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Ppt Critical Period


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Ppt Critical Period

  1. 1. America’s First Governments 1781-1797
  2. 2. Thirteen Countries <ul><li>Each colony became a state </li></ul><ul><li>Each state was really a independent country. </li></ul><ul><li>People were loyal to their state, not one big country. </li></ul>
  3. 3. States Work Together <ul><li>Each state sends representatives to Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress helps plan and direct the War </li></ul><ul><li>However, Continental Congress has no power over any state. </li></ul>
  4. 4. State Constitutions <ul><li>Separation of powers </li></ul><ul><li>Some two-house and some one-house legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Weak executives </li></ul><ul><li>Rights for common people </li></ul><ul><li>Franchise extended to all white males </li></ul>
  5. 5. State Government <ul><li>Each state had its own government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More important than Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each state dealt with foreign countries on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Each state made its own money </li></ul>
  6. 6. Articles of Confederation <ul><li>An agreement by the states to work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed a very weak central government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No judiciary (national court system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No executive branch (think King) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One legislature, with little power. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. NH MA RI CT NY PA NJ MD DE SC GA NC VA Citizens of Each State Elects State Gov’t Congress Each State = 1 Vote No Executive No Judicial System
  8. 8. Why a Weak Government? <ul><li>Parliament and the King were strong! </li></ul><ul><li>The colonies had rid themselves of such a government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An executive reminded them of a King, so no deal. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Problems with the Articles <ul><li>Congress could not tax the colonies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state levied its own taxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress could not fix trade problems between states. </li></ul><ul><li>Each state had only one vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It did not matter how big or how many people lived in it. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Government Gridlock <ul><li>To pass a law, 9 of 13 states must agree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly 70%!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few laws were passed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To amend (change) the Articles of Confederation, all states must agree. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Today’s lesson makes the important point(s) that… In the slide presentation today, … parenthetical statement …, makes the point(s) that… When it comes to the topic of ... state the topic … , historians agree that… The slide presentation, … parenthetical statement …, claims that … Make Meaning
  12. 12. Land Issues <ul><li>Colonies won lots of new land. </li></ul><ul><li>Each state claimed some of that land as theirs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Northwest Ordinance <ul><li>All states agree to give up claims to land in the west. </li></ul><ul><li>System is created to make new states. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three step process to statehood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New states would be equal to old states. </li></ul><ul><li>Only big success under the Articles of Confederation. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Northwest Ordinance <ul><li>Pay war debts </li></ul><ul><li>Add states </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1786 Daniel Shay’s Rebellion <ul><li>Post war depression </li></ul><ul><li>Debt paper vs barter </li></ul><ul><li>State militia’s impotent </li></ul><ul><li>Put down by private army </li></ul>Consequence: Strong central government
  16. 16. 1786 Shay’s Rebellion <ul><li>Colonists in Mass. angry over high taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer named Shays leads an armed rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress cannot raise funds for an army </li></ul><ul><li>Mass. finally raises an army and defeats Shay. </li></ul><ul><li>Convinces many people the Articles need serious revision. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Causes Effects
  18. 18. Shay’s Rebellion brought to light the ____________ . of the ___________ …. . Since the Congress was prohibited from raising taxes, … then statement Because only a unanimous vote of Congress could _______ the consequences were … that statement. The evidence suggests … that statement ; therefore, … provide a conclusion statement Making Meaning
  19. 19. Colliding temperatures and humidity meet to form thunderclouds. High, dry cold air piles on top of low-moving, warm moist air. Warm winds try to rise, but the cold air blocks them. This clash causes the warm, trapped air to rotate horizontally between the two air masses. The sun heats the earth below, warming more air that continues to try and rise. The rising warm wind become strong enough to force itself up through the colder air layer. From my point of view the most important causes for tornadoes are ….
