50% of pets are considered asmembers of the family48% of pets are considered aspets or companions2% of pets are consideredproperty(AVMA 2007)
Number of Dogs and Cats per 100 Humans (1998) Dogs Cats USA 17.8 21.0 France 17.0 12.6 Australia 15.2 13.9 Canada 13.0 14.0 Denmark 13.3 10.8 Austria 8.0 14.7 UK 10.0 9.6 Netherlands 8.4 10.6 Switzerland 6.2 12.5 Sweden 8.9 9.5
Number of Dogs and Cats Total (2002) (‘000,000) Dogs CatsUSA 60 72* 77 82*China 23 53Brazil 30 12.5Russia 10 8Japan 10 7.8UK 6.1 7.5* AVMA 2006
Pet Populations (millions) YearType of Pet 1999 20012006Fish 24.0 49.3 75.9Birds 11.0 10.1 11.2Rabbits 4.6 4.8 6.2Hamsters/ Guinea pigs/ gerbils 2.7 1.8 2.7Turtles/ snakes/ lizards/ amphibians 2.0 2.9 3.9SOURCE: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (2002).
The world’s most expensive dog, a Tibetan Mastiff,sold for $582,000 in China, September 2009. The18-month old dog will be used for breeding.
Stewie, a five-year-old Maine Coon, has beenaccepted by Guinness World Records as theworlds longest cat at 48.5 inches (2010).
Recent Trends in Pet Ownership in U.S.• 75% of dog and cat owners are female• Smaller breeds of dogs became more popular• 90% of dogs reside in urban areas
Annual Costs of Pet Ownership Dogs Small Medium Large CatsFood 150 250 350 120Health care 225 275 325 225Grooming 200 300 400 ---Toys 50 60 70 50Litter --- --- --- 175Miscellaneous 155 230 315 80TOTAL 780 1,115 1,500 640
March 1, 2012: Richard Scheiner, a 58 year-old real-estate investor and hedge-fundmanager, saids hepays $17,000 a year on food, health care,boarding and a daily dog-walker (who charges$17 each per outing) to look after a labradoodle named Zelda anda rescued bichon fries named Duke.
Annual Costs of Pet Ownership Rabbit Guinea Pig Gerbil Small birdFood 110 75 50 50Litter 400 400 220 ---Toys 25 25 10 30Health care 200 50 --- ---Miscellaneous 50 30 25 20TOTAL 785 580 305 100
Top 6 health problems in dogs http://tedeboy.tripod.com/drmichaelwfox/index.html• Skin disorders• Adverse reactions to vaccines and medications• Lameness / arthritis• Seizures• Congestive heart failure• Cancer
Top 6 health problems in cats http://tedeboy.tripod.com/drmichaelwfox/index.html• Skin disorders• Feline urologic syndrome• Chronic diarrhea• Kidney failure• Adverse reaction to vaccines / medication• Vomiting
Top Behavior Problems in Dogs http://tedeboy.tripod.com/drmichaelwfox/index.html• Coprophagia and pica – eating stools, dirt, and grass• Aggression toward dogs and people• Fear / phobias• Obessive compulsive disorder – tail chasing, carpet digging• Urinating in house• Separation anxiety• Excessive barking
Frequency of major behavioral problems (Source: Behavior Clinics, N=200) Family dog Nonsocial fearAttachment/attention Separation Dog aggr/fear Stranger fear Owner aggr. Stranger aggr. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Breed Comparisons (all data from breed club members)1.1 1 .9 .8 .7 DACHSHUND .6 ROTTWEILER .5 SHETLAND SHEEPDOG SIBERIAN HUSKY .4 .3 .2 .1 0 Dog f ear Dog aggr Separation Body sensitiv e Owner aggr Non-social f ear Stranger f ear Stranger aggr
Breed Comparisons (all data from breed club members)3.43.2 32.82.6 DACHSHUND2.4 ROTTWEILER SHETLAND SHEEPDOG2.2 SIBERIAN HUSKY 22.214.171.124.2 Attach/Attention Chasing Excitability Trainability
Careers with Companion Animals• Veterinary medicine• Teaching and research in companion animal nutrition, biology, care, management, behavior, genetics, and reproduction• Pet food and supply industry• Groomers• Animal behaviorist / trainer• Journalism
Careers (continued)• Animal breeder• Kennel management• Pet motels• Professional trainer and handler
Top two Pet Food Companies• Nestle-Purina 26%• Mars 24%77% of food sold dry23% of food sold moist or wet
Common problems in feeding dogs and cats.1. Feeding cat food to dogs
Common problems in feeding dogs and cats.1. Feeding cat food to dogs a. Dogs do not need a diet containing 30% protein as do cats. b. Cat foods are usually more expense. c. Cat foods are usually more palatable and higher in energy which can lead to obesity in dogs.
2. Feeding Dog food to cats. a. Cats can not convert cystine to taurine. Lack of taurine can lead to blindness, heart problems as well as reproductive problems. b. Cat foods are formulated to produce a acid urine to prevent urinary tract disease. c. Can not utilize Beta-carotene as a source of vitamin A. d. Can not convert tryptophan into niacin as can dogs. e. Cats need arachidonic acid and higher protein levels.
