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Bim Facades.Final

  1. 1. Utilizing BIM During the Project Life Cycle for Smarter FaçadeDelivery and Higher Performance Presented by James McKenzie Director-Center for Excellence | Swinerton Incorporated 4th Facades Design & Delivery Conference Chicago, 2012
  2. 2. Who Am I ?
  3. 3. SWINERTON CENTER FOR EXCELLENCEOVERVIEWJames McKenzieDirector-Center for ExcellenceSwinerton Incorporated
  4. 4. CFE MISSION STATEMENTThe Mission of theCenter for Excellence isto leverage thecollective knowledge ofour employees. It is acatalyst to acceleratecontinuousimprovement in ProjectDelivery.
  5. 5. Agenda •Introduction •Radical Transformation of the Structural Art •High Performance Project Success Factors •BIM and Façade Design-One Disruption Meets Another• Agenda •Case Studies •Glass Only Future of Facades? •Conclusion and Summary •Open Discussion
  6. 6. THEMES & PERSPECTIVES•Collaboration•Design Matters•Integration•Process•Trust & Integrity•Pre-fabrication•Modeling•Analysis•Rich Data • Agenda•Early Decision Making (“left shift”)•Transformation•Disruption•Multi-disciplinary•Project Delivery•Procurement•Productivity•Risk
  7. 7. 1956 Essay “Chicago Frame,” Colin Rowe-”The RadicalTransformation” •Frame structure as universal theme of mid-twentieth-century architecture •“Essence of Modern Architecture” •“Major transformation in architectural design and construction, exerting substantial influence over the commercial and institutional architecture of cities, particularly Chicago •One of the most influential ideas derived from the frame structure is the modern curtain wall”
  8. 8. Historical Context: All Glass Curtain Wall Era StartsTen years after its completion, ata time when most buildingfacades were significantly lessthan 50% window, Polk’srevolutionary building became thefirst large-scale urban building tofeature an all-glass curtain wall
  9. 9. Hallidie Building, 130 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CADesigned by Willis Polk, 1918"Natural light, budget limitations,and a desire to facilitateerection, were all to influencePolks decision to produce anall-glass facade and this he wasto achieve by exploiting thecantilevering capacity ofreinforced concrete to its fullest.A regular grid of mullions heldthe glass membrane in placewith three vertical subdivisionsper floor; the top pane of eachstorey pivoting outwards for thepurposes of ventilation.”from Kenneth Frampton and Yukio Futagawa.Modern Architecture 1851-1945. p194.
  10. 10. The Curtain Wall and Collaboration “I tried to put the emphasis of my work in integration and coordination, inclusiveness, not exclusiveness, for I felt that the art of building is contingent upon the coordinated teamwork of a bank of active collaborators whose cooperation symbolizes the cooperative organism of what we call society.” Walter Gropius
  11. 11. Building Envelop Technological Progression Double- Advanced Curtain & Glazing Adjustable Fabrication Sunshades All Glass Façade Techniques Curtain Wall Structural Steel Frame/Elevator
  12. 12. Curtain Wall Design Responds to Architectural Fashion“Beginning in the 1960s and continuing tothe present day, the approach to thecurtain wall has been characterized bydiverse strategies, due in part to thevicissitudes of architectural fashion at largeand to the growing impact of globalenvironmental and economic forces. Itseems that each new decade has broughtwith it a new design doctrine-postmodernism, high tech,deconstructivism, critical regionalism,green architecture-and the curtain wallconcept has been transformed inresponse.”From “Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture” byScott Murray
  13. 13. Project Management & Delivery“At present, there are no industry-wide accepted definitions of project deliverymethods……” Primer on Project Delivery Joint Committee of AIA and AGC
  14. 14. Project Success Project success: • Determined prior to design • Depends on the quality of the owner’s: • Business Model • Planning ability • Service Provider’s understanding of campus leader’s business drivers and environment
