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80 Years Ago: The Real Story
Behind the Attack on Pearl Harbour
Dr. Peter Hammond
As my history teacher
in Rhodesia cautioned
us:
Beware
the victor’s
version of
History !
The claim that no one could have anticipated
torpedo attacks in the shallow waters of a harbour
before 7 December 1941, is false.
The Danger of Torpedo Attack
The British had proved that torpedoes could be effective in their
attack on the Italian Navy at Taranto, 11 November 1940. The
Royal Navy used Swordfish Bi-planes to deliver the torpedoes.
On the night of 11 to 12 November 1940, British Naval forces
under Admiral Andrew Cunningham,
Battle of Taranto
including Aircraft Carrier HMS Illustrious, launched Fairey
Swordfish biplane torpedo bombers in the Mediterranean Sea
to attack the Regia Marina Battle Fleet at anchor
in the harbour of Taranto.
Despite the shallow depth of the water, the aerial torpedoes
proved devastatingly effective, crippling the Italian Navy,
which lost half of its capital ships in one night.
The Royal Navy raid on Taranto Bay marked the ascendency of
air power over sea power. The Fleet Air Arm proved to be
the Navy's most devastating weapon.
Naval Air Power
The US Navy had discussed this new threat in a June 1941
Memorandum. Torpedo nets were considered as a precautionary
measure to be installed in Pearl Harbour.
Admiral Kimmel and his staff testified that the decision not to
install torpedo nets and booms had been made by the Navy
Department in Washington DC, not in Hawaii.
Overruled by Politicians
in Washington D.C.
Seventeen months before Pearl Harbour,
the British Royal Navy attacked the French Fleet at anchor
on the coast of French Algeria.
Was the Japanese Raid on Pearl
Harbour Really Unprecedented?
The Battle of Mers-el-Kébir on 3 July 1940, resulted in the deaths
of 1,297 French servicemen, the sinking of a French battleship
and the damaging of 5 other ships. The combined air and sea
attack was carried out against Britain's official ally - France.
The attack remains controversial and created much hostility
between France and Britain.
Attacking an Ally
Britain argued that "the times were desperate; invasion seemed
imminent; and the British government simply could not afford to
risk Germany seizing control of the French Fleet… the prominent
British motive was thus dire necessity and self-preservation."
However
the French
insisted that,
as their terms
of surrender
with Germany
did not require
them handing
over their
Fleet, which
was still in
French
controlled
territory,
the British
action was
treacherous.
At the same time, French ships that were in Alexandria and
believed that they were allies of Britain were shocked to be
blockaded, boarded and seized by the Royal Navy.
Swift and Surprising Action
Also on 3 July 1940, French ships in Plymouth and Portsmouth,
England, were boarded and captured.
This included the French submarine, Surcouf (the largest
submarine in the world at that time), four other submarines, the
battleships Paris and Courbet, destroyers Triomphant and
Leopard.
Some officers and sailors were killed in the struggles.
These attacks were justified by the British strategy of
Copenhaging the Fleet.
Admiral Horatio Nelson's famous battle of Copenhagen on
2 April 1801 was a clear inspiration for the Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbour, 1941.
Copenhaging the Fleet
Although Denmark was officially neutral during the Napoleonic
Wars, Britain feared that her Navy may be seized by the French,
if Denmark fell to the French.
The Battle of Copenhagen was a result of multiple failures
of diplomacy.
Targeting Neutrals
With Britain enforcing a strict blockade of France and any country
trading with France, even neutral nations, such as Denmark,
Sweden and Prussia, were regarded as legitimate targets.
Admiral Sir Hyde Parker and Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson led the
attack on the Danish capital, Copenhagen.
The Battle of Copenhagen
The British attack, during which Admiral Nelson famously placed
his telescope to his blind eye ignoring a command to withdraw,
was, from the British perspective, spectacularly successful.
1,600 Danish soldiers and sailors were killed, or wounded and
most of the Danish Navy either sunk, severely damaged,
or captured.
Although ostensibly neutral, Denmark was again attacked by the
Royal Navy 16 August - 5 September 1807,
when the Royal Navy bombarded Copenhagen,
seized the Danish Fleet
"as a precaution" in case Denmark did choose to join the French.
The Second Battle of Copenhagen
3,000 soldiers and civilians, including 195 children,
in Copenhagen died as a result of the bombardment.
As the majority of the Danish Army was at the Southern border to
protect against a possible attack from the French, this second
assault on a neutral country was a scandal at the time.
Knowing that the Imperial Japanese Navy was modelled on the
Royal Navy, these famous battles, strategies and tactics of
Copenhaging the Fleet, of even a neutral country, where a
potential threat was perceived,
Ignoring Historic Precedents
including against Britain's French allies and most tellingly at the
Battle of Taranto, where aircraft, using torpedoes, launched
from an aircraft carrier had crippled a battle fleet, should have
been taken into consideration.
Modern American films such as Tora! Tora! Tora! And
Pearl Harbour tend to ignore these historic precedents and
pretend that the attack on Pearl Harbour was both
"unprecedented" and "unexpected"
Deception by Entertainment
and "the first surprise attack by aircraft on ships !"
Generations have been deceived into thinking that Pearl Harbour
was a treacherous, unexpected and unprecedented attack
"A day that will live in infamy!"
Admiral James
Richardson was fired by
President Roosevelt for
complaining about the
president's order to
station the Pacific Fleet
in Pearl Harbour.
Reckless and
Irresponsible
Admiral Richardson blamed the president for the "initial defeats in
the Pacific" as "direct, real and personal."
Richardson believed that stationing the Pacific Fleet in Pearl
Harbour made the ships "extremely vulnerable to attack" and
provided "a poor and nonstrategic defence."
Captain L.F. Safford, US Navy, in charge of the Communications
Security Section of Naval Communications in Washington,
testified before the Admiral Hart Board that:
Dereliction of Duty
"On 4 December 1941, we received definite information
from two independent sources that Japan would attack the United
States and Britain… at 9pm Washington time, 6 December 1941,
we received positive information that Japan would declare war
against the United States at a time to be specified thereafter.
