7. However, Martin Luther was also a husband and a father of
six children. He provided the church its first and most
prominent example of a pastoral family.
8. While still a
marriage as an
institution in as
much crisis as
- and no less in
need of reform.
9. Martin Luther was a
leading defender of
the dignity of women
and the foundational
“at the centre of the
10. His teaching and practices on marriage and the family were
so radical and so long-lasting that it profoundly and
permanently altered the home.
11. Luther and the first generation of Protestant Reformers
rejected this tradition of over a thousand years, of ascetic
sexuality – in both their Theology and their lives.
12. The Reformers rejection of the celibate ideal of the Middle
Ages was as great a revolution in the home as their
teachings were in the Church.
13. Luther literally transferred the praises and esteem that
Christians had traditionally heaped upon the celibate
monks and nuns, to marriage and the home.
Luther described marriage as the only institution where
a chaste & moral life could be maintained.
He insisted that “one cannot be unmarried without sin.”
14. “Marriage pervades the whole of nature”.
Luther taught that nothing was more natural and necessary
“for all creatures are divided into male and female.”
15. Luther had a high regard for
the ability of women to shape
society by moulding its
youth and civilising
its men through
the institution of marriage.
“A companionable woman
brings joy to life”,
“Women tend to and rear
their young, administer the
household and are inclined
22. He saw marriage and fatherhood as an
essential requirement for effective pastors.
23. Luther had six children (Hans, Elizabeth, Magdalene,
Martin, Paul and Margaretha).
24. Luther not only made the Bible part of the daily routine in
the home, but he also made the singing of hymns
central. He played the flute and the lute, and led his
children in singing hymns of praise.
25. He also introduced the Catechism to explain the faith to
children, incorporating Scripture memorisation in the daily routine.
Perhaps it is time for us to recognise Martin Luther as the
true and original founder of Focus on the Family.
31. “Music is a vehicle for proclaiming
the Word of God”, declared Luther.
32. Urging pastors to write German hymns based on the Psalms,
Luther advised “use the simplest and most common words,
preserve the pure teaching of God’s Word, and keep the meaning
as close to the Psalm as possible.”
33. Luther wrote a variety of hymns, intended for Church services and
for devotions at home. To teach the Catechism, he wrote two
hymns on the Ten Commandments, a hymn for the Apostles
Creed, one for the Lords Prayer and others for baptism and the
Lords Supper. Through these hymns, Luther demonstrated his
on-going desire to teach the Faith, especially to children.
34. In 1527, during one of the most
trying times of Luther’s life,
while he was suffering severe
illness and depression,
with his entire body in pain,
the plague had erupted in
Wittenberg and he watched many
Then his own son became ill.
Even though his wife was
Luther’s house was transformed
into a hospital.
35. During that
took time to
of his publication
36. A Mighty Fortress is our God, based on Psalm 46, was
composed during this time of severe trial. It has endured
as one of the most popular and most translated hymns in
A draft of “A Mighty Fortress Is Our God”
37. “And though this world with devils filled,
should threatened to undo us,
we will not fear for God has willed,
His truth to triumph through us.
The prince of darkness grim?
We tremble not for him.
His rage we can endure,
for lo his doom is sure,
one little Word shall fell him.”
38. Luther made singing a central part
of Protestant worship.
He dispensed with the choir and assigned
all singing to the congregation.
Luther would often call the whole congregation into the
church during the week for congregational rehearsals
so that the people could learn new hymns.
“Let everything that has breath praise the Lord.”
39. The REFORMATION and SCIENCE
Modern Science as a discipline is a
fruit of the Reformation.
As Francis Bacon, the father of the
scientific method, once put it:
“There are two books laid before us to
study; to prevent us falling into error;
first, the volume of the Scriptures
which reveal the will of God;
then the volume of the Creatures,
which express His power.”
40. Historian Robert G. Frank points out:
“The predominant forms of scientific activity can be shown to
be a direct outgrowth of a Puritan ideology.”
41. The great astronomer Johannes Kepler
(1571 – 1630), the founder of Celestial Mechanics declared:
“My wish is that I may perceive the God whom I find
everywhere in the external world in like manner within
me.” Kepler was a “brilliant mathematician and
astronomer, he contributed to the scientific revolution with
his work on the planetary orbits, laws of
motion and scientific method.
Kepler’s accomplishments formed
the foundation of modern
42. Kepler saw astronomy as a glimpse of God’s glory.
Kepler argued: “Truth in religion is based on the Word of
God in Scripture, while truth in natural science is based on
evidence and reason.”
Kepler viewed all of science as man attempting to
“think God’s thoughts after Him.”
Kepler was the father of the modern satellite,
and of modern space travel.
43. Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the father of
calculus and dynamics, was a scientific genius and
a dedicated Christian. Newton formulated the
theory of Gravitation and the laws of motion.
He discovered that white light
is composed of the colours of
the spectrum. He made vital
contributions to mathematics,
astronomy and physics.
44. Newton maintained that there were
two key sources of knowledge –
one revealed in the Bible and the
other revealed in nature.
Newton believed that in order to “truly
know the Creator, one must study
the natural order of things.”
