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Rb 8 northern frontier

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Yr 11

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Rb 8 northern frontier

  1. 1. Defending the Northern Frontier
  2. 2. Walls
  3. 3. The Wall
  4. 4. Home on the Wall
  5. 5. Hadrian IMP(ERATORIS) CAES(ARIS) TRAIAN(I) / HADRIANI AUG(USTI) / LE(GIO) II AUG(USTA) / A(ULO) PLATORIO NEPOTE LEG(ATO) PR(O) PR(AETORE) This work of the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus (was built by) the Second Legion Augusta under Aulus Platorius Nepos, propraetorian legate.
  6. 6. Hadrian and Britannia 122/134 Addressing the troops 122 Arrival in Britain 134 Britannia 119 Defeat of rebels?
  7. 7. Purpose? • Military • Economic • Border
  8. 8. Wall – Early Years Period Construction Width (ft.) Section 122-126 Broad Wall Narrow Wall Turf Wall Fortlets 10 8 20 Wallsend to Irthing River Irthing to Burtholme Beck To Bowness After 122 Forts, mile castles, turrets By 138 Turf Wall replaced by stone ~140 Abandoned – ditches covered at intervals ~161 Reoccupied
  9. 9. Types of Wall
  10. 10. X-Section
  11. 11. Components of Wall • Wall – Forts – Turrets – signal towers – Fortlets or milecastles • Ditch (N) • Vallum (S) with protecting mounds
  12. 12. Types of Wall • All c.15’ high • Broad Wall (10’) • Narrow Wall (8’ on a 10’ base) • Turf Wall (18’ wide) – Later rebuilt in stone N
  13. 13. Forts • Newcastle (Pons Aelius) • Benwell (Condercum) • Halton Chesters (Onnum) • Housesteads (Vercovicium) – Built after broad foundations but before narrow wall • Great Chesters – Replaced a milecastle
  14. 14. Forts • Carvoran – A Stanegate fort that was near but not on the wall • Birdoswald • Castlesteads – Only fort not attached to the wall, garrisoned by auxiliaries • Stanwix (near Carlisle) – Built by VI Victrix but garrisoned by a miliary cavalry unit
  15. 15. Forts Added after Wall • Wallsend (Segedunum) • Chesters (Cilurnum) – Wall crosses the Tyne – A cavalry fort • Carrawburgh (Brocolitia) – An early addition • Burgh by Sands (Aballava) – Added to reinforce lines near Solway • Drumburgh • Bowness – Terminus of the wall – Possible supply-depot
  16. 16. Fort Astride Wall Benwell
  17. 17. Milecastles XX Valeria Victrix II Augusta VI Victrix •Milecastles have arched gateways. •House from 8 to 32 legionaries.
  18. 18. Milecastle 42
  19. 19. Ditch
  20. 20. Turret
  21. 21. Turf Section
  22. 22. Turf and Stone
  23. 23. Amiens Patera
  24. 24. Rudge Cup uncolored replica in British Museum
  25. 25. Staffordshire Moorlands Patera
  26. 26. Hadrian’s Wall Forts The Rudge Cup • A.MAISABALLAVAVXELODUMCAMBOGLANSBANNA • A. MAIS ABALLAVA VXELODUM CAMBOGLANS BANNA The Amiens patera • MAISABALLAVAVXELODVNVMCAMBOG...SBANNAESICA • MAIS ABALLAVA VXELODVNVM CAMBOG...S BANNA ESICA The Moorlands patera • MAISCOGGABATAVXELODVNVMCAMMOGLANNARIGOREVALIAELI DRACONIS • MAIS COGGABATA VXELODVNVM CAMMOGLANNA Drumburgh ? Stanwix Castleheads Birdoswald Great Chesters
  27. 27. Wall – Middle Years Period Events ~140 Abandoned – ditches covered at intervals Foray into Scotland ~161 Abandon Antonine wall Reoccupy and rebuild – Use of British labor in rebuilding and maintenance
  28. 28. Vindolanda Fort
  29. 29. Signaling
  30. 30. Short Range Communication • Trumpets – Charge, retreat • Cornets ( played by cornicen) – Motion of colors • Classicum or buccina (horn) – Used by commander, salutes, executions • Tuba (played by tubicen) – Signal trumpet Vegetius, De Re Militari
  31. 31. Trajan’s Column
  32. 32. Longer range communication • Beacons • Semaphores • Coded signals • Manpower needed? • caelum crebris imbribus ac nebulis foedum
  33. 33. Signaling The other 'evidence' from field archaeology, aerial photography and excavations for Roman military signalling systems is hypothetical, and varies from the ridiculous to the inconclusive. Donaldson, “Signalling, Communications and the Roman Imperial Army” 1988 • Probable Method: pony express
  34. 34. Vindolanda
  35. 35. Resources • Find slag • Find coal in 2nd C.