This information was positive and unmistakable and was made
available to Military Intelligence virtually at the moment of its
decoding.
Finally at 10:15am Washington time, 7 December 1941, we
received positive information from Signal Intelligence Service,
War Department, that the Japanese Declaration of War would be
presented to the Secretary of State at 1pm, Washington time that
date;
when it was 1pm in Washington, it would be day break in Hawaii
and approximately midnight in the Philippines, which indicated a
surprise air raid in Pearl Harbour in about three hours. President
Roosevelt had ample time to broadcast a warning."
On December 6th , 1941, a message to the Japanese delegation in
Washington D.C. was intercepted, broken & distributed by the Signal
Intelligence Service, SIS.
General Albert C. Wedemeyer is quoted by Herbert Hoover in
Freedom Betrayed as stating: "When on, December 6,
our intercepts told us that the Japanese were going to attack
somewhere the very next day, whether in the Central Pacific,
or to the South in the Philippines and Dutch East Indies,
Failing to Give US Servicemen
a Fighting Chance
the president of the United States, as Commander in Chief of our
Military Forces… could have gone on the radio and broadcast to
the wide world that he had irrefutable evidence of an immediate
Japanese intention to strike.
This would have alerted everybody from Singapore to Pearl
Harbour. Even though inadequate in some cases to defend
effectively, nevertheless, our forces would have been able to take
a toll, which would have blunted the Japanese attack.
In Hawaii, the capital ships might have been moved out of the
congested harbour to sea, where Admiral Kimmel at least had the
foresight to keep the far more vital aircraft carriers.
Furthermore, our Carrier taskforce in the mid-Pacific might have
attacked the Japanese taskforce when its planes were aloft.
There are many possibilities
which could have given our men a fighting chance."
An Army Enquiry conducted July to October 1944, condemned
negligence by General Marshall and other senior officers for
having prior knowledge of the attacks from the intercepts and for
not having alerted the Military Commander at Pearl Harbour.
Criminal Negligence
USS California (BB-44) damaged by the attack at Pearl Harbour in 1941.
Congress was not satisfied with the Military investigations and
reports, so from November 1945 to May 1946, the Congressional
Pearl Harbour Investigation was held. A Minority Report by Senate
Members of the Committee condemned the endeavour to
"throw as soft a light as possible on Washington."
"The Roberts Commission Report was so hasty, inconclusive and
incomplete. Some witnesses were examined under oath,
others were not. Much testimony was not even recorded…
several records were missing
and most inadequate explanations were supplied…
Attempted Cover Ups
Army and Navy information indicated growing imminence of war
was delivered to the highest authorities… including the President.
The fatal error of Washington was to undertake a world campaign
and world responsibilities without first making provision for the
security of the United States, which was their prime constitutional
obligation.
Senior Washington authorities did not communicate to Admiral
Kimmel and General Short adequate information of diplomatic
negotiations and of intercepted diplomatic intelligence, which,
if communicated
with them,
would have informed them
of the imminent menace
of a Japanese attack
in time for them to
fully alert and prepare
the defences of
Pearl Harbour…
the failure to perform the responsibilities indispensably
essential to the defence of Pearl Harbour rest upon Franklin
D. Roosevelt, Henry L. Simpson, Frank Knox
and George C. Marshall…" (Freedom Betrayed)
Radiogram reporting the Pearl Harbour attack, December 7, 1941
George Morgenstern in his book,
Pearl Harbour: The Story of the Secret War, published in 1947,
wrote: "With absolute knowledge of war, they refused to
communicate that knowledge clearly, unequivocally and in time,
to the people in the field, upon whom the blow would fall…
Dragging a Reluctant America into War
Pearl Harbour provided the American War party with the means of
escaping dependence on a hesitant Congress in taking a reluctant
people into war…
Pearl Harbour was the first action of the Acknowledged War and
the last battle of the Secret War, upon which the administration
had long since embarked.
"The Secret War was waged
against nations which the
leadership of this country had
chosen as enemies months
before they became formal
enemies, by declaration of war.
The Secret War of
Deception
and Propaganda
It was waged also by psychological means by propaganda and
deception against the American people… the people were told
that acts which were equivalent to war were intended to keep the
nation out of war !
Constitutional processes existed only to be circumvented.
Until finally the war making power of Congress was reduced to the
act of ratifying an accomplished fact."
Herbert Hoover declares in his book Freedom Betrayed: "It can
never be forgotten that three times during 1941 Japan made
overtures for peace negotiation.
Rejecting Every Overture for Peace
America never made one,
unless a futile proposal
to the Emperor
the day before
Pearl Harbour
could be called
a peace proposal !
A peace could have been made in the Pacific that would have
saved China from ravishment and would have protected the
American Pacific flank.
If Roosevelt was still determined to carry on his undeclared war
with Germany, until it provoked reprisals, that Pacific protection
was the only sane course.
It would have limited our engagement in any case
to the European theatre.
As a result of this policy - an undeclared war upon Japan
- we suffered the greatest military defeat in our history –
with immeasurable consequences.
"Public opinion was overwhelmingly against our being involved in
the war up to the day of Pearl Harbour… America came into World
War One 33 months after its outbreak.
Fanning the Flames of Hate
by a Mass of Lies
She came into World War Two 27 months after it started. The
processes and the months of lag were the same:
the appeal to crusade for freedom, for independence of nations,
for lasting peace; the same pictures of atrocities; the fanning of
hate and above all, the mass of lies and stimulation of fear of
invasion - they were identical.
But in World War Two the people believed much less of it and they
believed much more that they were being deliberately pushed
into the war. They dimly recognised that they were being ground
in the mills of power politics and the personal ambitions of men."
"The First World War had been conducted in the Allied side in the
name of 'the peoples'. This war was in the name of Stalin,
Churchill and Roosevelt.
Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt's War
At times the whole political and military scene seemed their
personal property - as it was."
(Herbert Hoover, Freedom Betrayed).
"While they promise
them liberty,
they themselves
are slaves
of corruption…."
2 Peter 2:19
"In the first World War, our sons marched to war with flowers in
their rifles. Bands and cheering people were on every platform.
Many Recognised they Were
Being forced into War
There were no bands, no flowers and no cheers on the railway
platforms to World War Two.
There was little singing of war ballades by soldiers or civilians,
except at the urging of paid conductors of propaganda.
The station platforms were stages for grieving and tears.
The promises,
the speeches,
the propaganda
filled the air
as in World War One,
but this time the people
received it grimly
and with little believing."
- Herbert Hoover.
Freedom Betrayed indicts
Roosevelt for instigating
the Pacific war:
His economic sanctions against Japan and shunning of
Japanese peace overtures sparked the Pearl Harbour
attack and ultimately the
U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
—"the act of unparalleled brutality
in all American history."
President Herbert Hoover in Freedom Betrayed documents:
"Roosevelt's contemptuous refusal of Prime Minister Konoye’s
proposals for peace in the Pacific of September, 1941 was
a lost opportunity.
Double Standards
The acceptance of these proposals was prayerfully urged by
both the American and British Ambassadors in Japan.
The terms Konoye proposed would have accomplished every
American purpose except possibly the return of Manchuria -
and even this was thrown open to discussion.
The cynic will recall that Roosevelt was willing to provoke a great
war on his flank over this remote question and then gave
Manchuria to Communist Soviet Russia !"
Herbert Hoover documents in Freedom Betrayed that American
Military officials strongly urged FDR to accept the Three Months'
Stand-Still Agreement offered by the Emperor of Japan in
November 1941.
The Threat of Communism
Japan was alarmed at the threat of the Soviet Union and
a 90-days delay could have kept war out of the Pacific.
Secretary of War, Stimson, in his Diary, disclosed that Roosevelt
and his officials were seeking for a method to stimulate – provoke
- an overt act of aggression from the Japanese.
Three civilians were killed in this shrapnel-riddled car by a bomb dropped from a
Japanese plane eight miles from Pearl Harbour on 7 December 1941.
There are many documents relating to Pearl Harbour which are
still classified and have not yet been made public by the United
States government. Many of these documents were actually
destroyed by the US government during the war.
Classified Documents
are Still Denied to the Public
Some of the public records of the United Kingdom containing
Churchill's "Most Secret" war time intelligence briefs, have been
marked as "closed for 75 years", including the sections dealing
with events from November 1941 through March 1942.
In Day of Deceit, by Robert Stinnett, a memorandum prepared by
Commander McCollum stated that a memorandum issued in the
immediate pre-war period declared that only a direct attack on US
interests would sway the American public,
To Save the Soviet Union
from Collapse in Europe
or Congress, to favour
direct involvement in
the European war.
Anderson and
Secretary Knox,
offered eight specific
plans to aggrieve the
Japanese Empire
Details of the McCollum memo. Make an arrangement with the British for the use of
their bases in Singapore...
"If by these means Japan could be led to commit an overt act
of war, so much the better." The McCollum memo of
7 October 1940, remained classified until 1994.
Jonathan Daniels, Roosevelt's administrative assistant at that time
of Pearl Harbour, presented an eye-witness viewpoint: "The blow
was heavier than he had hoped it would necessarily be…
“Worth the Price”
But the risks paid off;
even the loss was worth the price...!"
("1941: Pearl Harbour Sunday: The End of an Era").
“No reasonably informed person can now believe that Japan
made a villainous unexpected attack on the United States.
An attack was not only fully expected,
but was actually desired.
A Travesty of History
It is beyond doubt that President Roosevelt wanted to get his
country into the war, but for political reasons, was most anxious to
ensure that the first act of hostility came from the other side;
for which reason he caused increasing pressure to be put on the
Japanese, to a point that no self-respecting nation could endure
without resort to arms. Japan was meant, by the American
President, to attack the United States.” (Freedom Betrayed)
As Mr Oliver Lyttelton, then British Minister of Production, said in
1944: "Japan was provoked into attacking
America's Pearl Harbour. It is a travesty of history
to say that America was forced into the war." -
British Historian Captain Russell Grenfell Main Fleet to Singapore
as quoted by President Herbert Hoover in Freedom Betrayed.
William Henry
Chamberlin in America's
Second Crusade (1950),
wrote:
"It is scarcely
possible, in the light
of this and many
other known facts,
to avoid the
conclusion that the
Roosevelt
Administration
sought the war
which began at
Pearl Harbour.
Desperately Seeking War
The steps which made armed conflict inevitable would take
months before the conflict broke out."
(Freedom Betrayed: Herbert Hoovers Secret History of the
Second World War and Its Aftermath).
Then Secretary of State, Hull, issued his foolish ultimatum and we
were defeated at Pearl Harbour.
The Betrayal of China
By Roosevelt insisting
that Chinese Premiere
Chiang Kai-shek
include Mao Tse-Tung's
communists in a
Coalition government
and Roosevelt's Secret Agreement at Yalta
to betray Mongolia and Manchuria to the Soviets
future generations were betrayed.
All of China was sacrificed to the communists in the years of
President Truman - at the insistence of his Left-wing advisors and
General Marshall. The Second World War ended with 450 Million
Asiatic peoples betrayed under communist dictatorship.
Herbert Hoover in Freedom Betrayed declared: "I had warned the
American people time and again against becoming involved.
The Only Beneficiary was Communism
I stated repeatedly its only end would be to promote
Communism over the earth; that we would impoverish the
United States and the whole world. The situation of the world
today is my vindication."
"Roosevelt ignored the whole communist infiltration into his
administration. Much of it was to be exposed before his death.
But of more importance, he ignored the whole international
purpose of communism and its morals in International
relations.
