency list for each language, and it can detect encoding scheme.Languages selected here are official or nationally recognized languages in Asian countries based on theUnited Nation UDHR data. Table 2 below is the complete list of the Asian languages targeted in thissurvey, classified by language family. For Indonesian official and local native languages is highlighted inbold. Additional information for the languages is also listed: the script(s) for the language and theencodings we trained.
  31. 31. 27Table 2: List of Language/Script/Encoding[1]trained, grouped by language family[Austronesian] [Indo-Iranian] [Dravidian]Achehnese/Latin/Latin1 Assamese/Bengali/UTF-8 Kannada/Kannada/UTF-8Balinese/Latin/Latin1 Balochi/Arabic/UTF-8 Tamil/Tamil/UTF-8Bikol/Bicolano/Latin/Latin1 Bengali/Bengali/UTF-8 Tamil/Tamil/VikataBugisnese/Latin/Latin1 Bhojpuri/Devanagari/Agra Tamil/Tamil/ShreeCebuano/Latin/Latin1 Dari/Arabic/UTF-8 Tamil/Tamil/KumudamFilipino/Latin/Latin1 Farsi/Persian/Arabic/UTF-8 Tamil/Tamil/AmudhamHiligaynon/Latin/Latin1 Gujarati/Gujarati/UTF-8 Telugu/Telugu/UTF-8Indonesian/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/UTF-8 Telugu/Telugu/TLWJavanese/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/Naidunia Telugu/Telugu/ShreeKapampangan/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/ArjunIloko/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/Shusha [Semitic]Madurese/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/Shivaji Arabic/Arabic/UTF-8Malay/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/Sanskrit Arabic/Arabic/ArabicMinangkabau/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/Kiran Hebrew/Hebrew/UTF-8Sundanese/Latin/Latin1 Kashimiri/Devanagari/UTF-8 Hebrew/Hebrew/HebrewTetun/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/ShreeWaray/Latin/Latin1 Hindi/Devanagari/KrutiDev [Turcic]Hindi/Devanagari/Hungama Abkhaz/Latin/UTF-8[Austroaiatic] Kurdish/Latin/UTF-8 Abkhaz/Cyrillic/8859-5Hmong/Latin/Latin1 Magahi/Devanagari/UTF-8 Abkhaz/Cyrillic/AbkhKhmer/Khmer/UTF-8 Magahi/Devanagari/Agra Azeri /Latin/Az.TimesVietnamese/Latin/UTF-8 Marathi/Devanagari/KrutiDev Azeri /Cyrillic/Az.TimesVietnamese/Latin/TCVN Marathi/Devanagari/Shivaji Kazakh/Cyrillic/8859-5Vietnamese/Latin/VIQR Marathi/Devanagari/Kiran Kazakh/Arabic/UTF-8Vietnamese/Latin/VPS Marathi/Devanagari/Shree Tatar/Latin/Latin1Nepali/Devanagari/UTF-8 Turkish/Latin/UTF-8[Sino-Tibetan] Osetin/Arabic/UTF-8 Turkish/Latin/TurkishBurmese/Burmese/UTF-8 Osetin/Cyrillic/UTF-8 Uighur/Latin/UTF-8Chinese/Hanzi/GB2312 Pashtu/Arabic/UTF-8 Uighur/Latin/Latin1Chinese/Hanzi/UTF-8 Punjabi/Arabic/UTF-8 Uzbek/Latin/Latin1Hani/Latin/Latin Sanskrit/Devanagari/UTF-8Tamang/Devanagari/UTF-8 Saraiki /Arabic/UTF-8 [Thai-Kidai]Tibetan/Tibetan/UTF-8 Sinhala/Sinhala/UTF-8 Lao/Lao/UTF-8Sinhala/Sinhala/Kaputa Thai/Thai/TIS620[Mongolian] Sinhala/Sinhala/Metta Thai/Thai/UTF-8Mongolian/Cyrillic/UTF-8 Tajiki/Arabic/UTF-8 Zhuang/Latin/Latin1Mongolian/Cyrillic/8859-5 Urdu/Arabic/UTF-8[1]Local proprietary encodings are shown in this table by names of font 8 families4.1 INTRODUCTION TO ASIAN LANGUAGESWe can list several language families in the Asian continent; Austroasiatic, Austronesian, Dravidian,Indo-Iranian, Mongolian, Semitic, Sino-Tibetan, Thai-Kadai, Turkic and Tungus. Some of these languagefamilies are not firmly established and could be regrouped into larger language groups or could be