  36. 36. Where?
  37. 37. The Place
  38. 38. When? Stages
  39. 39. Period Dates Size Occupants I c AD 85-95 3 acres Coh I Tungrorum II c AD 95-100 5 acres Coh VIIII Batavorum III AD 100-105 5 acres Coh VIIII Batavorum IV AD 105-120 8 acres Coh I Tungrorum; Vardulli cavalry +Legionaries; V AD 120-130 5 acres Coh I Tungrorum ; stone fort VI c AD 130-160’s 3.6acres Possibly Coh II Nerviorum VIA c AD 160-200 4 acres. Unknown – Possibly North African in origin or Coh II Nerviorum VIB c AD 208-211 1.5acres Unknown VII c AD 212-280 3.6acres Coh IV Gallorum VIII c AD 300-367 3.6acres Coh IV Gallorum IX AD 367-410 3.6acres Unknown –Riacus X c AD 410-600 3.6acres Unknown – Brigomaglos and Riacus only known occupants
  40. 40. Who?
  41. 41. Leading Cast • Flavius Cerialis, Prefect • Aelius Brocchus, another prefect (off- stage)
  42. 42. Roman Names Forename Family name Nickname, local name or tribal name Praenomen gentilicium or nomen Cognomen ? Flavius Cerialis Acquired Roman Citizenship after accession of first Flavian, Vespasian From Petillius Cerialis
  43. 43. Significant Others • Sulpicia Lepidina, wife of Flavius • Claudia Severa, wife of Aelius
  44. 44. Their Home
  45. 45. Correspondents • Felicio, a centurion • Priuatis, a slave • Caecilius September, prefect of a cavalry unit
  46. 46. The Extras • Types of auxiliary units – Quingenaria or milliaria – Equitata • VIIII Batavians • I Tungrians • Itinerant cavalry, legionaries, other units
  47. 47. Cavalry Present
  48. 48. Bronze military diploma Malpas, Cheshire 103 CE To: Reburrus, a Spanish decurion in the 1st Pannonian cavalry
  49. 49. Military Diploma From Hadrian for the units: which are in Britain…. … soldiers who have served twenty-five years and received an honourable discharge …. To them and to their children for posterity has been granted … citizenship.
  50. 50. Marriage
  51. 51. Life at Vindolanda The Written Record
  52. 52. Not Written on Stone • Papyrus • Vellum • Wax tablet – business and legal use • Ink tablet – ephemeral use
  53. 53. Wax Writing Tablet/Styli Found in or near the River Walbrook, London 1st or 2nd century
  54. 54. Wax Writing Tablet-Vindolanda
  55. 55. Writing Tablets and Scribes PROC AVG DEDERVNT BRIT PROV 'The imperial procurators of the province of Britain issued this
  56. 56. Ox Goad Or Pen?
  57. 57. Challenge-Reading the Tablets • Conservation • Dirt: Infra-red photography • Reading script • New words, new spelling • Filling in missing parts – Formulaic writing – Standard abbreviations – Recognized names
  58. 58. Script
  59. 59. Cerialis Seeks Advancement Now (?), in whatever way you wish, fulfil what I expect of you and ... so furnish me with friends that thanks to you I may be able to enjoy a pleasant period of military service.
  60. 60. Wishing Cerialis Success in his Upcoming Meeting with the Governor
  61. 61. Expenses • Dinners with Brocchus • Hunting • Distribution of beer to the decurions • Chickens – Dinner guests – Holidays
  62. 62. Account
  63. 63. Account - Details • Cloaks, number 6, 11 /2 denarii each, total 69 denarii • Skillets, number 4, denarii 2 7/8 and 1 as each, total 11¾ denarii. • Scarlet curtain (?), measuring 11 ½ , total 54 ½ + denarii • Hair, 9 pounds in weight, 5¾ denarii per pound, total 51¾ denarii. • Drawers, number 10, 2 ½ denarii each, total 25 denarii.
  64. 64. Supplies – Detailed List •Wheat •Hides from tannery at Catterick •Send cash •Delivery delay because the bad roads would have resulted in injuries to the animals
  65. 65. Inventory
  66. 66. Buying Food for the Holiday, etc. •Barley •Beer •Wine •Fish-sauce
  67. 67. More for the Saturnalia Severus to his Candidus, greetings. Regarding the ... for the Saturnalia, I ask you, brother, to see to them at a price of 4 or six asses and radishes to the value of not less than 1/2 denarius. Farewell, brother.’ Back: To Candidus, slave of Genialis the prefect, from Severus, slave of ?
