Palestra cheng nutrition

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Nutrient Requirements of ‘Gala’/M.26
Apple Trees
Lailiang Cheng and Terence Robinson
Department of Horticulture
Cornell University

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Palestra cheng nutrition

  1. 1. Nutrient Requirements of ‘Gala’/M.26 Apple Trees Lailiang Cheng and Terence Robinson Department of Horticulture Cornell University
  2. 2.  When and how much nitrogen and other nutrients are required by ‘Gala’ trees on dwarfing rootstocks to produce high yield and good size fruit?
  3. 3. Experimental Procedures• Six-year-old ‘Gala’/M.26 were grown in sand culture at 3.5 by 11 feet spacing (1125 trees/acre).• Each tree received 30 g N in Hoagland’s solution during the entire growing season.• Cropload was adjusted to 8.2 fruit/cm2 TCA at 10 mm king fruit (~104 fruit/tree).• Four trees were destructively sampled for analysis at each key developmental stages.
  4. 4. Leaf & Fruit Nutrient StatusMacronutrients (%)Tissue N P K Ca MgLeaf 2.00 0.18 1.61 1.10 0.39Fruit 0.25 0.06 0.80 0.05 0.04Micronutrients (ppm)Tissue B Zn Cu Mn FeLeaf 27.3 27.3 8.3 143.8 83.5Fruit 21.8 3.5 3.8 7.8 25.3
  5. 5. Dry Matter Accumulation of 6-yr-old Gala/M.26 7 Cropload: 8.2 frt/cm2TCA Whole treeDry weight (kg/tree) 6 shoots & leaves Fruit#/tree: 104 5 Fruit Yield:18.8Kg/tree 4 Leaf area/fruit: 550 cm2/frt 3 Fruit size: 181 g/fruit 2 Fruit firmness: 16.8 lbs 1 Soluble solids: 14.5% 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160180 Days after budbreak
  6. 6. Net Dry Matter Gain & Its Partitioning (Net DW gain: 4.3 kg) Rest 10.5% Fruit 72.2% Shoots and leaves 17.3%
  7. 7. Total N in the Whole Tree & the New Growth (fruit + shoots and leaves) 40 25 New growth 35 20 shoots&leavesTotal tree N (g) 30 Fruit Total N (g) 25 15 20 15 10 Net gain: 20g/tree 10 =50lbs/acre 5 5 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120 140160180 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160180 Days after budbreak Days after budbreak
  8. 8. Total P in the Whole Tree & the New Growth (fruit + shoots and leaves) 6 4 5Total tree P (g) 3 Total P (g) 4 3 2 2 Net gain: 3.3 g/tree 1 1 =8.5 lbs/acre 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120 140 160180 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160180 Days after budbreak Days after budbreak
  9. 9. Total K in the Whole Tree & the New Growth (fruit + shoots and leaves) 50 40 35 40Total tree K (g) 30 Total K (g) 30 25 20 20 15 Net gain: 36g/tree 10 10 =90lbs/acre 5 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160180 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160180 Days after budbreak Days after budbreak
  10. 10. Total Ca & Mg in the Whole Tree & the New Growth (fruit + shoots and leaves) 35 15 New growth 30 Shoots & leaves Total tree Ca (g) 25 Fruit Total Ca (g) 10 20 15 Net gain: 14.2g/tree 10 5 =36lbs/acre 5 0 0 8 5 Total tree Mg (g) 6 4 Total Mg (g) 3 4 2 2 Net gain: 4.4g/tree 1 =11lbs/acre 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120 140160 180 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160 180 Days after budbreak Days after budbreak
  11. 11. Total B in the Whole tree & the New Growth (fruit + shoots and leaves) 150 100Total tree B (mg) 120 80 Total B (mg) 90 60 60 40 Net gain: 94mg/tree 20 30 =0.23lbs/A 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160180 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140160180 Days after budbreak Days after budbreak
  12. 12. Total Zn in the Whole Tree & the New Growth (fruit + shoots and leaves) 120 50Total tree Zn (mg) 100 40 Total Zn (mg) 80 30 60 Net gain: 61mg/tree 20 40 =0.15lbs/A 10 20 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160 Days after budbreak Days after budbreak
  13. 13. Total Mn in the Whole Tree & the New Growth (fruit + shoots and leaves) 300 150Total tree Mn (mg) 250 120 Total Mn (mg) 200 90 150 60 100 Net gain: 185 mg/tree 50 30 =0.46 lbs/A 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160 Days after budbreak Days after budbreak
  14. 14. Total Fe in the Whole Tree & the New Growth (fruit + shoots and leaves) 400 150Total tree Fe (mg) 120 300 Total Fe (mg) 90 200 60 Net gain: 149 mg/tree 100 =0.37 lbs/A 30 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160 0 20 40 60 80 100120140160 Days after budbreak Days after budbreak
  15. 15. Gala/M.26 Nutrient Requirements (52.5 t/ha or 1110 bushels/acre)Macronutrients (lbs/acre) N P K Ca Mg Net gain 50.0 8.2 89.4 35.4 10.9 New growth 50.7 8.0 86.5 27.5 9.9Micronutrients (lbs/acre) B Zn Cu Mn Fe Net gain 0.23 0.15 0.12 0.46 0.37 New growth 0.22 0.09 0.05 0.34 0.32
  16. 16. ‘Gala’ Fruit Nutrient Requirements or Nutrient Removal by Harvest (52.5 t/ha or 1110 bushels/acre)Macronutrients (lbs/acre)Study N P K Ca MgPalmer (2006) 18.7 4.6 57.8 3.0 2.7Cheng (2009) 19.1 4.9 61.6 3.9 3.1Micronutrients (lbs/acre)Study B Zn Cu Mn FePalmer (2006) 0.12 0.02 0.07 0.02 0.07Cheng (2009) 0.17 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.19
  17. 17. Nutrient Requirements in Relation to Yield Macronutrients (lbs/acre) Fruit yield (b/a) N P K Ca Mg S 500 22.1 3.7 40.2 15.9 4.9 1.8 750 33.2 5.5 60.2 23.9 7.3 2.7 1000 44.3 7.4 80.3 31.8 9.8 3.6 1250 55.4 9.2 100.4 39.8 12.2 4.5 1500 66.4 11.1 120.5 47.7 14.7 5.4 1750 77.5 12.9 140.6 55.7 17.1 6.3
  18. 18. Summary Nutrient requirements (at 1110 b/A): N: 50, P: 8.5, K: 90, Ca: 36, Mg: 11, B: 0.23, Zn: 0.15, Cu: 0.12, Mn: 0.46, and Fe: 0.37 lbs/acre. Highest N demand occurs from bloom to the end of shoot growth, followed by a lower but steady demand; many other nutrients shows relatively constant demand from bloom to harvest. Differential requirements by fruit and leaves – Timing: bloom to end of shoot growth for leaves; end of shoot growth to fruit harvest for fruit; – Amount: fruit needs more P, K, B, and Fe than leaves.
  19. 19. References New York Fruit Quarterly 2009, 17(4): 5-10 New York Fruit Quarterly 2010, 18(4): 25-28 Journal of American Society For Horticultural Science 2009, 134(1): 3-13
  20. 20. Acknowledgments Rich Raba, Andrea Mason, Louise Gray & Scott Henning for technical assistance Dr. David Zimerman (Cornell Pomology Ph.D. 1954), New York Apple Research and Development Program & Hatch Funds Van Well Nursery for providing the trees

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