  15. 15. Project Delivery “…… a project delivery approach that integrates people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to reduce waste and optimize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication and construction.” Jim Bedrick, AIA, National BIM Consultant
  16. 16. Project Delivery & Collaboration “Collaborative approach to projects requires many disciplines to be tightly integrated in their process. Time moves linearly but the challenges of a project are dynamic and non-linear” Abundance to Scarcity A Strategy for the 21st Century Building Industry Doing More with Less while creating Value Kimon Onuma, FAIA, Hon FIGP
  17. 17. Integrated Practice (Design) •BIM and integrated design go hand-in- hand •Integrated design is a process not a delivery method (IPD is a delivery method) •Has been referred to by authors as a “collaborative method for designing buildings that emphasizes the development of a holistic design” •Involves stake holders from the earliest stages •Every project stakeholder’s point-of-view is taken into consideration •Integrated design leads to high performance buildings •Avoids the linear hand offs from owner, architect and builder
  18. 18. Integrated Planning “The capture of integrated knowledge in an organized way should drive planning.” Alvin Toffler, author of Future Shock
  19. 19. BIM Usage Spectrum by Project Delivery Method “IPD-ish” Integrated Project Delivery Design-Build CM as Risk/GMAX/Design Assist Integrated practice starts here Design-Bid- Build
  20. 20. Project Delivery Failure Points
  21. 21. Owner’s World-Cost Forecast & Budgets  Cost “forecast” is needed for executive project approval  Forecast:  Makes financial resources available  Bridge to a project plan & budget  Failure points:  No conceptual design  Minimal data  Generic in nature  Life cycle costs & escalation  Remembered by executives  False Expectations
  22. 22. Business Model Failure Points  Market conditions change  Lack of thorough analysis & testing of assumptions  Unreliable profit & loss data  Unclear model narrative  Lack of revenue streams  Technological changes  Lack of customer knowledge  Lack of value  Ego-based decisions
  23. 23. Key Facility Planning Failure Points  Lack of time  Lack of integration between project management and facilities & operations  Emphasis on initial not life-cycle costs  Unclear objectives  Objectives not aligned with the business model  Poorly defined processes  Support facilities poorly programed (impacts life cycle costs!)  Feasibility studies lack sound analysis  Operational data is stored in “silos”
  24. 24. Key Programmatic Failure Points  High operating cost (low performance facility)  Excessive initial cost  Poor quality  Non conformance with regulatory requirements  Functional requirements  Safety and security  Poor space utilization  Lost opportunities for innovation & revenue  Ops. & Maint. staff productivity  Employee (end user) Productivity
  25. 25. Sample of Key Project Failure Points  Poor PM leadership  Poor planning & scheduling  Poor communication  Timely action  Organizational structure  Material and equipment supply chain  Regulatory requirements  Constructability  Poor productivity  Quality of personnel
  26. 26. Programming – Where Business DriversCommunicate Design  Value of Programming  Steps used in programming  Task Identification  Feasibility and Analysis  Research and Data Compilation  BIM links program with spatial geometry  Business objectives should not be compromised by a design
  27. 27. BIM / LEAN / IPD / SUSTAINABILITY/DESIGN-BUILDProject success requires strategy,planning, and effective processes.BIM, IPD Principles, Design-Build,Sustainable Design, and LeanConstruction are powerfulprocesses individually developed toaddress critical and complex issuesin the AEC industry.Although effective separately, theseprocesses create excellence inproject delivery when harnessedtogether and managed skillfully toaccentuate the synergies betweenthem.