  68. 68. Recipe Found in kitchen •Garlic •Spiced wine •Olives ? •Salt ?
  69. 69. New Year’s Day Sacrifice
  70. 70. Footwear Early Late
  71. 71. Lepidina’s ‘Designer’ Sandal
  72. 72. Birthday Invitation On 11 September, sister, for the day of the celebration of my birthday, I give you a warm invitation to make sure that you come to us, to make the day more enjoyable for me by your arrival, if you are present (?). To Sulpicia Lepidina from Claudia Severa, wife of Aelius Brocchus
  73. 73. Birthday Letter
  74. 74. Child’s Sock
  75. 75. HW INTEREA PAVIDAM VOLITANS PINNA TA .VBEM segn. Meanwhile, the winged [bird, rumor], flying though the trembling city. Virgil IX 473 Slack
  76. 76. Neglecting HW?
  77. 77. Damaged pottery From Graufinesque, S. Gaul
  78. 78. The Rank and File
  79. 79. Roll call 18 May, net number of the First Cohort of Tungrians, of which the commander is Iulius Verecundus the prefect: 752, including centurions 6 of whom there are absent: [list numbers of absentees and where they are]
  80. 80. Work Three groups •Building a hospitium •Working at lime-kilns •Getting clay for making wattle fences
  81. 81. Recommendation Letter
  82. 82. Clothing I have sent (?) you ... pairs of socks from Sattua, two pairs of sandals and two pairs of underpants, two pairs of sandals ... Greet ...ndes, Elpis, Iu..., ...enus, Tetricus and all your messmates with whom I pray that you live in the greatest good fortune
  83. 83. Expense Account •Wine •Barley •Wagon-axles •Carriage •Accommodation •Vests
  84. 84. Travel
  85. 85. Account of Loan(?) of Wheat
  86. 86. Request for Leave I ask, my lord Cerialis, that you consider me a worthy person to whom to grant leave
  87. 87. Masclus’ Request P.S. My fellow soldiers have no beer. Please order some to be sent.
  88. 88. Purchases by Lower Ranks •Pepper •Tallow •Towels •Overcoat •Thongs
  89. 89. Complaint I want you to know that I am in very good health, as I hope you are in turn, you neglectful man, who have sent me not even one letter. But I think that I am behaving in a more considerate fashion in writing to you ... to you, brother, ... my messmate.
  90. 90. Mistreatment - Complaint I implore your majesty not to allow me, an innocent man, to have been beaten with rods… I implore your mercifulness not to allow me, a man from overseas and an innocent one, about whose good faith you may inquire, to have been bloodied by rods as if I had committed some crime.
  91. 91. Intelligence on the Britons ... the Britons are unprotected by armour (?). There are very many cavalry. The cavalry do not use swords nor do the wretched Britons (Brittunculi) mount in order to throw javelins.
  92. 92. British Uprising
  93. 93. Vicus Fort
  94. 94. Development of Vici Traditional model • Extra mural area with bath house and a few traders and camp followers • Economic development • Some political independence – Survive dismantling of the fort • Military annexes or fortified civilian annexes
  95. 95. Extramural Vindolanda • Antonine (~160) – Defensive enclosure perhaps to facilitate wagon parks, horse lines • Severan (~210) – Stone fort • 3rd century – Settlement
  96. 96. Vindolanda 3-4 C.
  97. 97. Baths
  98. 98. Baths
  99. 99. Footwear for the Baths
  100. 100. Roman-Celtic Temple
  101. 101. Model altar and stands
  102. 102. Brooch and pendant
  103. 103. The Environment c. 180 CE85-92 CE
  104. 104. Traditional View • Fort – combatants • Vicus – noncombatants – Merchants – Women
  105. 105. In the vicus or nearby • Oxherd; keeper of pigs • Brewer • Veteran • Guesthouse
  106. 106. Finds in barracks • Female shoes – not just associated with prefect • Bracelets and beads at Catterick
  107. 107. Shoes in barracks 2nd C. 21% smaller sizes
  108. 108. Women in the fort - 3rd & 4th C. • Weaving work • Not just associated with prefects or centurions • Fort boundaries porous in both directions
  109. 109. Antonine Wall Severus Division of Britannia Antonine Wall
  110. 110. Hadrian’s Successors
  111. 111. Antoninus Antoninus never willing made war Pausanias They prefer to preserve their empire rather than extend it indefinitely to profitless, barbarian peoples Appian (~96-165) They surround the empire with a circle of great camps Aelius Aristides (120-189)
  112. 112. Antoninus Pius • Generally shied away from military adventure • Pressure from the north • Reconstruction of base at Corbridge • Victory over barbarians • Antonine Wall