Blind Service to Stalin
and the Soviet Union
Its purposes and methods had been blatantly stated to the world
ever since 1917 and its statements in books were widely
distributed in the United States. Roosevelt was not a communist.
His leanings towards Stalin and blindness to communistic
activities arose partly from his own Leftist-leaning and partly
from the usefulness of the communists in support of his
administration politically throughout his 13 years in office."
"He who
justifies the wicked,
and he who
condemns the just,
both of them alike are an
abomination to the Lord."
Proverbs 17:15
"His leanings towards Stalin and the communist began with the
recognition of the Soviet Union immediately upon taking his office
in 1933….
Co-operating with Communism
During 15 years prior to the
recognition, Democratic and
Republican administrations
alike had barred any relations
with a country which had
returned huge numbers of
mankind to slavery and was
constantly conspiring against
the welfare of other peoples.
By recognition, Roosevelt gave the Soviet Union certain
respectability in the family of nations, but also of importance.
By that act, he had opened the door to communist
penetration and conspiracies in the United States."
"…Should you help
the wicked
and love those
who hate the Lord?
Therefore the wrath
of the Lord is upon you."
2 Chronicles 19:2
In Herbert Hoover's
Freedom Betrayed,
General Douglas McArthur's views
are reported that:
"the whole Japanese war
was a madman's desire
to get the US into war."
A Madman’s Desire to Get US into War
McArthur was convinced
that the
"Financial sanctions
in July 1941 were not only
provocative but Japan
was bound to fight
even if it were suicide,
unless they could be removed, as the sanctions carried every
penalty of war except killing and destruction and no nation of
dignity would take them for long."
McArthur said that:
"Roosevelt could have
made peace with
Konoye in September
1941 and could have
obtained all of the
American objectives in
the Pacific and the
freedom of China and
probably Manchuria. Konoye
was authorized by the
Emperor to agree to
complete withdrawal."
An Unnecessary
War
Callous
Indifference
to the
American
Army
Beleaguered
in the
Philippines
“I believe that it was the desire of President Roosevelt and
Prime Minister Churchill that we get into the war, as they felt
their allies could not win without us and all our efforts to
provoke the Germans to declare war on us had failed. “
McArthur was bitter about: "Roosevelt's starvation of supplies
at a time when the whole fate of the South Pacific and their
allies in Asia was at stake."
"Roosevelt showed his vindictiveness in many ways."
McArthur also told Roosevelt that: "Peace could be made with the
Japanese any time after the Philippines were taken… with their
supporting legs cut off, they were beaten."
The War
Did Not
Need
to Have
Lasted
So Long
He said that: "Roosevelt, however, was determined that General
McArthur should not command in the final movement on Japan…"
General McArthur declared: "We would have avoided all of the
losses of the atomic bomb and the entry of Russia into Manchuria,
had the Japanese peace overtures been accepted, in early 1945."
The Atom Bombs Were Not Necessary
McArthur told President Herbert Hoover in 1946 that: "Truman's
policies were enabling Russia to make a puppet state out of
Manchuria and betraying all of China and Mongolia to
communism."
Betraying Asia to Communism
In September 1944, John Flynn, a member of the America First
Committee, published The Truth about Pearl Harbour:
Rear Admiral Frank Beatty, who at the time of the Pearl Harbour
attack was an aide to the Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox,
testified:
"Prior to 7 December, it was evident even to me… that we were
pushing Japan into a corner.
The conditions we imposed upon Japan were so severe that we
knew the nation could not accept them. We were forcing her so
severely that we could have known that she would react towards
the United States.
All her preparations in a military way - and we knew their overall
import - pointed that way."
Jonathan Daniels, Roosevelt's administrative assistant at that time
of Pearl Harbour, presented an eye-witness viewpoint: "The blow
was heavier than he had hoped it would necessarily be…
But the risks paid off; even the loss was worth the price..."
("1941: Pearl Harbour Sunday: The End of an Era").
"It is an abomination
for kings to commit
wickedness,
for a throne is
established by righteousness."
Proverbs 16:12
Herbert Hoover observed: "Despite these physical losses and
these moral political disasters, and these international follies…
Christian Resistance
Despite the drift to collectivism, despite degeneration in
government, despite the demagogic intellectuals,
despite the corruption in our government and the moral
corruptions of our people, we still hold to Christianity, we still have
the old ingenuity in our scientific and industrial progress."
"We have 35 million children
marching through our schools
and 2,5 million in our
institutions of higher learning…
The Public School
Front
"The promise of a greater America abides in the millions of
cottages throughout the land, where men and women are still
resolute in freedom.
Hope in the Homes
In their hearts the spirit of America still lives. The boys and girls
from those homes will someday throw off these disasters and
frustrations and will re-create their America again."
In order to
anticipate
problems
and threats
in the future
we need
to study the past.
Forewarned
is
Forearmed
"Those who cannot remember the
past are condemned to repeat it."
George Santayana
"If we do not know
our own history,
we will simply have
to endure all
the same mistakes,
sacrifices
and absurdities
all over again."
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
"Now these things became our examples, to the intent that
we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted… now
all these things happened to them as examples, and they
were written for our admonition…" 1 Corinthians 10:6-11
“You shall
know the
truth and
the truth
shall make
you free.”
John 8:32
Truth does not fear investigation.
"Hate evil,
love good;
establish justice
in the gate…"
Amos 5:15
Dr. Peter Hammond
Reformation Society
P.O. Box 74
Newlands, 7725
Cape Town, South Africa
Tel: (021) 689-4480
Fax: (021) 685-5884
Email: info@ReformationSA.org
Website: www.ReformationSA.org
80 Years Ago: The Real Story Behind the Attack on Pearl Harbour
80 Years Ago: The Real Story Behind the Attack on Pearl Harbour
80 Years Ago: The Real Story Behind the Attack on Pearl Harbour

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80 Years Ago: The Real Story Behind the Attack on Pearl Harbour

  • 1. 80 Years Ago: The Real Story Behind the Attack on Pearl Harbour Dr. Peter Hammond
  • 2.