Newton dedicated his life to know
the Word of God (the Bible)
and to know the works of God
45. Blaise Pascal
made vital contributions
to mathematics and
technology that helped
with the development
of the computer.
Pascal invented the first
In his honour, a computer
language is named
47. Babbage was essentially a
mathematician and regarded
mathematics as the best
preliminary preparation for all
other branches of human
He believed that the study
of the works of nature,
with scientific precision,
was a necessary and indispensable
preparation for the understanding
and interpreting their testimony of
the wisdom and goodness
of the Divine Author.
49. This was one of the greatest
innovations in the world of
Samuel deeply absorbed his
which he eventually translated
to all his scientific work.
Samuel Morse's first
telegraph, using artist's
canvas stretcher, 1835
50. In 1844, he astonished the US Congress,
gathered in the Supreme Court chamber,
by sending words from Numbers 23:23:
“What hath God wrought?”
The first inter-city telegraph line in the
world communicated these Words of
Scripture to inaugurate this great
invention. Morse, as an inventor,
saw his work as a service to the Lord.
He laid the foundations for the
51. In the realm of physics,
Sir Michael Faraday is
acknowledged as one of
the greatest scientists of
52. He discovered electro-magnetic induction, without
which we could have no motors or engines. He invented
the generator. Faraday was a devout Christian who declared:
53. “The Bible, and it alone,
with nothing added to it
nor taken away from it by man,
is the sole and sufficient guide
for each individual,
at all times and in all circumstances.
Faith in the Divinity and work of Christ
is the gift of God
and the evidence of this faith
is obedience to the commandments of Christ.”
54. Lord Kelvin, one of the greatest
scientists of all times, formulated
the metric temperature scale.
He formulated the science of
giving us the first and second laws
55. Lord Kelvin was the first scientist
who used the concept of energy.
He declared: “With regard to the
origin of life, science positively
affirms Creative power.”
56. Joseph Lister,
the English surgeon who
developed antiseptic surgery
and the use of
“I am a believer in the
fundamental doctrines of
57. Karl von Linnaeus (1707-1778)
was the pioneer of modern botany.
He laid the foundation of natural
history by devising a system of
classification whereby any plant
or animal could be identified
and related to an overall plan.
He introduced the method of naming each type of living
being with universal terms that could be recognised in any
language. He used the Bible to provide the framework for
scientific classification of plants and animals.
58. James Simpson
the founder of gynaecology
was inspired by the Scriptural
passage that God had made
Adam fall into a deep sleep
before taking the rib from him,
to develop chloroform,
and pioneer the beginnings
of modern surgical anaesthetics.
60. He was the first person to chart shipping routes
throughout the world, pioneered the establishment
of sea-lanes and made possible
the laying of electric cables across the ocean floor.
61. Maury was inspired by a
verse from the Bible
(Psalm 8:8, which speaks of
the fish that passed through
“the paths of the seas”).
Maury declared that:
“The Bible is true and
science is true …
the Bible is authority for
everything it touches …
God is the Great Architect
Who planned it all.”
62. It has been pointed out that science could not have
developed amongst those who worship Allah,
because of Islam’s fatalism.
65. Neither could modern science have risen in our modern
humanistic culture, because of humanist's belief that
life is irrational and illogical.
66. By rejecting the notion of
reject the very foundation
If there are no absolutes
in nature, then results in
experimentation can only be
If everything is relative,
and other branches of science,
67. A proper, philosophical base
for investigating the universe was needed,
and only the Christian doctrine of Creation
has provided that base.
The Creator established Laws for people
and Laws for the natural world.
68. A created universe was expected to have design,
order and purpose.
Man using his created, rational mind,
could study this ordered universe in a rational way
and seek to discover its laws.
70. In addition, the moral laws given by the Creator
established the ethical basis for science.
71. Scientists must be honest and truthful. If this universe were not
created, if it is merely the product of chance, then no intelligence
would be involved. There could be no reason to expect such a
universe to operate in a rational or consistent way.
72. Man’s mind would also
be the product of
chance and would not
be capable of reason or
logic. Hence, a
could not provide any
foundation for science.
73. The irrefutable fact is that Christianity gave
birth to modern science. The scientific
revolution began in the Protestant
Reformation and the Bible played a vital part
in the development of scientific discovery.
74. Every major branch of science was
developed by a Bible-believing Christian.
The Bible essentially created science.
75. When we get into a car, start the engine, turn on the
lights, drive to hospital, receive an anaesthetic before an
operation, and have an effective operation done in a
germ-free environment, we need to remember that we
owe it to the Reformation.
76. As Isaac Watts declared in
his great Christmas carol:
“Joy to the World”,
Jesus makes His blessings flow
“far as the curse is found.”
77. “No more let sins and sorrows grow, nor
thorns infest the ground; He comes to make
His blessings flow, far as the curse is found,
far as the curse is found, far as, far as, the
curse is found.”
78. The Reformation and Education
The phenomenon of education for the masses has its roots in
Christianity. Christianity is a teaching religion.
79. The greatest universities worldwide were started by
Christians in fulfillment of the Great Commission of
our Lord Jesus Christ.
