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Session 3 b hala ghattas


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Session 3 b hala ghattas

  1. 1. Food Secure Arab World Conference IFPRI-UN-ESCWA 6-7 February 2012 Food security, nutrition and health in the Arab WorldThe case of marginalized populations in Lebanon Hala Ghattas Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences American University of Beirut
  2. 2. Outline• Nutrition is a key component of food security• Main nutrition and health challenges in the Arab World• Examples from marginalized populations in Lebanon• Knowledge gaps and research opportunities
  3. 3. Nutrition security is at the core of food security• The definition of food security World Food Summit 1996: food security exists “when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.”
  4. 4. Key challenges to food security and nutrition in the Arab world• From a macro perspective the region is considered to be highly vulnerable to food insecurity• From a hunger perspective – this is not necessarily the case• Triple burden of malnutrition: energy deficiency, micronutrient deficiency and energy excess appears in food insecure subpopulations
  5. 5. Vulnerability due to high reliance on cereal imports Net Cereal imports (MMT) by region, 2007 Europe Sub-Saharan Asia Arab Africa Countries Former Latin North Oceania Soviet America America Union and the Caribbean Source: FAO, 2008
  6. 6. Global Hunger IndexSource: IFPRI, 2011
  7. 7. The diversity of the Arab region Proportion of population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption by sub-region Source: ESCWA, 2007
  8. 8. Nutrition transitionThe triple burden across and within Arab countries Energy deficits Prevalence of underweight in children under 5 (%) in selected Arab Countries Compiled from various sources
  9. 9. Energy/nutrient deficitsPrevalence of stunting in children under 5 (%)in selected Arab Countries Compiled from various sources
  10. 10. Risk of overweight according to height for age Source: El Taguri et al, 2009
  11. 11. Energy excessAdult obesity BMI>30 in selected Arab countries Source: Sibai et al., 2010 ; Hwalla et al. (unpublished)
  12. 12. Non- communicable disease45 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among adults in selected Arab countries 39.3 39.640 36.33530 27.7 25.425 23.3 2120 16.3 17 17.41510 5 0 Tunisia West Algeria Oman Iran Lebanon Qatar Jordan KSA UAE (1997) Bank (2008) (2001) (2001) (2007) (2008) (2006) (2000) (2005) (1998) Source: Sibai et al, 2010
  13. 13. Micronutrient deficienciesSource: Musaiger 2011, citing Mason, 2005; data from 1990-2000
  14. 14. Examples from household food security studies in Lebanon• A culturally adapted household food security tool – in 3 subpopulations in Lebanon 1. Tyre (n= 822) + <5yo anthropometry 2. Bedouin (n=83) + whole sample anthropometry (n= 461) 3. Palestinian refugees in Lebanon (n=2501) + multidimensional poverty survey
  15. 15. Prevalence of household food security60 Tyre (n=822) 50.6 Bedouin (n=83)50 Palestinians (n=2501) 41.040 32.5 31.7 31.1 30.03020 13.5 12.7 11.0 10.8 9.610 7.3 6.7 5.4 6.00 Food Secure Vulnerable FI Mild FI Moderate FI Severe FI
  16. 16. Pockets of food insecurityPrevalence of severe food insecurity by village (Tyre)
  17. 17. Manifestations of food insecurity Prevalence of stunting and overweight in <5yo -Tyre40 37.4 Non severely food insecure35 * 33.3 Severely food insecure30 26.725201510 7.9 5 0 Prevalence of stunting Prevalence of overweight
  18. 18. Manifestations of food insecurityPrevalence of overweight and obesity in Bedouin adults35 33.3 Non severely food insecure 31.3 Severely food insecure30 25 24.625201510 5 0 Prevalence of overweight Prevalence of obesity
  19. 19. Palestinian refugees in Lebanon - the severely food insecure
  20. 20. Food quality – diversity and safety• Significant reductions in fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy with increasing severity of food insecurity• Data from our qualitative studies points to compromises in terms of food safety as well as dietary diversity
  21. 21. Conclusions1.Pockets of food insecurity2.Predictors include education, gender and chronicdisease3.FI Manifests as low dietary diversity, stunting andoverweight and obesityImplications for targeted programs, nutritioneducation, improved access to health care andeducation, targeting women
  22. 22. Gaps• Nutrition Surveillance – Data on micronutrient deficiencies – Identification of pockets of vulnerability – Changes in response to shocks• Nutrition Programs – NGOs and civil society – who is doing what where? – Monitoring and Evaluation – Room for governments to include nutrition in their food security policy
  23. 23. Acknowledgements• Nadine Sahyoun – University of Maryland• Nahla Hwalla - AUB• Rami Zurayk - AUB• Jad Chaaban – AUB• Karin Seyfert – AUB/SOAS • Funding:• Aida El Aily – AUB – AUB• Field teams on the various – UNRWA projects – Heinrich-Boll Foundation• Amel Association – WHO-EMRO