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Ch Fahad Sattar (06)
Motivation Concepts
“The processes of increasing effort level is called motivation.”
Early Theories of Motivation
Hierarchy of Needs
Theory X and Theory Y
Two-Factor Theory
McClelland's Theory of Needs
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Goal -Setting Theory
Self-Efficacy Theory
Reinforcement Theory
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory
Physiological
Safety
Social
Esteem
Hierarchy of Needs
Self
actulization
Includes hunger, thirst,
shelter and other bodily
needs
Physiological
Safety Needs
Includes security and
protection from physical
and emotional harm.
Social Needs
Includes affection,
belongingness acceptance,
and friendship.
Esteem Needs
includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and
achievement; and external esteem factors such as status,
recognition, and attention.
Self-actualization
The drive to become what one is capable of becoming;
includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-
fulfillment.
Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically
negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y.
Theory X
The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike
responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
Theory Y
The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek
responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
Two-Factor Theory
Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are
related to job dissatisfaction.
Hygiene factors = when these are adequate, workers “feel OK”
Motivators = examines factors contributing to job satisfaction. Thus there are
factors which lead to job satisfaction and things that don’t
McClelland's Theory of Needs
A theory that states achievement , power and affiliation are three important needs
that help explain motivation.
Need for
Achievement
Need for
Power
Need for
Affiliation
Need for Achievement
The drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards, strive to
succeed.
Need for Power
The need to make others behave in a way that they would not
have behaved otherwise.
Need for Affiliation
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
Goal -Setting Theory
The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance.
Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to
be expended.
Self-Efficacy Theory
Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief that he or she is capable of
performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have
in your ability to succeed in a task.
Reinforcement Theory
A behavioristic approach, which argues that reinforcement conditions
behavior.
Management by Objectives ("MBO")
This approach puts goal setting to work.
It is a program that encompasses:
specific goals (tangible, verifiable, measurable)
participative set
for an explicit time period
with performance feedback on goal progress
Equity Theory
Individuals compare their job
inputs and outcomes with
those of others and then
respond so as to eliminate
any inequities.
Equity theory recognizes that
individuals are concerned not
only with the absolute amount of
rewards for their efforts, but also
with the relationship of this
amount to what others receive.
Expectancy Theory
The strength of a tendency to act in a certain
way depends on the strength of an expectation
that the act will be followed by a given
outcome and on the attractiveness of that
outcome to the individual. The theory focuses
on three relationships.
motivation
motivation

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motivation

  • 1.
  • 4. “The processes of increasing effort level is called motivation.”
  • 5. Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory X and Theory Y Two-Factor Theory McClelland's Theory of Needs Cognitive Evaluation Theory
  • 6. Goal -Setting Theory Self-Efficacy Theory Reinforcement Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory
  • 8. Includes hunger, thirst, shelter and other bodily needs Physiological
  • 9. Safety Needs Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
  • 10. Social Needs Includes affection, belongingness acceptance, and friendship.
  • 11. Esteem Needs includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
  • 12. Self-actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self- fulfillment.
  • 13. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y. Theory X The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. Theory Y The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
  • 14. Two-Factor Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors = when these are adequate, workers “feel OK” Motivators = examines factors contributing to job satisfaction. Thus there are factors which lead to job satisfaction and things that don’t
  • 15. McClelland's Theory of Needs A theory that states achievement , power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation. Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation
  • 16. Need for Achievement The drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards, strive to succeed.
  • 17. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
  • 18. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
  • 19. Goal -Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended.
  • 20.
  • 21. Self-Efficacy Theory Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task.
  • 22. Reinforcement Theory A behavioristic approach, which argues that reinforcement conditions behavior. Management by Objectives ("MBO") This approach puts goal setting to work. It is a program that encompasses: specific goals (tangible, verifiable, measurable) participative set for an explicit time period with performance feedback on goal progress
  • 23. Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities. Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive.
  • 24. Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. The theory focuses on three relationships.