  20. 20. Articles of Confederation In discussing the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation,the … is like in a tornado when … because
  21. 21. <ul><li>We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Call for Change <ul><li>Small number of people want change </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a government that can do something! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix many of the problems facing the states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are too dumb to govern themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Folks call for a convention in Annapolis Maryland to discuss changes. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Annapolis Convention <ul><li>1786 Annapolis, Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>Only 12 reps from 5 states show. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegates plan to meet again in Philadelphia in 1787 </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to fix the national government. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Constitutional Convention Four Act Drama <ul><li>Act 4: the End in Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral college </li></ul><ul><li>Preamble and 7 Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights Rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Act 2: Connecticut Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Roger Sherman (Conn) </li></ul><ul><li>Elbridge Gerry (Mass) Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Act 3: Committee of Detail Report </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciary </li></ul><ul><li>Act 1: Alternative Plans </li></ul><ul><li>George Washington Chairman </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction Virginia Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction New Jersey Plan </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Debate Three-Fifths Compromise Great Compromise Thomas Jefferson James Madison Patrick Henry Alexander Hamilton Anti-federalists Federalists
  26. 26. Federalist #10
  27. 27. There are... two considerations particularly applicable to the federal system of America, ... First. In a single republic all the power surrendered by the people is submitted to the administration of a single government, and the usurpations are guarded against by a division of the government into distinct and separate departments… Second. It is of great importance in a republic not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers, but to guard one part of society against the injustice of the other part. …If a majority be united by common interest, the rights of the minority will be insecure. There are but two methods of providing against this evil…first, by comprehending in the society so many separate descriptions of citizens as will render an unjust combination of a majority of the whole very improbable, if not impracticable... The second method will be exemplified in the federal republic of the United States… (when) the society itself will be broken into so many parts, interests and classes of citizens, that the rights of individuals, or of the minority, will be in little danger from interested combinations of the majority. Federalist #51
  28. 28. Nothing can be more evident, than that an exclusive power of regulating elections for the national government, in the hands of the State legislatures, would leave the existence of the Union entirely at their mercy. They could at any moment annihilate it, by neglecting to provide for the choice of persons to administer its affairs… it may be remarked that the constitution of the national Senate would involve, in its full extent, the danger which it is suggested might flow from an exclusive power in the State legislatures to regulate the federal elections. It may be alleged, that by declining the appointment of Senators, they might at any time give a fatal blow to the Union; and from this it may be inferred, that as its existence would be thus rendered dependent upon them in so essential a point, there can be no objection to intrusting them with it in the particular case under consideration…. It is certainly true that the State legislatures, by forbearing the appointment of senators, may destroy the national government. But it will not follow that, because they have a power to do this in one instance, they ought to have it in every other Federalist #59
  29. 29. <ul><li>In a single coherent sentence give the following: -name: Title; and a rhetorically accurate verb (such as: &quot;assert,&quot; &quot;argue,&quot; &quot;deny,&quot; &quot;refute,&quot; &quot;prove,&quot; disprove,&quot; &quot;explain,&quot; etc.); and a that clause containing the major claim (thesis statement) of the historical document. </li></ul><ul><li>In a single coherent sentence give an explanation of how the writer develops and supports the major claim (thesis statement). </li></ul><ul><li>In a single coherent sentence give a statement of the writer's purpose, followed by an &quot;in order&quot; phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>In a single coherent sentence give a description of the intended audience and/or the relationship the writer establishes with the audience. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Virginia Plan Bi-cameral based on population Executive and judicial branches Power to tax New Jersey Plan Unicameral based on one state, one vote Executive and judicial branches Power to tax Great Compromise (Connecticut plan) Executive Branch Legislative Branch (Senate/Representatives) Judicial Branch
  31. 31. Ratification Federalist View Government over people Anti-federalist View People over government
  32. 32. Constitution 1789 elastic clause checks and balances separation of powers federalism popular sovereignty Thomas Jefferson James Madison Patrick Henry Alexander Hamilton Anti-federalists Federalists
  33. 34. Today’s lesson makes the important point(s) that… In the slide presentation today, … parenthetical statement …, makes the point(s) that… When it comes to the topic of ... state the topic … , historians agree that… The slide presentation, … parenthetical statement …, claims that … Make Meaning
  34. 36. <ul><li>What message does the cartoon portray? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the message positive or negative?  Is the point of the cartoon to motivate or change opinion? </li></ul>Interpretation <ul><li>What conclusions does the cartoonist want the reader to reach? </li></ul>POV <ul><li>Identify the historical issues being addressed </li></ul>Historical Issue <ul><li>What is exaggerated? </li></ul><ul><li>Who do the people in the cartoon represent? </li></ul>Caricatures <ul><li>Next look at the symbols in the cartoon </li></ul><ul><li>What do the symbols mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Are any of them commonly used in the media? </li></ul>Comprehension <ul><li>Determine the main theme of the cartoon </li></ul>PERSIA <ul><li>What does the title tell you about the topic? </li></ul>Title