  • 3. As my history teacher in Rhodesia cautioned us: Beware the victor’s version of History !
  • 4. The claim that no one could have anticipated torpedo attacks in the shallow waters of a harbour before 7 December 1941, is false. The Danger of Torpedo Attack
  • 5. The British had proved that torpedoes could be effective in their attack on the Italian Navy at Taranto, 11 November 1940. The Royal Navy used Swordfish Bi-planes to deliver the torpedoes.
  • 6. On the night of 11 to 12 November 1940, British Naval forces under Admiral Andrew Cunningham, Battle of Taranto
  • 7. including Aircraft Carrier HMS Illustrious, launched Fairey Swordfish biplane torpedo bombers in the Mediterranean Sea
  • 8. to attack the Regia Marina Battle Fleet at anchor in the harbour of Taranto.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Despite the shallow depth of the water, the aerial torpedoes proved devastatingly effective, crippling the Italian Navy,
  • 14. which lost half of its capital ships in one night.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. The Royal Navy raid on Taranto Bay marked the ascendency of air power over sea power. The Fleet Air Arm proved to be the Navy's most devastating weapon. Naval Air Power
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. The US Navy had discussed this new threat in a June 1941 Memorandum. Torpedo nets were considered as a precautionary measure to be installed in Pearl Harbour.
  • 24. Admiral Kimmel and his staff testified that the decision not to install torpedo nets and booms had been made by the Navy Department in Washington DC, not in Hawaii. Overruled by Politicians in Washington D.C.
  • 25. Seventeen months before Pearl Harbour, the British Royal Navy attacked the French Fleet at anchor on the coast of French Algeria. Was the Japanese Raid on Pearl Harbour Really Unprecedented?
  • 26. The Battle of Mers-el-Kébir on 3 July 1940, resulted in the deaths of 1,297 French servicemen, the sinking of a French battleship and the damaging of 5 other ships. The combined air and sea attack was carried out against Britain's official ally - France.
  • 27. The attack remains controversial and created much hostility between France and Britain. Attacking an Ally
  • 28. Britain argued that "the times were desperate; invasion seemed imminent; and the British government simply could not afford to risk Germany seizing control of the French Fleet… the prominent British motive was thus dire necessity and self-preservation."
  • 29. However the French insisted that, as their terms of surrender with Germany did not require them handing over their Fleet, which was still in French controlled territory, the British action was treacherous.
  • 30. At the same time, French ships that were in Alexandria and believed that they were allies of Britain were shocked to be blockaded, boarded and seized by the Royal Navy. Swift and Surprising Action
  • 31. Also on 3 July 1940, French ships in Plymouth and Portsmouth, England, were boarded and captured.
  • 32. This included the French submarine, Surcouf (the largest submarine in the world at that time), four other submarines, the battleships Paris and Courbet, destroyers Triomphant and Leopard.
  • 33. Some officers and sailors were killed in the struggles. These attacks were justified by the British strategy of Copenhaging the Fleet.
  • 34. Admiral Horatio Nelson's famous battle of Copenhagen on 2 April 1801 was a clear inspiration for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, 1941. Copenhaging the Fleet
  • 35. Although Denmark was officially neutral during the Napoleonic Wars, Britain feared that her Navy may be seized by the French, if Denmark fell to the French.
  • 36. The Battle of Copenhagen was a result of multiple failures of diplomacy. Targeting Neutrals
  • 37. With Britain enforcing a strict blockade of France and any country trading with France, even neutral nations, such as Denmark, Sweden and Prussia, were regarded as legitimate targets.
  • 38. Admiral Sir Hyde Parker and Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson led the attack on the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The Battle of Copenhagen
  • 39. The British attack, during which Admiral Nelson famously placed his telescope to his blind eye ignoring a command to withdraw, was, from the British perspective, spectacularly successful.
  • 40. 1,600 Danish soldiers and sailors were killed, or wounded and most of the Danish Navy either sunk, severely damaged, or captured.
  • 41. Although ostensibly neutral, Denmark was again attacked by the Royal Navy 16 August - 5 September 1807, when the Royal Navy bombarded Copenhagen, seized the Danish Fleet "as a precaution" in case Denmark did choose to join the French. The Second Battle of Copenhagen
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44. 3,000 soldiers and civilians, including 195 children, in Copenhagen died as a result of the bombardment.
  • 45.
  • 46. As the majority of the Danish Army was at the Southern border to protect against a possible attack from the French, this second assault on a neutral country was a scandal at the time.
  • 47. Knowing that the Imperial Japanese Navy was modelled on the Royal Navy, these famous battles, strategies and tactics of Copenhaging the Fleet, of even a neutral country, where a potential threat was perceived, Ignoring Historic Precedents
  • 48. including against Britain's French allies and most tellingly at the Battle of Taranto, where aircraft, using torpedoes, launched from an aircraft carrier had crippled a battle fleet, should have been taken into consideration.
  • 49.
  • 50. Modern American films such as Tora! Tora! Tora! And Pearl Harbour tend to ignore these historic precedents and pretend that the attack on Pearl Harbour was both "unprecedented" and "unexpected" Deception by Entertainment
  • 51. and "the first surprise attack by aircraft on ships !" Generations have been deceived into thinking that Pearl Harbour was a treacherous, unexpected and unprecedented attack "A day that will live in infamy!"
  • 52. Admiral James Richardson was fired by President Roosevelt for complaining about the president's order to station the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbour. Reckless and Irresponsible
  • 53. Admiral Richardson blamed the president for the "initial defeats in the Pacific" as "direct, real and personal."
  • 54.
  • 55. Richardson believed that stationing the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbour made the ships "extremely vulnerable to attack" and provided "a poor and nonstrategic defence."
  • 56. Captain L.F. Safford, US Navy, in charge of the Communications Security Section of Naval Communications in Washington, testified before the Admiral Hart Board that: Dereliction of Duty
  • 57. "On 4 December 1941, we received definite information from two independent sources that Japan would attack the United States and Britain… at 9pm Washington time, 6 December 1941, we received positive information that Japan would declare war against the United States at a time to be specified thereafter.