3. Feeding sugar to dogs and cats. Many dogs and cats become hyperactive after consumption of sugar.
4. Not ensuring that cats drink plenty ofwater. Make sure fresh, clean water isavailable and most people recommendmoisture cat food to prevent mineralprecipitation in the urinary tract.
Future Trends• Increase in total number of pets and jobs• More cats and smaller dogs• Increased money spent per pet• Increasing isolated personal lifestyle• Genetically improved and healthier pets• Better understanding of health and nutrition
Dogs see blue, violet, and many more shades of graythan humans. They also see better in low light andcan pick up the slightest movement. They probablydo not see red, orange, yellow, or green.
Because dogs have amuch higherconcentration of rodcells, responsible forseeing black-and-white, and also aremuch more sensitivein lower lightconditions, dogs havemuch better nightvision than people.Cats have similar
Fact: Dog Kisses Can Make You SickThink dogs mouths are cleaner than humans?Veterinarians say dogs chops are teeming withgerms. These germs get into a dogs mouth fromeating spoiled food or when he uses his tongue astoilet paper.
Fact: Humans Can Make Pets SickIts not common, but it happens. H1N1 "swine" flu has hitcats, dogs, and ferrets — contracted from their sick owners.Most often its mild, but a few pets have died, so vets advisefrequent hand-washing and separate beds when the owneris sick. Dogs and people can also share the same strains ofE. coli bacteria. And MRSA, the "superbug" is making itsway from humans to dogs.
Myth: Cats Steal a Babys BreathThis superstition goes back to the 1700s. Whenbabies died of sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS), cats were blamed – not true.
Fact: Dogs Can Smell DiabetesIt sounds like a Lassie TV episode, but its truth, not fiction.Dogs can sniff out a dangerous drop in blood sugar in adiabetic owner and alert the person to take action by pawing,licking, whining, or barking. A few dogs have even beentrained and placed as diabetic service dogs. Their nose forhypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is correct 90% of the time,according to their trainers.
Fact: Dogs Have a Look of LoveWhen your dog locks eyes with you, it may genuinely be alook of love, and not simply a form of begging. Dogs candevelop this atypical behavior with close humancompanions — while between dogs or with a strangeperson, a direct stare is a threat. Of course not every glancefrom Fido is loving — he may simply want your dinner. Or, ifhis body is tense and ears flattened, he may be telling youto back off.
Fact: Cats May Love Too MuchBehavior experts confirm that some cats really do experienceseparation anxiety when apart from a favorite person — andthats one reason a sweet kitty may pee on your clothes whenyoure at work. Other signs: the cat paces, vocalizes, or blocksthe owners path to the door. Left alone, she may vomit or betoo worried to eat. For cats who love too much, behaviortherapy can help – and Prozac.
Fact: Dogs Can Learn 250 WordsThe smartest, best-trained breeds are similar to a 2-year-oldchild in their ability to understand human speech, according toresearcher Stanley Coren, PhD. These dogs understand up to250 words, while the average dog can understand 150 words.Top Dog: Border collie, poodle, German shepherd, goldenretriever, Doberman pincherBeauty Before Brains: Borzoi, chow chow, bull dog, basenji,Afghan hound.
Fact: White Cats Are Often DeafCats with a white coat are often deaf in one or both ears,especially those with blue eyes. When only one eye is blue,the cat is likely to be deaf on that side only. Many ownersreport that deaf cats are not too bright — but its not clear ifdeafness or lower intelligence is to blame.
Myth: Cats Will Land on Their FeetCats are champs at landing feet first over short distances,thanks to a highly flexible backbone. But they do sometimesland on their heads. And beyond one-two stories, their feetcannot "break" the fall. Their heads and bodies collide withthe ground, causing severe injuries. Cats with access to anelevated, open window may also focus so intently on a bird,that they lose their balance and fall — called high-risesyndrome.
Fact: Dogs Can DanceDog lovers have created a competitive event calledcanine freestyle that brings the bond betweenhuman and animal to a new high. A dog and handlerpair up — ballroom dancing style — for achoreographed dance performed with music and,sometimes, matching costumes.
Fact: Cats Smell With Their MouthsCats have a small scent gland in the roof of the mouth calledthe vomeronasal organ. For a really good whiff of somethinglike urine or another cats private parts, theyll open theirmouths wide to draw the odor to this scent organ. This fierce-looking behavior is called the Flehmen reaction, and its oftenseen in males who are checking out a female cat in heat.
Myth: Tail Wagging, Happy DogA dog wags his tail in three very different moods and only oneis happy. When its unusually high and stiff, the dog isagitated and ready to protect his turf. A tail held low andwagged very quickly shows a scared and submissive dog. Ahappy dog wags his tail in its natural, mid-level position —and his ears, mouth, and body will look relaxed, too.