  29. 29. Integrated BIM Rich Data Validation Process Prototype model Operations Project Plan Client’s Business Drivers 3D Model • Design Program • Construction
  30. 30. BIM and Early Decision Making
  31. 31. BIM and Scenario Based Planning Validation  Needs analysis  Program analysis  Digital Concept prototype  Cost model  Design criteria  Comparables  Pro forma  Validate Program
  32. 32. BIM Pre-Design Tools• Accelerates response time to issue• Emphasizes interaction• Improves coordination• Establish building metrics• Links the project to “business” of the organization• Defines what is unclear• Identify opportunities
  33. 33. Linking the Program to a 3D Concept Model Bi-directionalExcel Building Space Program Data Revit Concept Model with Program Data
  34. 34. Moving Beyond “Business as Usual” in Building EnvelopeDesign“The ability to frame questionsis fundamental to workingcollaboratively across fieldstoward a transdisciplinaryobjective and creatingpossibilities that are above andbeyond “business as usual” forbuilding envelops.”From “Building Envelopes An IntegratedApproach” by Jenny Lovell
  35. 35. Market Drivers vs. Professional Responsibility in FaçadeDesignMarket demands Market Desireconflict with the for visual transparencyresponsibility through all glass facadestowards theenvironment. Theold economics ofthrowing money at aproblem can no Current Environmentallonger be supported. & Economic Crisis
  36. 36. Importance of Building Envelope•Critical interface between abuildings interior functions and theexternal environment•Its design is crucial to thearchitectural process•Cost represents from 15-30%total construction costs (note: onlyMEP systems represent a higherpercentage)
  37. 37. BIM Allows a Designer to Unite the Building Structure with theBuilding Envelope “At first sight this separation of a building’s structure from its envelop might be expected to be liberating, freeing the contemporary architect to invent new and radical solutions to the problems of creating building enclosure.” From “Building Envelopes An Integrated Approach” by Jenny Lovell
  38. 38. Key Considerations In Building Envelope Design•Technical performance ofthe individual materials•Nature of material andcomponent assembly•Visual appearance•Building Form
  39. 39. Good Building Envelope Design & Construction Requires anIntegrated Approach and Sophisticated Communication “Inventiveness and ingenuity are therefore critical to the design of building envelops in the future, and complete integration of the skills and experiences of al members of the design team will be fundamental to this process.” From “Building Envelopes An Integrated Approach” by Jenny Lovell
  40. 40. BIM Facilitates in Addressing and Balancing the FollowingRequirements in Façade Design•Thermal Insulation•Ventilation•Solar Heat Gain•Glare Control•Daylight Levels•Water management•Materials assembly•Sound & pollutioncontrol Gap Building, San Francisco, CA
  41. 41. BIM Represents a Radical Departure in Façade Design Modeling represents a radical departure from the way we architects have traditionally undertaken the work of our profession for centuries. This not only represents a change in the mechanics of our work, but I contend it is a shift in the cognitive processes that accompany and ultimately drive that work. We work differently, and as result, probably think differently too. From “BIM in Small-Scale Sustainable Design” by Francois Levy
  42. 42. Façade Design No Longer Being Done In a “Silo”….”the current rapid pace ofconstruction has positionedpractice and industry todominate the design andimplementation of buildingenvelops. Form andperformance of buildingenvelopes are frequentlycompartmentalized in curriculaand in professional practice.”From “Building Envelops An IntegratedApproach” by Jenny Lovell
  43. 43. Façade Design In BIM Allows Continuous Feedback• Integrated Design Responses• Maintains close relationship between design, specifications and cost• Continuous estimating through continuous collaboration and feedback
  44. 44. Bring Deep Knowledge in Early-Some of the KeyPlayers in Façade Design, Fabrication and Installation Façade Engineer Structural Builder Engineer Façade Owner Fabricator Early Steel Project Erector & Architect Misc. Knowledge Metals
  45. 45. Façade Procurement Strategy: Key Concepts• Single Sourcing avoidance. – Suppliers – Fabricators – Installation contractors• Early Involvement – Long lead time – Greater potential for integrated solutions
  46. 46. Façade Design and ConstructabilityKey Considerations:• Design intent and performance criteria can be build efficiently• Numerous Sources• Analysis of sequences for: – Fabrication – Transportation – Installation
  47. 47. BIM and Façade Design-Look for the Critical Building SystemIntersections & Penetrations
  48. 48. Digital Fabrication“By integrating design, analysis,manufacture, and the assemblyof building around digitaltechnologies, architects,engineers, and builders have anopportunity to fundamentallyredefine the relationshipsbetween conception andproduction.”From “Architecture in the Digital Age andManufacturing” by Branko Kolarevic
  49. 49. Small Building Envelopes•Exterior envelope load dominatedrather than internally loaddominated•Morphology is heavily influencedby the exterior environment•Benefit from climate indexing•Building massing, geometry,fenestration, envelop and interiormaterials, and passive strategiesare tailored to the buildings regionand site.