  32. 32. 28divided into smaller sub-groups. For example, the Turkic, Mongolian and Tungus language families canbe regrouped into larger language family Altaic, and the Indo-Iranian language family can be divided intothe Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and Kafiri. There are some isolated languages around the Asian continent, e.g.Korean, Japanese, Ainu and Burushaski. Some European languages, English, Russian, French, andPortuguese are also used in the region as an official language, and from the mixture of an indigenouslanguage and one of a language, the pidgins or creoles have emerged.Among those language families, Sino-Tibetan has the largest number of speakers estimated at 1.2billion. Next comes Indo-Iranian, with at least 700 million speakers in India, and more than 200 millionpeople in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran and other South and Middle East Asian countries. Malay inAustronesian language family has around 250 million speaking population in Indonesia, Malaysia,Brunei, Singapore, southern Philippines and Thailand. Dravidian has about 200 million speakers in India,about 3.6 million in Sri Lanka. Semitic includes a language of many speakers, that is, Arabic, the numberof which is estimated to be about 200 million. Other language families have a relatively small number ofspeakers. Among the isolated languages, Japanese has larger number of speakers with about 125 millionand Korean comes with about 75 million.When we describe the Asian languages, we cannot avoid mentioning the diversity of scripts they use.Contrasted with the US and Europe, the diversity is outstanding. In Southeast and South Asian countries,many scripts which come from the Brahmi script are used, and in the East and Near East Asian countries,Hanzi script and some other indigenous scripts are used. Latin Arabic and Cyrillic script are also usedwith some additional letters and diacritical marks.4.2 WEB PRESENCE BY COUNTRYThe presence on the web of each Asian country is given in Figure 1, where the coloring of map is basedon the number of web pages per 1000 population, as this is the reflection of the degree of presence of acountry on the Web. This map shows that Israel is the highest (4871 pages per 1000 population) in therank and Singapore and Cyprus follows respectively. The population data was obtained from the CIAWorld Factbook (estimates as of July 2006).4.3 WEB PRESENCE BY LANGUAGEThe language identification engine LIM has been trained for more than 200 languages ofthe world (345 in terms of LSEs) at the time of this survey. Among them, 80 languagesare spoken in Asia and the survey found 60 Asian languages among them. The remaining20 Asian languages are not found at this survey, but note that this does not mean thatthere are no pages at all for those languages, as the current level of training of LIM isnot sufficient and several languages are not yet trained at the time of the survey. Stillmissing Asian languages from the UDHR listing are Zhuang, Yi, Hmong (including itsvarious dialects), Shan, Karen, Oriya, Divehi, Dzongkha (Bhutanese), etc.The data shown in the fourth column of Tables 3 show the total number of web pagesidentified as written in the languages shown in the leftmost column 0f the table. Thedata shown in the third column of Table 3 is the speaker population of that languagewith statistics taken from the UDHR website. The ranking is based on the number ofpages. Table 3 shows that Hebrew, Thai, Tatar, Turkish, Farsi, Vietnamese, Malay,Mongolian, Balochi and Javanese have relatively higher presence on the web. Thehighest number is for Hebrew, and the second highest for Thai. The fifth column givesthe number of pages per 1000 speakers of each language. Almost similar ranking isobserved in both the number of pages and the pages per population.
