Early british colonies


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Ch. 1 sections 3-4

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Early british colonies

  1. 1. Early British Colonies<br />Jamestown- Named for King James<br />Built in a small, defensible peninsula<br />Colonists hoped to find gold to satisfy their investors (people supporting the colony)<br />Farming was neglected because they were so focused on finding gold.<br />Soon they were plagued by disease from contaminated water, and hunger.<br />John Smith forced colonists to farm and secured food and support from local natives.<br />Smith was injured and left for England, but without his leadership the colony deteriorated into famine<br />They were eventually saved by the arrival of new colonists and the discovery of tobacco crops<br />
  2. 2. Tobacco and its consequences<br />Tobacco growers needed laborers<br />Virginia company offered 50 acres to “adventurers” who would pay for their own or another's’ transportation from England. (Headright System)<br />Indentured Servants: someone who agreed to a term of servitude in exchange for passage to America and food and shelter on arrival.<br />First African slaves arrived in 1619<br />Colonists became greedy and began to go to war with local Native Americans in order to drive them away<br />
  3. 3. Economic differences in Virginia<br />By the 1670’s ¼ of free white men in Virginia were poor former indentured servants<br />Nathaniel Bacon lead colonists on a march upon Jamestown in September 1676<br />Had several grievances including the frontier’s lack of representation in Virginia’s House of Burgesses (the legislature)<br />This is known as Bacon’s Rebellion<br />The rebellion exposed restlessness of colony’s former indentured servants<br />
  4. 4. Puritans and “New England”<br />Puritans: A religious group who eliminated all traces of Catholicism. Many fled to America to escape religious persecution.<br />Believed they had a special covenant with God and they were to create a moral society.<br />One group founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630<br />Extended the right to vote to all adult male members of the Puritan church<br />Politics and religion became intertwined<br />
  5. 5. King Philip’s War<br />King Philip was the Wampanoag chief Metacom<br />Philip organized his tribe and several others into an alliance to wipe out invaders in 1675<br />Natives attacked and burned settlements throughout New England. <br />Settlers responded by killing as many natives as possible, including friendly ones.<br />War lasted for over a year until food shortages and disease forced Natives to surrender or flee<br />
  6. 6. The Middle Colonies<br />1621 the Dutch found New Netherland and expanded the fur trade<br />New Amsterdam (now NYC) became the capitol <br />It was later taken over by the English in 1664<br />William Penn was given a large piece of land by King Charles II which he called Pennsylvania. <br />Penn was a Quaker: a Protestant sect that held services without formal ministers, had no “ranks” and opposed war.<br />
  7. 7. English Colonies<br />13 Colonies founded to benefit England through trade<br />Colonies provided raw materials not found in England<br />Each colony had a governor appointed by the crown who was the highest authority<br />
  8. 8. The South and Plantations<br />The South was made up of self-sufficient plantations- Cash Crops<br />Plantations were worked by African Slaves<br />African slaves managed to maintain some of their culture through music, dance, and storytelling<br />They eventual began to rebel<br />
  9. 9. The Enlightenment<br />A movement in which people believed in obtaining the truth through experimentation and reason – Benjamin Franklin<br />Spread to colonies from Europe through books and pamphlets<br />Spurred the idea of natural human rights –Thomas Jefferson<br />
  10. 10. The Great Awakening<br />A movement to restore the intensity and dedication of the Puritan church (1730-50)<br />Lead to outdoor revivals and challenged the authority of established churches<br />Helped create the atmosphere that led to the American Revolution<br />
  11. 11. French and Indian War<br />French colonies used Natives as partners in the fur trade<br />The French built Fort Duquesne where the Virginia government had already granted land to planters<br />Virginia sent a militia to evict the French starting the war<br />French used their Native American allies to aid them in the war<br />British victory in the war lead to loss of land and trade for Native Americans<br />Pontiac lead Native Americans in capturing 8 British forts in the Ohio Valley leading to the Proclamation of 1763<br />Established a line colonists were not allowed to cross<br />