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Task 8.5 Sequence World War I


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Task 8.5 Sequence World War I

  1. 1. 1914 <ul><li>June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated in Sarajevo </li></ul><ul><li>July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia </li></ul><ul><li>August 1 Germany declares war on Russia </li></ul><ul><li>August 3 Germany declares war on France </li></ul><ul><li>August 4 Great Britain declares war on Germany </li></ul>
  2. 2. 1914 <ul><li>August 4 Germany invades neutral Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>August 26-30 German army achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front at the Battle of Tannenberg </li></ul><ul><li>September 5-10 First Battle of the Marne halts German invasion in France </li></ul><ul><li>September 15 First trenches of the Western front are dug </li></ul>
  3. 4. 1915 <ul><li>January 19, 1915 First German Zeppelin air raid on England </li></ul><ul><li>February 4 Germany declares a submarine blockade of Great Britain. Any boat approaching England is considered a legitimate target </li></ul><ul><li>April 22-May 5 Second Battle of Ypres marks first use of chemical weapons </li></ul><ul><li>April 25 Allies begin assault on Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey </li></ul>
  4. 5. 1915 <ul><li>May 7 Sinking of the passenger ship Lusitania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed 1200, 123 Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 23 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>August 30 Germany responds to U.S. anger by ceasing to sink ships without warning </li></ul><ul><li>December 28 Allies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli </li></ul>
  5. 7. 1916 <ul><li>February 21 - December 18, 1916 The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, is fought to a draw with an estimated one million casualties </li></ul><ul><li>July 1-November 18 The Battle of the Somme results in an estimated one million casualties and no breakthrough for the Allies </li></ul><ul><li>December 31 Russian Rasputin, is murdered by relatives of the Tsar </li></ul>
  6. 8. 1917 <ul><li>February 1, 1917 Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfare </li></ul><ul><li>April 6 The United States declares war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>July 6 T.E. Lawrence and the Arabs capture Aquaba </li></ul><ul><li>July 16-November 10 Third Battles of Ypres, known as Passchendaele, results in minor gains, but still no breakthrough </li></ul>
  7. 9. 1917 <ul><li>November 7 Bolshevik socialists, led by Lenin, overthrow Kerinsky government </li></ul><ul><li>December 3 The new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signs an armistice with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>December 9 British capture Jerusalem </li></ul>
  8. 10. 1918 <ul><li>January 8, 1918 President Woodrow Wilson declares his 14 points as the path to world peace </li></ul><ul><li>March 21 Germans launch the first of five major offensives to win the war before American troops appear in the trenches </li></ul><ul><li>April 25 British and Australian troops stop the German advance near Amiens </li></ul>                                              
  9. 11. 1918 <ul><li>May 23 German shells land on Paris </li></ul><ul><li>August 8 Allied counteroffensives on the Somme push the German army back </li></ul><ul><li>September 29 Allied troops break through the German fortifications at the Hindenberg line </li></ul><ul><li>November 11 At eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ends as Germany and Allies sign an Armistice </li></ul>
  10. 12. Armistice-November 11, 1918 truce (agreement to end fighting) -For Germany- withdrawal of Russians = new hope for successful end to war. Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare -For Allies-American troops pouring into war fronts and Allied forces began advancement towards Germany; Battle of Belleau Wood -September 1918-General Ludendorff informed leaders that war was lost and demanded that government ask for peace; Allies unwilling to make peace; November 1918- sailors in Kiel, Germany mutiny and within days councils of workers and soldiers forming (Socialist Party), taking over civilian and military offices; Social Democrats under Friedrich Ebert announce creation of democratic republic--Kaiser in exile.  German government signs armistice two days later
  11. 13. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Big 4 meet in Paris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lloyd George of Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orlando of Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clemenceau of France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signed June 28, 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Mandates </li></ul>
  12. 14. Reparations <ul><li>payments made to the victors (winners) by the vanquished (losers) to cover the costs of a war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after surrender, Germany stripped of all weapons and made vast payments to cover all costs of the war to France ( Georges Clemenceau) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a separate Rhineland as a buffer state between France and Germany </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. 14 Points Versailles Treaty
  14. 16. Mandates-Europe
  15. 17. Mandates-Middle East