  • 58. This information was positive and unmistakable and was made available to Military Intelligence virtually at the moment of its decoding.
  • 59. Finally at 10:15am Washington time, 7 December 1941, we received positive information from Signal Intelligence Service, War Department, that the Japanese Declaration of War would be presented to the Secretary of State at 1pm, Washington time that date;
  • 60. when it was 1pm in Washington, it would be day break in Hawaii and approximately midnight in the Philippines, which indicated a surprise air raid in Pearl Harbour in about three hours. President Roosevelt had ample time to broadcast a warning."
  • 61. On December 6th , 1941, a message to the Japanese delegation in Washington D.C. was intercepted, broken & distributed by the Signal Intelligence Service, SIS.
  • 62. General Albert C. Wedemeyer is quoted by Herbert Hoover in Freedom Betrayed as stating: "When on, December 6, our intercepts told us that the Japanese were going to attack somewhere the very next day, whether in the Central Pacific, or to the South in the Philippines and Dutch East Indies, Failing to Give US Servicemen a Fighting Chance
  • 63. the president of the United States, as Commander in Chief of our Military Forces… could have gone on the radio and broadcast to the wide world that he had irrefutable evidence of an immediate Japanese intention to strike.
  • 64. This would have alerted everybody from Singapore to Pearl Harbour. Even though inadequate in some cases to defend effectively, nevertheless, our forces would have been able to take a toll, which would have blunted the Japanese attack.
  • 65. In Hawaii, the capital ships might have been moved out of the congested harbour to sea, where Admiral Kimmel at least had the foresight to keep the far more vital aircraft carriers.
  • 66. Furthermore, our Carrier taskforce in the mid-Pacific might have attacked the Japanese taskforce when its planes were aloft. There are many possibilities which could have given our men a fighting chance."
  • 67. An Army Enquiry conducted July to October 1944, condemned negligence by General Marshall and other senior officers for having prior knowledge of the attacks from the intercepts and for not having alerted the Military Commander at Pearl Harbour. Criminal Negligence
  • 68. USS California (BB-44) damaged by the attack at Pearl Harbour in 1941.
  • 69. Congress was not satisfied with the Military investigations and reports, so from November 1945 to May 1946, the Congressional Pearl Harbour Investigation was held. A Minority Report by Senate Members of the Committee condemned the endeavour to "throw as soft a light as possible on Washington."
  • 70. "The Roberts Commission Report was so hasty, inconclusive and incomplete. Some witnesses were examined under oath, others were not. Much testimony was not even recorded… several records were missing and most inadequate explanations were supplied… Attempted Cover Ups
  • 71. Army and Navy information indicated growing imminence of war was delivered to the highest authorities… including the President.
  • 72. The fatal error of Washington was to undertake a world campaign and world responsibilities without first making provision for the security of the United States, which was their prime constitutional obligation.
  • 73. Senior Washington authorities did not communicate to Admiral Kimmel and General Short adequate information of diplomatic negotiations and of intercepted diplomatic intelligence, which,
  • 74. if communicated with them, would have informed them of the imminent menace of a Japanese attack in time for them to fully alert and prepare the defences of Pearl Harbour…
  • 75. the failure to perform the responsibilities indispensably essential to the defence of Pearl Harbour rest upon Franklin D. Roosevelt, Henry L. Simpson, Frank Knox and George C. Marshall…" (Freedom Betrayed)
  • 76. Radiogram reporting the Pearl Harbour attack, December 7, 1941
  • 77. George Morgenstern in his book, Pearl Harbour: The Story of the Secret War, published in 1947, wrote: "With absolute knowledge of war, they refused to communicate that knowledge clearly, unequivocally and in time, to the people in the field, upon whom the blow would fall… Dragging a Reluctant America into War
  • 78. Pearl Harbour provided the American War party with the means of escaping dependence on a hesitant Congress in taking a reluctant people into war…
  • 79. Pearl Harbour was the first action of the Acknowledged War and the last battle of the Secret War, upon which the administration had long since embarked.
  • 80. "The Secret War was waged against nations which the leadership of this country had chosen as enemies months before they became formal enemies, by declaration of war. The Secret War of Deception and Propaganda
  • 81. It was waged also by psychological means by propaganda and deception against the American people… the people were told that acts which were equivalent to war were intended to keep the nation out of war !
  • 82. Constitutional processes existed only to be circumvented. Until finally the war making power of Congress was reduced to the act of ratifying an accomplished fact."
  • 83. Herbert Hoover declares in his book Freedom Betrayed: "It can never be forgotten that three times during 1941 Japan made overtures for peace negotiation. Rejecting Every Overture for Peace
  • 84. America never made one, unless a futile proposal to the Emperor the day before Pearl Harbour could be called a peace proposal !
  • 85. A peace could have been made in the Pacific that would have saved China from ravishment and would have protected the American Pacific flank.
  • 86. If Roosevelt was still determined to carry on his undeclared war with Germany, until it provoked reprisals, that Pacific protection was the only sane course.
  • 87. It would have limited our engagement in any case to the European theatre. As a result of this policy - an undeclared war upon Japan - we suffered the greatest military defeat in our history – with immeasurable consequences.
  • 88. "Public opinion was overwhelmingly against our being involved in the war up to the day of Pearl Harbour… America came into World War One 33 months after its outbreak. Fanning the Flames of Hate by a Mass of Lies
  • 89. She came into World War Two 27 months after it started. The processes and the months of lag were the same:
  • 90. the appeal to crusade for freedom, for independence of nations, for lasting peace; the same pictures of atrocities; the fanning of hate and above all, the mass of lies and stimulation of fear of invasion - they were identical.
  • 91. But in World War Two the people believed much less of it and they believed much more that they were being deliberately pushed into the war. They dimly recognised that they were being ground in the mills of power politics and the personal ambitions of men."