Fact: Newborn Pups Dont WagPuppies dont wag their tails before they are about threeweeks old — and some dont start until seven weeks old.Vets believe tiny puppies are capable, but theyre too busysleeping and eating to bother. As they become more alert,tail wagging starts as a kind of sign language: a peace signto rambunctious littermates or when begging for food. Dogsalmost never wag their tails when alone.
Fact: Early Bonding Key for KittyCats that are aloof or bite the hand that feeds themprobably had no exposure to people in early life.Feline behavior experts say a kitten needs regularcontact with people in the first seven weeks, or itmay never bond with humans. Even five minutes aday in the early weeks will teach a kitten not to bitewhen the hand of a towering human lifts it off theground.
Myth: Warm Nose, Sick DogThe temperature of a dogs nose changes easily and is not agood sign of illness. It can be hot and dry after lying in thesun or cool and wet from dipping into the water bowl. Bettersigns of illness are lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting,coughing, or a fever higher than 102.5°F on a rectalthermometer. The wet snout? It comes from tear ducts thatdrain toward the nose.
Fact: A Limp Can Mean Lung TroubleDogs sometimes come to the vet for a limp and leave witha lung cancer diagnosis. Cancer in the chest can activatethe leg bones to grow new tissue — causing swelling andpain in the legs. A more typical symptom is a cough,although about 25% of dogs have no symptoms until lungcancer is detected on chest X-ray. The leg changes —called hypertrophic osteopathy — go away once thecancer is treated.
Myth: Cats Need MilkThe long-standing myth that cats need milk is wrong andgiving your pet a saucer of cows milk could make it vomit orhave diarrhea. Kittens drink their mothers milk until they areweaned and older cats may like the taste of cows milk. Butadult cats dont have much lactase, the enzyme needed tobreak down the lactose sugar in milk. The result is oftenuncomfortable and messy: diarrhea.
Myth: Dogs Need BonesThis practice comes from the idea that ancient dogs (wolves)ate plenty of bones. Today, pet dogs can get all the calciumand nutrients they need from dry kibble. Bones do satisfy theintense canine chewing instinct, but they can choke a dog orsplinter into knife-like shards, even when cooked. Ediblechewies or sturdy rubber chew toys from the store are asafer choice.
Myth: Licking Heals Dogs WoundsThere is no magic healing power in dog saliva, contrary topopular belief. Quite the opposite: mouth bacteria maycause an infection that delays healing. Dogs are also proneto compulsive licking — called acral lick dermatitis — whichcreates sores that are hard to eradicate. The healing choiceis usually an Elizabethan collar that blocks his tongue fromreaching a sore until its completely healed.
Fact: Cats Kiss With Their EyesCats communicate with a slow blink, according to feline experts.With their own kind, its a peace sign, meant to put other felinesat ease. Aimed at a human, this seductive blink shows affection,even love. People can return the love with a long gaze and slowblink to "blow a kiss" back in cat body language. The calmingblink works on house cats, feral cats, and even tigers in thewild, according to behaviorist Roger Tabor.
Fact: Dogs Fall in LoveCan two dogs develop a loving relationship? Or do theyhook up with anyone at the dog park? AnthropologistElizabeth Marshall Thomas says dogs can fall in love andshe documents a remarkable love story between "Sundog"and "Bean" in her book, "The Social Lives of Dogs."Thomas claims few dogs develop relationships becausethey are kept as pets in captivity, "born to do what we want,not what they want."
Fact: Smoking Kills Cats and DogsSecondhand smoke causes at least two fatal cancers in cats:lymphoma and oral carcinoma. Housecats get a double doseof toxins by breathing cigarette smoke in the air and by lickingthe residue off their fur when grooming. Dogs with long nosesmay develop cancerous nasal tumors from living with a smoker— and short-nosed breeds are more prone to lung cancer.
Cat Language: Purring Through PainThe quiet, motor-like sound of a purring cat is not yet wellunderstood. Every cat fancier has seen their pet purring inhappiness; yet cats also purr when they are in pain or closeto death. It may be a self-soothing behavior. Kittens beginpurring within hours of birth as they nurse — and the mothercat purrs during feeding sessions, too.
Cat Language: ChirpingCats make this sharp, high-pitched sound when highly arousedby the sight of prey, such as the animal more commonly knownfor chirping, the bird. When a cat is blocked from getting at theprey, he may chatter — a throaty vocalization accompanied byquick movements of the lower jaw.
Dog Language: Grin and Bear ItOwners who insist their dogs can smile are correct inthinking that the canine mouth can show emotions.Relaxed and open, it can be a sign of a happy dog. Asubmissive grin is a canine version of our nervous smile.Dogs pull their lips up, show their front teeth, and maycrouch. This harmless, nervous "grin" is easily confusedwith an aggressive snarl. When in doubt, dont mess withthe dog.
Dog Language: Whale EyeWhen a dog turns his head away, but swivels his eyesaround to keep you in sight, he is displaying "whale eye,"and is usually frightened or guarding something. The whitesof his eyes will show in a crescent shape and disturbing himcan lead to growling or snapping. A stiff body completes thetense picture. Dogs have a sideways glance for morerelaxed moments, too: not much white will show and hisbody will look at ease.