Labor unions emerge


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US History Ch.6 Section 4

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Labor unions emerge

  1. 1. Ch. 6 Section 3 cont<br />Labor Unions Emerge<br />
  2. 2. Sherman Antitrust Act<br />1890- Made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries<br />Was very hard to enforce because the act was not well written and companies found loop holes<br />Eventually the government gave up<br />
  3. 3. Business Boom Bypasses the South<br />The South was still recovering from the civil war and had no capital to invest<br />The North controlled most of the industry and the railroads<br />South remained agricultural an suffered from high transportation costs and high tariffs on raw materials<br />
  4. 4. Labor Unions<br />Workers joined together to try to improve their lot<br />Workers had long hours in very dangerous conditions<br />No sick pay, compensation for injury, etc<br />In 1882 an average of 675 were killed at work a week<br />Number of women and children working in factories increased (Sweat shops) <br />
  5. 5. Early Organization<br />First national organization was National Labor Union (NLU) 1866 by William H. Sylvis<br />Persuaded congress to legalize and 8 hour work day for government workers<br />Colored National Labor Union (CNLU) was created because some NLU chapters would not accept African Americans<br />Knights of Labor 1869- open to all workers no matter race, gender, or skill.<br />“an injury to one is the concern of all”<br />Advocated 8 hour work days and equal pay for men and women<br />
  6. 6. Craft Unionism<br />Included workers form one or more trades<br />American Federation of Labor (AFL) <br />Focused on collective bargaining, or negotiation between representatives of labor and management<br />Used strikes as a major tactic<br />
  7. 7. Industrial Unionism<br />Felt that unions should include all laborers in an industry- skilled or unskilled<br />American Railway Union (ARU) <br />Included unskilled laborers as well as engineers<br />Used strikes to gain higher wages<br />
  8. 8. Socialism and the IWW<br />Socialism: an economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth<br />Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)- Wobblies<br />Included miners, lumberers, and cannery and dock workers<br />Welcomed African American workers<br />
  9. 9. Other Unions<br />Sugar Beet and Farm Laborers’ Union of Oxnard- Japanese and Mexican workers of Ventura county<br />State Federation of Labor- Chinese and Japanese miners who wanted the same wages and treatment as other miners<br />
  10. 10. Strikes Turn Violent<br />Great Strike of 1877: Worker of B&O railroad protested wage cuts. Strike spread and all railroad traffic for 50,000 miles was stopped. President Hayes sent troops in to end the strike<br />Haymarket Affair: May 4, 1877 3,000 people gathered at Haymarket Square in Chicago to protest police brutality. Someone threw a bomb into the police line, and police opened fire.<br />Caused some to turn against the labor movement<br />
  11. 11. Violent Strikes Cont.<br />Homestead Strike: Carnegie Steel workers called a strike after wages were cut. “Scabs” were hired, but workers forced them out and kept the plant closed. 3 detectives and 9 workers died.<br />Pullman Company Strike: with the economic depression Pullman laid off 3,000 workers and cut wages in half without decreasing workers rent. ARU boycotted Pullman’s trains when he would not negotiate.<br />Turned violent when strikebreakers were hired<br />President Cleveland sent in federal troops to end strike<br />Many strikers were fired or blacklisted<br />
  12. 12. Women Organize<br />Mary Harris Jones (Mother Jones)- organized the United Mine Workers of America (UMW)<br />Led 80 mill children with hideous injuries on a march to the home of President Roosevelt.<br />Led to the passage of child labor laws<br />Pauline Newman (16 years old) organized International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU)<br />Organized a strike of 20,000 seamstresses<br />
  13. 13. Pressure Against Unions<br />Employers forbade union meetings<br />Forced employees to sign “yellow-dog contracts” swearing they would not join a union<br />Turned Sherman Act against labor, saying strikes would harm interstate trade<br />