  33. 33. 29It can be observed a high degree of “divide” in terms of usage level of languages can beobserved even among Asian languages. The number of Hebrew pages per 1000 speakersis 30 times higher than that of the Malay language (ranked tenth in Table 3), 300 timeshigher than Kashmiri (ranked 20th), and 3,000 times higher than Cebuano (ranked 50th).The speakers’ population of languages is said to follow Zipf’s Law - the n-th rankedlanguage speaker is one of the n-th of the population of the top ranked language.But if we measure the size of language by number of pages written in respectivelanguage, the relative size of the 1st, 10th, 20th and 50th ranked language in Table 3becomes a series of 1, 0.036, 0.0035, 0.0001. Our observation suggests that the numberof web pages written in each language follows a far progressive power law curve. Thesituation evidenced here can be well described as a Digital Language Divide.Table 3: Number of web pages collected from Asian ccTLDs, by languageLanguage ScriptSpeakerpopulationTotal numberof pagesNo. of pagesper 1000speakersHebrew Hebrew 4,612,000 11,957,314 18.08Thai Thai 21,000,000 7,752,785 11.72Turkish Latin 59,000,000 3,959,328 5.99Vietnamese Latin 66,897,000 2,006,469 3.03Arabic Arabic 280,000,000 1,671,122 2.53Tatar Latin 7,000,000 1,575,442 2.38Farsi Latin 33,000,000 1,293,880 1.96Javanese Latin 75,000,000 1,267,981 1.92Indonesian Latin 140,000,000 866,238 1.31Malay Latin 17,600,000 432,784 0.65Sundanese Latin 27,000,000 217,298 0.33Hindi & others Devanagari 182,000,000 119,948 0.18Dari Arabic 7,000,000 107,963 0.16Uzbek Latin 18,386,000 57,212 0.09Mongolian Cyrillic 2,330,000 51,140 0.08Kazakh Arabic 8,000,000 48,652 0.07Madurese Latin 10,000,000 47,246 0.07Uighur Latin 7,464,000 46,399 0.07Kashmiri Arabic 4,381,000 41,876 0.06Pushtu Arabic 9,585,000 41,479 0.06Balochi Arabic 1,735,000 36,497 0.06Turkmen Latin 5,397,500 32,156 0.05Minangkabau Latin 6,500,000 20,766 0.03Bikol Latin 4,000,000 18,509 0.03Kyrgyz Arabic 2,631,420 15,606 0.02Balinese Latin 3,800,000 14,584 0.02
  34. 34. 30Punjabi Arabic 25,700,000 14,544 0.02Sindhi Arabic 19,675,000 12,945 0.02Achehnese Latin 3,000,000 11,102 0.02Sinhala Sinhala 13,218,000 10,770 0.02Kapampangan Latin 2,000,000 10,094 0.02Iloko Latin 8,000,000 9,180 0.01Bengali &Assamese Bengali 196,000,000 8,590 0.01Filipino Latin 14,850,000 5,511 0.01Waray Latin 3,000,000 5,426 0.01Bugisnese Latin 3,500,000 3,533 0.01Burmese Burmese 31,000,000 3,285 0.00Kurdish Latin 20,000,000 3,135 0.00Tajiki Arabic 4,380,000 2,430 0.00Azeri Cyrillic/Latin 13,869,000 3,767 0.00Tamil Tamil 62,000,000 2,025 0.00Hiligaynon Latin 7,000,000 1,935 0.00Dhivehi Thaana 250,000 1,858 0.00Bhojpuri Devanagari 25,000,000 1,756 0.00Tibetan Tibetan 1,254,000 1,454 0.00Cebuano Latin 15,230,000 1,107 0.00Telugu Telugu 73,000,000 1,072 0.00Saraiki Arabic 15,020,000 1,036 0.00Lao Lao 4,000,000 799 0.00Gujarati Gujarati 44,000,000 765 0.00Pashto Arabic 9,585,000 259 0.00Kannada Kannada 33,663,000 164 0.00Urdu Arabic 54,000,000 70 0.00Khmer Khmer 7,063,200 65 0.00Hani Latin 747,000 63 0.00Asian Languages total (A) 33,838,551 ( 51.2%)Other Languages total (B) 32,293,912 ( 48.8%)Identified pages total (A+B) 66,132,463(100%)(61.7%)Unidentified pages total (C) 41,009,216 (38.3%)Matching ratio belowthreshold [1]5,701,765 ( 5.3%)Empty pages 273,187 ( 0.3%)No matching pages 9,386 (0.0%)Duplicated pages [2]35,024,878 (32.7%)Total downloaded Pages (A+B+C) 107,141,679 (100%)[1]The threshold is set as 20% in this survey;[2]Almost one third of the pages were found to be an exact copy of another pages. We excludedduplicate pages from language identification process.

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