  • 92. "The First World War had been conducted in the Allied side in the name of 'the peoples'. This war was in the name of Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt. Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt's War
  • 93. At times the whole political and military scene seemed their personal property - as it was." (Herbert Hoover, Freedom Betrayed).
  • 94. "While they promise them liberty, they themselves are slaves of corruption…." 2 Peter 2:19
  • 95. "In the first World War, our sons marched to war with flowers in their rifles. Bands and cheering people were on every platform. Many Recognised they Were Being forced into War
  • 96. There were no bands, no flowers and no cheers on the railway platforms to World War Two.
  • 97. There was little singing of war ballades by soldiers or civilians, except at the urging of paid conductors of propaganda. The station platforms were stages for grieving and tears.
  • 98. The promises, the speeches, the propaganda filled the air as in World War One, but this time the people received it grimly and with little believing." - Herbert Hoover.
  • 99.
  • 100.
  • 101. Freedom Betrayed indicts Roosevelt for instigating the Pacific war:
  • 102. His economic sanctions against Japan and shunning of Japanese peace overtures sparked the Pearl Harbour attack and ultimately the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki —"the act of unparalleled brutality in all American history."
  • 103. President Herbert Hoover in Freedom Betrayed documents: "Roosevelt's contemptuous refusal of Prime Minister Konoye’s proposals for peace in the Pacific of September, 1941 was a lost opportunity. Double Standards
  • 104. The acceptance of these proposals was prayerfully urged by both the American and British Ambassadors in Japan.
  • 105. The terms Konoye proposed would have accomplished every American purpose except possibly the return of Manchuria - and even this was thrown open to discussion.
  • 106. The cynic will recall that Roosevelt was willing to provoke a great war on his flank over this remote question and then gave Manchuria to Communist Soviet Russia !"
  • 107.
  • 108. Herbert Hoover documents in Freedom Betrayed that American Military officials strongly urged FDR to accept the Three Months' Stand-Still Agreement offered by the Emperor of Japan in November 1941. The Threat of Communism
  • 109. Japan was alarmed at the threat of the Soviet Union and a 90-days delay could have kept war out of the Pacific.
  • 110. Secretary of War, Stimson, in his Diary, disclosed that Roosevelt and his officials were seeking for a method to stimulate – provoke - an overt act of aggression from the Japanese.
  • 111. Three civilians were killed in this shrapnel-riddled car by a bomb dropped from a Japanese plane eight miles from Pearl Harbour on 7 December 1941.
  • 112. There are many documents relating to Pearl Harbour which are still classified and have not yet been made public by the United States government. Many of these documents were actually destroyed by the US government during the war. Classified Documents are Still Denied to the Public
  • 113. Some of the public records of the United Kingdom containing Churchill's "Most Secret" war time intelligence briefs, have been marked as "closed for 75 years", including the sections dealing with events from November 1941 through March 1942.
  • 114.
  • 115. In Day of Deceit, by Robert Stinnett, a memorandum prepared by Commander McCollum stated that a memorandum issued in the immediate pre-war period declared that only a direct attack on US interests would sway the American public, To Save the Soviet Union from Collapse in Europe
  • 116. or Congress, to favour direct involvement in the European war. Anderson and Secretary Knox, offered eight specific plans to aggrieve the Japanese Empire
  • 117. Details of the McCollum memo. Make an arrangement with the British for the use of their bases in Singapore...
  • 118. "If by these means Japan could be led to commit an overt act of war, so much the better." The McCollum memo of 7 October 1940, remained classified until 1994.
  • 119. Jonathan Daniels, Roosevelt's administrative assistant at that time of Pearl Harbour, presented an eye-witness viewpoint: "The blow was heavier than he had hoped it would necessarily be… “Worth the Price”
  • 120. But the risks paid off; even the loss was worth the price...!" ("1941: Pearl Harbour Sunday: The End of an Era").
  • 121.
  • 122.
  • 123. “No reasonably informed person can now believe that Japan made a villainous unexpected attack on the United States. An attack was not only fully expected, but was actually desired. A Travesty of History
  • 124. It is beyond doubt that President Roosevelt wanted to get his country into the war, but for political reasons, was most anxious to ensure that the first act of hostility came from the other side;
  • 125. for which reason he caused increasing pressure to be put on the Japanese, to a point that no self-respecting nation could endure without resort to arms. Japan was meant, by the American President, to attack the United States.” (Freedom Betrayed)
  • 126. As Mr Oliver Lyttelton, then British Minister of Production, said in 1944: "Japan was provoked into attacking America's Pearl Harbour. It is a travesty of history to say that America was forced into the war." - British Historian Captain Russell Grenfell Main Fleet to Singapore as quoted by President Herbert Hoover in Freedom Betrayed.
  • 127. William Henry Chamberlin in America's Second Crusade (1950), wrote: "It is scarcely possible, in the light of this and many other known facts, to avoid the conclusion that the Roosevelt Administration sought the war which began at Pearl Harbour. Desperately Seeking War
  • 128. The steps which made armed conflict inevitable would take months before the conflict broke out." (Freedom Betrayed: Herbert Hoovers Secret History of the Second World War and Its Aftermath).
  • 129. Then Secretary of State, Hull, issued his foolish ultimatum and we were defeated at Pearl Harbour. The Betrayal of China
  • 130. By Roosevelt insisting that Chinese Premiere Chiang Kai-shek include Mao Tse-Tung's communists in a Coalition government
  • 131. and Roosevelt's Secret Agreement at Yalta to betray Mongolia and Manchuria to the Soviets future generations were betrayed.
  • 132. All of China was sacrificed to the communists in the years of President Truman - at the insistence of his Left-wing advisors and General Marshall. The Second World War ended with 450 Million Asiatic peoples betrayed under communist dictatorship.
  • 133. Herbert Hoover in Freedom Betrayed declared: "I had warned the American people time and again against becoming involved. The Only Beneficiary was Communism
  • 134. I stated repeatedly its only end would be to promote Communism over the earth; that we would impoverish the United States and the whole world. The situation of the world today is my vindication."