  113. 113. Corbridge – New Construction 139
  114. 114. Antonine Occupation of Scotland
  115. 115. Military Occupation – Antonine Period
  116. 116. Interests of the Military • Rank and file – pensions and booty • Commanders of equestrian class – Patronage – Better posts in the Mediterranean
  117. 117. Reuse of Gask Ridge Forts
  118. 118. Elements of the Antonine Wall • Rampart • Ditch and mound to the north • Military road to the south
  119. 119. Antonine vs Hadrian Walls • Forts interspersed with smaller stations. • No Vallum. • Double the number of troops along smaller distance than Hadrian's Wall • Turf not stone – stone reinforcement • 14-16’ wide, probably 10’ high
  120. 120. Antonine Siege Fort
  121. 121. Wall at Rough Castle Annex
  122. 122. Rough Castle
  123. 123. Principia, Bar Hill
  124. 124. Latrine, Bearsden Artist’s reconstruction
  125. 125. Wall with Fortlet
  126. 126. Distance Slabs
  127. 127. Bridgeness Distance Slab
  128. 128. Old Kirkpatrick
  129. 129. Summerston Farm, near Balmuildy IIIDCLXVIS = 3,666 ½ paces
  130. 130. Distance Slab Hutcheson Hill
  131. 131. Legio II Duntocher
  132. 132. Other victory commemorations
  133. 133. Consequences of Antonine Wall • Forces involved ~6-7,000 • Pax Romana • No evidence for native rule • Increased use of stone construction • New civilian communities follow the army • Increased mining for iron and surface mining of coal • Production of food for army
  134. 134. Continuation of Native Life • Round houses • No new concentrated settlements except near forts • Natives reuse bronze but not iron from Romans • Roman brooches
  135. 135. Roman Artefacts Dunure (South Ayrshire) Wigtownshire
  136. 136. Antonine Itinerary • Fourteen numbered roads • List stations along the roads with distances between them
  137. 137. Example Iter III (From London to the port of Dover) Roman Name 1000 paces Miles Current Name Durobrivis xxvii 31 Rochester Duroverno xxv 28 Canterbury Ad portum Dubris xiiii 18 Dover
  138. 138. Along the Way • Mansiones, inns, every 30 miles or so – A bed for man and horse – Food ” “ – A hot bath – Storage of government goods – Postal and police services • Mutationes, changing stops
  139. 139. Chelmsford Mansio
  140. 140. Godmanchester Mansio Baths 80’ Dining room
  141. 141. Abandonment of Antonine Wall • Under Governor Julius Verus the wall was abandoned (c. 154-8 CE) • Hadrian’s wall was refurbished • “Military Road” to supply Hadrian wall forts • Outpost forts north of Hadrian’s Wall abandoned by 185 CE
  142. 142. Maintenance
  143. 143. Breach of Hadrian’s Wall?
  144. 144. Victory in Britain
  145. 145. Commodus • Breach of Hadrian's Wall • C. 180 Governor Ulpius Marcellus sent to put down rebellions • 184-5 Victory in Britain • 185 Protest by British legions against prefect, Perennis
  146. 146. Numeri • Non-citizens • Small units • Legionary officers • Identified with nations • No entitlement to citizenship • Less-well armed than regulars – Exploratores - scouts
  147. 147. Sarmatians • 175 Brought to Britain by Marcus Aurelius • Brougham cemetery – Sword and belt fittings – Horses – Unusual burial - women Archaeology • May/June 2005
  148. 148. Sarmatian Treasure - Gaul
  149. 149. Pertinax • 126 Son of freeman and clothmaker • c. 150 Teacher of literature • 161 Volunteers for military, commander of auxiliary cohort, successful in battles in Asia • 165 Legionary tribune in York, raised to equestrian rank • 168 Procurator in N. Italy, Dacia • Commander of units against Germans
  150. 150. Pertinax • Made Senator and legionary commander • 175 Consul • 176 Series of governorships of provinces – 185-187 Governor of Britain • 189 Mayor of Rome • 192 Consul • Emperor 1/1/193 to 3/28/193
  151. 151. Clodius Albinus • c.140 Born near Carthage, Senatorial rank – 175 Governor of Bithynia – 187 Consul – 189 Governor fo Germany • 191-2 Governor of Britain • 193 Made Caesar by Septimius Severus • 195 Severus names his own sons successors, forcing out Albinus – Supported by legions on German frontier and from Spain – Defeated near Lugdunum (Lyon); suicide?
  152. 152. Lugdunum - Severus Severus • Pannonia – XIIII Gemina • Moesia – XI Claudia • Germania Superior – XXII Primigenia • Germania Inferior – I Minerva – XXX Ulpia Traiana Albinus • Britannia – II Augusta – VI Victrix – XX Valeria • Hispania – VII Gemina

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