  50. 50. Sustainable (Green) Design is Good for Business• Improves End User & Operational Staff Productivity• Reduced energy demands• Increased property value• Increased revenue
  51. 51. Façade Design & Lifecycle CostsKey Considerations:•Life span of building determinesthe durability of the façade•ROI•Environmental impact•Techniques: •Life cycle assessment(LCA) •Life cycle cost analysis(LCCA)•Establish benchmarks•Whole building approach•Embodied energy•Good fabrication is criticalregardless of fabrication location
  52. 52. Façade Design and BIM Analysis-Key Value Points • Ability to manage an enormous amount of parameters and variables • Allows new building forms to be explored • Ability to model over time and to account for the change in seasons • Early analysis (conceptual level)and feedback • Link analysis data to schedule and cost • Performance can be determined early • Early involvement of fabricator and builder. • Develop early procurement strategy
  53. 53. Façade Design and BIM Analysis-Simulation Process •Create 3D model •Establish roof and floor •Connect walls to roofs or floor above •Make sure all areas within the analysis are bound by geometric •Collect any relevant operational data or history •Determine appropriate simulation or analysis tools •Consult with mechanical engineer for interpretation of data •Establish methodology for transferring model surface areas to multiple analysis tools •Variable outside of the space of boundaries (e.g., weather, location, etc.) must be inputted by the simulation team
  54. 54. BIM and Façade Design-Computational Engines CategoriesDynamic Thermal Modeling•Simulates the heat transfer processesoccurring in and around a building.•Models conduction, convection andradiation heat transfer processes ofenvelop components•Modeling data is integrated with roomheat gains, air exchanges, and HVAC•Ideally suited to work with a 3D Model Example: Autodesk Ecotect Analysis
  55. 55. BIM and Façade Design-Computational Engines CategoriesComputational Fluid Dynamics•Branch of fluid dynamics•Uses numerical methods to predictfluid flow•Requires millions of calculations•Used to understand airflow and heattransfer processes around buildingsgiven space boundaries•Used in single instances of time dueto time needed for performcomputations•Can be used to provide detailedinsight to specific parameters•Help determine velocity andtemperature of airflow throughopenings and into adjoining spaces Associative exchange of Revit data with Autodesk Simulation CFD
  56. 56. BIM and Façade Design-Computational Engines CategoriesLighting Analysis•Address daylight quality•Identify daylight distributionissues•Model must contain surfaceproperties and light sources•Effectiveness of analysis infaçade design depends on thequality of the identifying theproperties of the glass andinterior surfaces
  57. 57. BIM and Façade Design-Visualization is What PromotesCollaboration in Simulation•Use simulation data to addressdesign problems and promote acollaborative solution•Analysis must have goals andby guided strong, theoreticalframework•Collaboration is achievedthrough visual discussionsespecially early in the designprocess
  58. 58. The Future: Performance Based vs. Initial Cost-based“A new business model for ConstructionManagement is emergingand will become the norm over the next fiveyears. This model responds to owners’increasing focus on outcomes rather thanoutput, on life cycle rather than first cost,and on the “triplebottom line” of business, environmental andsocial impacts.In order to meet these owner expectations,CMs will have to helpthem move construction away from site-based, craft-dominatedprocesses and toward a more typicalmanufacturing environment.”From “Future Focus 2012-The Road Ahead forProfessional CM” by CMAA Foundation
  59. 59. BIM Execution PlanSuccessful use ofBIM on a projectrequires a strongframework andmanagement planthat aligns, roles,responsibilities,expectations anddeliverables.