  • 135.
  • 136. "Roosevelt ignored the whole communist infiltration into his administration. Much of it was to be exposed before his death. But of more importance, he ignored the whole international purpose of communism and its morals in International relations. Blind Service to Stalin and the Soviet Union
  • 137. Its purposes and methods had been blatantly stated to the world ever since 1917 and its statements in books were widely distributed in the United States. Roosevelt was not a communist.
  • 138. His leanings towards Stalin and blindness to communistic activities arose partly from his own Leftist-leaning and partly from the usefulness of the communists in support of his administration politically throughout his 13 years in office."
  • 139. "He who justifies the wicked, and he who condemns the just, both of them alike are an abomination to the Lord." Proverbs 17:15
  • 140. "His leanings towards Stalin and the communist began with the recognition of the Soviet Union immediately upon taking his office in 1933…. Co-operating with Communism
  • 141. During 15 years prior to the recognition, Democratic and Republican administrations alike had barred any relations with a country which had returned huge numbers of mankind to slavery and was constantly conspiring against the welfare of other peoples.
  • 142. By recognition, Roosevelt gave the Soviet Union certain respectability in the family of nations, but also of importance. By that act, he had opened the door to communist penetration and conspiracies in the United States."
  • 143. "…Should you help the wicked and love those who hate the Lord? Therefore the wrath of the Lord is upon you." 2 Chronicles 19:2
  • 144. In Herbert Hoover's Freedom Betrayed, General Douglas McArthur's views are reported that: "the whole Japanese war was a madman's desire to get the US into war." A Madman’s Desire to Get US into War
  • 145. McArthur was convinced that the "Financial sanctions in July 1941 were not only provocative but Japan was bound to fight even if it were suicide,
  • 146. unless they could be removed, as the sanctions carried every penalty of war except killing and destruction and no nation of dignity would take them for long."
  • 147. McArthur said that: "Roosevelt could have made peace with Konoye in September 1941 and could have obtained all of the American objectives in the Pacific and the freedom of China and probably Manchuria. Konoye was authorized by the Emperor to agree to complete withdrawal." An Unnecessary War
  • 149. “I believe that it was the desire of President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill that we get into the war, as they felt their allies could not win without us and all our efforts to provoke the Germans to declare war on us had failed. “
  • 150. McArthur was bitter about: "Roosevelt's starvation of supplies at a time when the whole fate of the South Pacific and their allies in Asia was at stake."
  • 151.
  • 152.
  • 153. "Roosevelt showed his vindictiveness in many ways."
  • 154. McArthur also told Roosevelt that: "Peace could be made with the Japanese any time after the Philippines were taken… with their supporting legs cut off, they were beaten." The War Did Not Need to Have Lasted So Long
  • 155. He said that: "Roosevelt, however, was determined that General McArthur should not command in the final movement on Japan…"
  • 156. General McArthur declared: "We would have avoided all of the losses of the atomic bomb and the entry of Russia into Manchuria, had the Japanese peace overtures been accepted, in early 1945." The Atom Bombs Were Not Necessary
  • 157. McArthur told President Herbert Hoover in 1946 that: "Truman's policies were enabling Russia to make a puppet state out of Manchuria and betraying all of China and Mongolia to communism." Betraying Asia to Communism
  • 158. In September 1944, John Flynn, a member of the America First Committee, published The Truth about Pearl Harbour:
  • 159. Rear Admiral Frank Beatty, who at the time of the Pearl Harbour attack was an aide to the Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox, testified:
  • 160. "Prior to 7 December, it was evident even to me… that we were pushing Japan into a corner.
  • 161. The conditions we imposed upon Japan were so severe that we knew the nation could not accept them. We were forcing her so severely that we could have known that she would react towards the United States.
  • 162. All her preparations in a military way - and we knew their overall import - pointed that way."
  • 163. Jonathan Daniels, Roosevelt's administrative assistant at that time of Pearl Harbour, presented an eye-witness viewpoint: "The blow was heavier than he had hoped it would necessarily be…
  • 164. But the risks paid off; even the loss was worth the price..." ("1941: Pearl Harbour Sunday: The End of an Era").
  • 165. "It is an abomination for kings to commit wickedness, for a throne is established by righteousness." Proverbs 16:12
  • 166.
  • 167. Herbert Hoover observed: "Despite these physical losses and these moral political disasters, and these international follies… Christian Resistance
  • 168. Despite the drift to collectivism, despite degeneration in government, despite the demagogic intellectuals,
  • 169. despite the corruption in our government and the moral corruptions of our people, we still hold to Christianity, we still have the old ingenuity in our scientific and industrial progress."
  • 170. "We have 35 million children marching through our schools and 2,5 million in our institutions of higher learning… The Public School Front
  • 171. "The promise of a greater America abides in the millions of cottages throughout the land, where men and women are still resolute in freedom. Hope in the Homes
  • 172. In their hearts the spirit of America still lives. The boys and girls from those homes will someday throw off these disasters and frustrations and will re-create their America again."
  • 173. In order to anticipate problems and threats in the future we need to study the past. Forewarned is Forearmed
  • 174. "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." George Santayana
  • 175. "If we do not know our own history, we will simply have to endure all the same mistakes, sacrifices and absurdities all over again." Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
  • 176. "Now these things became our examples, to the intent that we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted… now all these things happened to them as examples, and they were written for our admonition…" 1 Corinthians 10:6-11
  • 177. “You shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free.” John 8:32
  • 178. Truth does not fear investigation.
  • 179. "Hate evil, love good; establish justice in the gate…" Amos 5:15
  • 180. Dr. Peter Hammond Reformation Society P.O. Box 74 Newlands, 7725 Cape Town, South Africa Tel: (021) 689-4480 Fax: (021) 685-5884 Email: info@ReformationSA.org Website: www.ReformationSA.org