The Nullification Crisis 1828-1833
South Carolina <ul><li>Increasingly reactionary and out of step with US by 1820 </li></ul><ul><li>Only worsens in 1820s </...
State under siege <ul><li>Felt threatened by growth of egalitarianism and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Southern fears of ma...
Why? <ul><li>SC alone by 1830 in limiting vote to landowners </li></ul><ul><li>SC alone as a majority black state– 66% sla...
Tariff of 1828  <ul><li>Brought SC face to face with danger again </li></ul><ul><li>Majority rule forced unacceptable poli...
Nullification as an idea <ul><li>Not new: Jefferson in 1790s </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina Exposition and Protest </li>...
1828-1830 <ul><li>John Q. Adams out in election </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson seen as potential ally against tariff </l...
Webster-Hayne Debate (1830) <ul><li>Senate debate over bill limiting land sales </li></ul><ul><li>Source of contention sin...
But, what about Jackson? <ul><li>Needs to be understood in context of bad relations between Calhoun and Jackson </li></ul>...
1832:  Clear that Calhoun is out <ul><li>Jackson retaliates for vote against Van Buren </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun dropped f...
SC chooses confrontation <ul><li>Tariff of 1832  proposed by Jackson as election nears </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina el...
Critical development <ul><li>At this point the rest of the South chooses not to buy in </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina ou...
Jackson responds <ul><li>Privately– Wants to force issue and hang Calhoun </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly– must try for a compr...
Ball in Carolina’s court <ul><li>Ignores Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>Agrees to proposal by Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
SO WHAT? <ul><li>Went to brink, but whole South did not buy in on nullification </li></ul><ul><li>Over next ten years Sout...
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Nullification

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Nullification

  1. 1. The Nullification Crisis 1828-1833
  2. 2. South Carolina <ul><li>Increasingly reactionary and out of step with US by 1820 </li></ul><ul><li>Only worsens in 1820s </li></ul><ul><li>Mistrustful of intentions of federal government </li></ul><ul><li>Right: Flag of South Carolina </li></ul>
  3. 3. State under siege <ul><li>Felt threatened by growth of egalitarianism and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Southern fears of majority rule– especially true of SC </li></ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise debates brought home danger </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why? <ul><li>SC alone by 1830 in limiting vote to landowners </li></ul><ul><li>SC alone as a majority black state– 66% slave by 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>SC leaders alone in believing permanent slavery good for nation </li></ul><ul><li>SC leaders saw slavery as key to a virtuous republic </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tariff of 1828 <ul><li>Brought SC face to face with danger again </li></ul><ul><li>Majority rule forced unacceptable policy </li></ul><ul><li>John Calhoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff of Abominations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to distance himself from it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right: John C. Calhoun </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nullification as an idea <ul><li>Not new: Jefferson in 1790s </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina Exposition and Protest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calhoun adds a wrinkle or two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact theory of constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nullification a defense of minority rights within union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special state conventions could nullify federal laws </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 1828-1830 <ul><li>John Q. Adams out in election </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson seen as potential ally against tariff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposes big government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jackson doesn’t do much at all </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners, especially Carolinians, him to take a stand </li></ul>
  8. 8. Webster-Hayne Debate (1830) <ul><li>Senate debate over bill limiting land sales </li></ul><ul><li>Source of contention since Articles </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Hayne speaks against the bill </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Webster for limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Nullification comes up </li></ul><ul><li>Right: Daniel Webster, c.a. 1835 </li></ul>
  9. 9. But, what about Jackson? <ul><li>Needs to be understood in context of bad relations between Calhoun and Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson’s Birthday party </li></ul><ul><li>Van Buren’s rise; Calhoun’s obstruction </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1832: Clear that Calhoun is out <ul><li>Jackson retaliates for vote against Van Buren </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun dropped from Democratic-Republican ticket </li></ul><ul><li>Van Buren elected VP </li></ul>
  11. 11. SC chooses confrontation <ul><li>Tariff of 1832 proposed by Jackson as election nears </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina elects nullification convention anyway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declares 1828 and 1832 tariffs null and void </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepares to raise forces to prevent tariff collection in state </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun to Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Hayne elected governor </li></ul>
  12. 12. Critical development <ul><li>At this point the rest of the South chooses not to buy in </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina out of the mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina definitely on its own </li></ul>
  13. 13. Jackson responds <ul><li>Privately– Wants to force issue and hang Calhoun </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly– must try for a compromise </li></ul><ul><li>December, 1832: Nullification Proclamation </li></ul><ul><li>January, 1833: Congress passes Force Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Sweetheart deal on tariff: lower to 1816 levels over two years </li></ul><ul><li>Comes out against tariffs for protection </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ball in Carolina’s court <ul><li>Ignores Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>Agrees to proposal by Henry Clay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1816 levels in nine years instead of two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay has his own reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise of 1833 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Force Bill and Clay’s tariff revision pass in March, 1833 </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina accepts tariff and nullifies Force Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis over, for now </li></ul>
  15. 15. SO WHAT? <ul><li>Went to brink, but whole South did not buy in on nullification </li></ul><ul><li>Over next ten years South Carolina’s views move into the mainstream of Southern politics </li></ul><ul><li>Next clash will be different </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of debate over slavery will only intensify in meantime </li></ul>

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