  60. 60. Project BIM Data Evaluation• How is data entered ?• Does data sit in a silo ?• Analyze where there are data “overlaps”• Examine what data is not electronic & whether it can digitized• Where is data stored ? Multiple locations ?• Evaluate how data is transmitted and in what format
  61. 61. BIM Execution Plan-Design ConstraintsMatrix
  62. 62. BIM Execution Plan-Model Progression SpecificationLevels of Detail (LOD)100. Conceptual200. Approximate geometry300. Precise geometry400. Fabrication500. As-built
  63. 63. Prefabrication and Modular Construction Case-Study • Green goals • Schedule-critical business driver • Challenging site • Integrated design & construction team • Prefab concrete floor planks • Prefab exterior wall panels (load bearing) • Early research was critical • Early decision making • Saved six months • Tight building envelope
  64. 64. Moving at the Speed of Business“When you build a residence hall… you only get one time of year to open it up. If youhave it finished in September, that doesn’t quite work.” Dr. Sue Herderson, Queens College, New York
  65. 65. Case Study: The Exploratorium San Francisco“Where Art and Science Collide to Change Perception”
  66. 66. The Exploratorium:-The Challenges: Existing HistoricStructure & Energy Efficiency
  67. 67. The Exploratorium’s Key Façade Design Feature:Glass Wrapped Observation Room
  68. 68. Building Envelope Global Sourcing-Not Business As UsualIncreased DemandOwners are demanding - Some said they love the can-do attitude ofthe Chinese and found that,for all the challenges, Chinese sources were generally more eagerto please and win business.Added ValuePrice is not longer the single advantage. We are seeing the level ofmanufacturing technologiesrise and now many products are world class.The greatest values stem from the exploitation of global efficiencies:Low cost skilled labor, andlow cost raw materialsCompetitionFuture work may be earned based upon our ability to leverage theglobal market.Our ability to lead and navigate the process and provide results willdistinguish us from thoseproviding only the cheapest possible solution.
  69. 69. Building Envelope Global Sourcing-StrategyManage the RiskCommunicateBuild RelationshipsDo Not Outsource ControlStaff ProperlyControl QualityGet Boots on the GroundInvolve the Designer and OwnerDevelop a Risk and Insurance Strategy
  70. 70. Case Study-Chinatown/North Beach campus of the CityCollege of San Francisco(2012, EHDD with Barcelon & Jang), the14-story tower comes with as many as eightrows of teardrop-shaped metal sunshadesper floor, including two or three rows at floorlevel to bounce diffused light up into theoffices and classrooms. The density andpattern of the blade was determined byanalysis of sunlight patterns at the corner ofWashington and Kearny streets, but theresnothing labored in the result. The effect isthat of an elegant scrim above PortsmouthSquare, calligraphy at skyline scale.From San Francisco Chronicle by John King,Urban Design Critic
  71. 71. Glass Only Future of Facades?San Franciscos skyline tends to change in vertical bursts,and in five years we could be looking at nearly a dozen newthin-skinned boxes wrapped in sheets of green and blue.Some promise to be better than others. The cumulativeeffect could erode the physical presence that makes thiscitys downtown distinct.The issue is not that buildings clad in stone are morallysuperior to buildings clad in glass. Its that San Franciscossense of place is tied to its earthy warmth, the juxtapositionof steep hills and shifting waters. Too many glass towersclumped too closely together would set a much differenttone, cosmopolitan but also generic.The city needs to shift focus to the overall impact of anarchitectural trend rather than try to make the best of eachtower on its own - and nudge developers and architects tointroduce the material and depth that is satisfying not just atfirst glance, but year after year.From San Francisco Chronicle by John King, Urban DesignCritic
  72. 72. THANK YOU