80. The roots of education for the common person goes
back to the Reformation, and, especially,
to John Calvin.
81. “The modern idea of popular
education – that is, education for
everyone – first arose in Europe
during the Protestant
Reformation.” (Dr. Samuel Blumenfeld –
Is Public Education necessary?)
American educator, Dr. Samuel
Blumenfeld, came to Christ through
reading Calvin’s Institutes of the
Christian religion. As Blumenfeld did his
research on education, he found that,
when it came to the concept of education
for the common man, all roads led to
Calvin. It was as he read the primary
documents, that he came to place his
faith in Christ.
82. “Wherever Calvinism has gone, it has carried
the school with it and has given a powerful
impulse to popular education. It is a system
which demands intellectual manhood. In fact,
we say that its very existence is tied up with
education of the people.” (Dr. Loraine Boettner –
The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination).
83. Calvin’s Academy in Geneva was the model for many
of the early colleges and universities established by
the Puritans and their successors in America.
84. Calvin advocated that the purpose of education is for
people to know God and to glorify Him as God – that in
our vocation and in our life we might know “the
knowledge of God, the Creator and Redeemer.” The
content of education must begin with the
Scriptures, and continue into God’s Creation.
85. In Geneva, Calvin promoted education for
everyone, which has become the pattern for
our day. When John Knox fled from
Scotland and sought freedom from
persecution in Geneva, he declared that
Geneva had become the greatest school
of Christ since the time of the Apostles.
86. Calvin emphasised the importance of education having
moral relevance. Calvin also was insistent that it was
the parents’ responsibility to educate their children.
Therefore the control of education should remain
with the parents.
87. Of America’s first 126 universities, 123 were Christian.
This included Harvard, Yale, Princeton, etc.
88. The Reformation also produced some
of the greatest works of literature.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
was one of the world’s greatest
writers. Scriptural quotes and Biblical
images from the Geneva Bible
permeate Shakespeare’s writings.
89. Similarly, John Bunyan (1628-1688) gave the world
one of the greatest novels ever written – Pilgrim’s
Progress. This parable of the Christian life is one of
the all-time most published and widely read books in
the history of the world.
90. John Milton (1608-1674) author of Paradise Lost
and Paradise Regained was the secretary to Oliver
Cromwell, and also a Puritan.
Milton dictating to his
91. Many music critics declare that Bach was the greatest
musician that ever lived. J.S. Bach was an
unsurpassed genius, and is acknowledged as the father
of modern music. He left no musical form as he found
it, says one critic. On the other hand, with every form
he touched, he seemed to have said the last word.
Bach’s teaching notebooks and violin books have been
the basis for music theory and practice ever since.
92. Johan Sebastian Bach was a
Protestant Christian, a Lutheran. Most
of his library consisted of Protestant
writings, including all of Luther’s
writings. Bach taught his pupils that
music is an act of worship and all
musicians need to commit their talents
to the Lord Jesus Christ.
As one critic said: “Bach is to music
what Shakespeare is to literature.
They are both the greatest.” And they
were both Protestant Christians.
93. Free Enterprise and the Work Ethic
Along with some of the greatest art and literature, the
Reformation brought about the greatest industrial
advances and prosperity ever experienced in history.
94. The Protestant work ethic, which helped to bring
about great prosperity in Western Europe and North
America, arose mostly through the Protestant
Reformers – particularly John Calvin.
95. “The most dynamic businessmen were to be found in
Protestant Holland and the most vigorous industrial
growth in Protestant England, both states heavily
tinctured with Calvinism.” (Historian Richard Dunn).
96. Max Webber, in his famous book:
“The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
Capitalism” (1905), attributed the
Capitalist Revolution to Calvinism, its
worldly asceticism and Protestant
97. Calvin upheld the right of
private ownership of
property, taught the Biblical
concept of stewardship,
promoted free enterprise
and freed money from the
bondage to which it had
been held for centuries by
the forbidding of interest
98. By allowing interest and promoting the work ethic,
Calvin unleashed all the powers that capitalism has
99. As a result, the free enterprise system has generated
the highest standards of living, the longest life
expectancy and the greatest advances in industry
and medicine ever experienced in history.
100. For these and so many other reasons, the
Reformation in Europe during the 16th century
has to be seen as one of the most important
epochs in the history of the world. The
Reformation gave us the Bible – now freely
available in our own languages.
translation of the
101. The Reformation also pioneered the now-almost
universally acknowledged principles of:
liberty of conscience,
the rule of law,
separation of powers and
constitutionally limited Republics.
102. All of these foundational principles
were unthinkable before the
The Reformers emphasis on God’s
that Scripture alone is the final
that Christ alone is the head of the
that justification is by God’s grace, on
the basis of the finished work of
received by grace alone.
103. Their teachings on the
depravity of man, the
Covenant and Church
government has influenced
law and liberty throughout
the Western world and
104. All of us are
It is time that we
and the principles
of the Reformation.
111. Dr Peter Hammond
P.O. Box 74
Cape Town, South Africa
Tel: (021) 689 4480
Fax: (021) 685 5884