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# Data type

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### Data type

1. 1. Data Type
2. 2. Data Type • A data type defines a set of values that a variable can store along with a set of operations that can be performed on that variable. • Common data types are integer, character, and real.
3. 3. Data Type • Data Types
4. 4. Data Type
5. 5. Data Type • Basic Data type(Primary, fundamental) • Integers, Character and Floating point Primary Data type Integer Singed type Unsigned type int unsigned int short int unsigned short int long int unsigned long int Character Signed char Unsigned char float Floating Point double long double
6. 6. Data Type • Basic Data type(Primary, fundamental) • Integers • Signed and unsigned types Integer Singed type Unsigned type int unsigned int short int unsigned short int long int unsigned long int • Signed– can store + and –ve integers • Unsigned– can store only +ve integers
7. 7. Data Type • Basic Data type(Primary, fundamental) • Signed type integers • int :- integers are whole numbers, capable to storing numeric value without decimal places. • any number in the range -32768 to 32767 • It occupies 2 bytes of memory • Long int :- required 4 bytes of memory. • Value range from -2147483648 to 2147483647 • Long int variable can declare • long int a,b; or long a;
8. 8. Data Type • Basic Data type(Primary, fundamental) • Signed type integers • Short integers :- need less space in memory (same as int) • Short int variable can delare • short int a; or int a;( both are same)
9. 9. Data Type • Basic Data type(Primary, fundamental) • Unsigned integers • unsigned integers :- some time if we know in advanced, the value stored in an integer variable is always be +ve. • Such situations we can declared the variable as unsigned int • The range permissible integer value will shift from 0 to 65535 ie double the size of int • Unsigned integer variable can declare • unsigned int a; or unsigned a;( both are same)
10. 10. Data Type • Basic Data type(Primary, fundamental) • • • • Unsigned integers unsigned short integers :- same as unsigned int unsigned long integers :Range 0 to 42949672954 (double size of long int) • Unsigned long integer variable can declare • unsigned long int a;
11. 11. Data Type • Basic Data type(Primary, fundamental) • Characters • • • • • • • • Character Signed and unsigned types Signed char Both occupy 1 byte of memory Unsigned char But having different range Signed char is same as ordinary char and has range 128 to 127 Unsigned char range from 0 to 255 Example cnsigned char a; char a;
12. 12. Data Type • Basic Data type(Primary, fundamental) • Floating point • • • • • • float Floating Point double long double A float variable occupy 4 bytes of memory Range from 3.4E-38 to 3.4E+38 Double occupy 8 bytes of memory Range from 1.7E-308 to 1.7E+308 Long double occupy 10 bytes of memory Range from 3.4E-4932 to 3.4E+4932
13. 13. Data Type Type char unsigned char int unsigned int short int long int unsigned long int float double long double size (bytes) 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 10 Range 127 to -128 0 to 255 32768 to -32767 0 to 65535 32768 to -32767 2147483648 to - 2147483647 0 to 4294967295 3.4E-38 to 3.4E+38 1.7E-308 to 1.7E+308 3.4E-4932 to 3.4E+4932
14. 14. Data Type • • • • • User Defined Data type User Defined Data Type Type Definition Enumerated datatype Structure Union Type Definition Enumerated datatype Structure Union
15. 15. Data Type • User Defined Data Type • Type Definition • Allows user to define an identifier that would represent an existing data type • This identifier can later used to declared variables typedef type identifier • syntax:-• Eg: typedef int integet; • integer a;
16. 16. Data Type • User Defined Data Type • Enumerated • Allows user to declare variables can have one value enclosed within braces. • Way of attaching name to numbers • syntax:-- enum identifier {value1, value2, …..}; • Eg: enum sex{male,female}; • Then value of male=0 and female=1
17. 17. Data Type • User Defined Data Type • Structure • A structure is a collection of one or more variables, possibly of different types, grouped together under a single name A structure is defined by the keyword struct followed by a set of variables enclosed in braces. Consider the following structure to represent a person’s details. struct Personnel { char name[100]; int age; double height; }; The variables name, age and height are called members of the structure type Personnel.
18. 18. Data Type • User Defined Data Type • Structure There are two ways to define variables of a particular structure type. 1. Declare them at the structure definition. struct Personnel { char name[100]; int age; double height; } p1, p2, p3; /* Define 3 variables */ 2. Define the variables at some point after the structure definition. struct Personnel p1, p2, p3; /* Define 3 variables */
19. 19. Data Type • User Defined Data Type • Union • A union is a collection of one or more variables, possibly of different types, grouped together under a single name A union is defined by the keyword union followed by a set of variables enclosed in braces. Consider the following union to represent a person’s details. union Personnel { char name[100]; int age; double height; }; The variables name, age and height are called members of the union type Personnel.
20. 20. Data Type • User Defined Data Type • union There are two ways to define variables of a particular union type. 1. Declare them at the union definition. union Personnel { char name[100]; int age; double height; } p1, p2, p3; /* Define 3 variables */ 2. Define the variables at some point after the union definition. union Personnel p1, p2, p3; /* Define 3 variables */
21. 21. Data Type • • • • • Derived datatype Array… Functions… Pointers… Reference… Derived datatype Array Function Pointers Reference
22. 22. Data Type • Empty data type • void
23. 23. Escape Sequence Escape Sequence a b f n r t v ” o x O Effect Beep sound Backspace Formfeed (for printing) New line Carriage return Tab Vertical tab Backslash “ sign Octal decimal Hexadecimal NULL Escape sequence is used in the printf() function to do something to the output.