12. The Austrians had liberated Bosnia and Herzegovina from the
Ottoman-Turkish Empire in 1878.
13. In 1908, the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were incorporated
formally into the Austria-Hungarian Empire.
14. The date chosen for the state visit of Archduke Frans Ferdinand to
Sarajevo was a date of painful historic significance for the Serbs –
Those Who Forget the Lessons of
History are Doomed to Repeat It
15. it was the anniversary of the disastrous defeat, 28 June 1389, at the
hands of the Ottoman-Turks at Kosovo.
16. Despite Austria playing the leading role in liberating the Balkans
from centuries of Ottoman-Turkish oppression, the neighbouring
country of Serbia was intensely hostile to Austria and wanted to
greatly expand its territory to include all the Slavs of the Balkans,
including Bosnia and Herzegovina into Serbia.
18. Serbia was a monarchy, and having tasted victory against the Turks in
the Balkan War of 1912,
20. The head of Serbian Military Intelligence, Colonel Dragutin
Dimitrijevic, known by his code name Apis (after the Egyptian bull
god), also controlled The Black Hand, an international terrorist group
run by Major Vojin Tankosic.
The Black Hand
21. It was this group which provided The Young Bosnians,
including Gavrilo Princip,
with 4 Browning semi-automatic pistols,
6 bombs and cyanide capsules.
22. This was in May 1914. Princip received some training in pistol target
practice in the park in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
23. Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijevic was described as:
"a revolutionary fanatic, pale, bald, heavy, enigmatic,
like a giant Mongolian."
The Devious Dragutin
30. by a group of Serbian army officers which included Dragutin.
35. Hardly a democracy, Serbia was described by many as a rogue state
whose rulers were intimately involved in international terrorism.
36. The evidence is
the young Bosnian
from the Serbian
military and their
basic training in
37. The Serbian Prime Minister Pasic
informed the cabinet at the end
of May that assassins were on
their way to Sarajevo
to kill Frans Ferdinand.
38. Serbian state documents include details about the movements of the
assassins, and of the bombs and pistols in their luggage.
39. The Interior Ministry in Belgrade was fully briefed on all aspects of
their mission. Yet no warning was forwarded to the Austrian
authorities of the planned assassination.
40. From the Austrian side, the lack of rudimentary security arrangements
on that tragic day is astounding. Acts of terrorism in, and from, the
Balkans were a clear and present danger.