Automotive industry From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, andsells motor vehicles, and is one of the Earths most important economicsectors by revenue.The term automotive industry usually does not include industries dedicated toautomobiles after delivery to the customer, such as repair shops and motorfuel filling stations. HistoryThe first practical automobile with a petrol engine was built by Karl Benz in 1885in Mannheim, Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888, after BerthaBenz, his wife, had proved with the first long-distance trip in August 1888 (104 km(65 mi) from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back) that the horseless coach wasabsolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 a Bertha Benz MemorialRoute commemorates this event.Soon after, in 1889, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart designeda vehicle from scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawncarriage fitted with an engine. They also are usually credited as inventors of thefirst motorcycle, the DaimlerReitwagen, in 1885, but Italys Enrico Bernardi, ofthe University of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W)122 cc(7.4 cu in) one-cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his sons tricycle, makingit at least a candidate for the first automobile, and first motorcycle.:p.26 Bernardienlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.:p.26Many decades, the U.S.A. led the world in total automobile production. In 1929before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and theUS automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S. had onecar per 4.87 persons.After WWII the U.S. issued 3/4 of worlds auto production.In 1980 the U.S. was overtaken by Japan and became worlds leader again in 1994.
In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U.S. in production and held this rank until2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. By producing 18.4million units in 2011, China produced more than twice the number of second placethe U.S. with 8.7 million units, with in Japan third place with 8.4 million units.Main article: Automotive industry by countrySafetyToday’s vehicles are graded on stricter and more precise parameters than everbefore from weight to safety to durability and anywhere and everywhere inbetween. New materials have brought out new techniques for construction andvehicle design. The introduction of plastics has advanced the technology used formaking newer vehicles. New plastics technologies allow manufactures to answerto the call for advancements. Plastics can be used in various technologies onvehicles for structural safety to visual appearance. These new plastic innovationsallow new technologies to be used in vehicles for safety to comfort purposes.Plastics also allow for cost effective changes to be made to newer vehicle whilestill maintaining high safety and comfort requirements of the industry. Theseadvancements in plastic material usage in modern vehicles are the footholds for thefuture of the automotive industry.EconomyAround the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in2007, consuming over 260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline anddiesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for manydeveloped economies. The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predictsthat, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRICmarkets (Brazil,Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive marketsare Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars thanestablished markets. According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accountedfor 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study expects this trendto accelerate.
World motor vehicle productionSee also: List of countries by motor vehicle productionGlobal production of motor vehiclesBy year(cars and commercial vehicles)Year Production Change Source 1997 54,434,000 1998 52,987,000 -2.7% 1999 56,258,892 6.2% 2000 58,374,162 3.8% 2001 56,304,925 -3.5% 2002 58,994,318 4.8% 2003 60,663,225 2.8% 2004 64,496,220 6.3% 2005 66,482,439 3.1% 2006 69,222,975 4.1%
By country Main article: List of countries by motor vehicle production [hide] V T E « previous year Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2011 next year » Motor vehicle production (units) Country 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 10,000,000 11,000,000 12,0 China United States 8,653,560 Japan 8,398,654 Germany 6,311318 South Korea 4,657,094 India 3,936,448 Brazil 3,406,150 Mexico 2,680,037 Spain 2,353682 France 2,294,889 Canada 2,134,893 Russia 1,988,036 Iran 1,648,505 Thailand 1,478,460 UK 1,463,999 Czech Rep. 1,199,834 Turkey 1,189,131 Indonesia 837,948 Poland 837,132 Argentina 828,771 Italy 790,348 Reference: "Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
By manufacturer [hide] V T E « previous year — Top motor vehicle manufacturing companies by volume 2010 next year » Total motor vehicle production Group 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,0007,000,0008,000,0009,000,00010,00 Key Cars Light Commercial Vehicles Heavy Commercial VehiclesHeavy Bus Toyota 8,557,351 GM 8,476,192 Volkswagen 7,341,065 Hyundai Motor 5,764,918 Ford 4,988,031 Nissan 3,982,162 Honda 3,643,057 PSA 3,605,524 Suzuki 2,892,945 Renault 2,716,286 Fiat 2,410,021 Daimler AG 1,940,465 Chrysler 1,578,488 BMW 1,481,253 Mazda 1,307,540 Mitsubishi 1,174,383 Chana 1,102,683 2,378,052 Automobile Tata 1,011,343 FAW 896,060 2,572,260 Geely 802,319 Chery 692,438 Fuji 649,954 Dongfeng Motor 649,559 2,769,883 Beijing 617,725 2,504,083 Automotive AvtoVAZ 545,767
BYD 521,232 Isuzu 488,484 JAC 439,327 Brilliance 434,182 Great Wall 398,692 SAIC 346,525 3,620,653 Mahindra 292,149 Hafei 215,558 Volvo 191,560 Changhe 190,906 Jiangling 173,577 Proton 172,360 Key Cars Light Commercial Vehicles Heavy Commercial VehiclesHeavy BusTotal: 77,743,862 Cars: 60,343,756 LCV: 13,370,432 HCV: 3,510,681Heavy Bus: 518,993Numbers in italics are including joint venturesReference: "World motor vehicle production by manufacturer: World ranking ofmanufacturers 2010". OICA. August 2011.
Company relationshipsIt is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobilemanufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for theindividual companies.Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors, a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ, a 10% stake in Tesla Motors, a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors and a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. They are in the process of selling back their 40% stake (11% remaining) inMcLaren Group. This process will be finalized in 2011. Dongfeng Motor Corporation is involved in joint ventures with several companies around the world, including: Honda (Japan), Hyundai(South Korea), Nissan (Japan), Nissan Diesel (Sweden), and PSA Peugeot Citroen (France). Fiat holds a 90% stake in Ferrari and a 58.5% stake in Chrysler. Ford Motor Company holds a 3% stake in Mazda and an 8.3% share in Aston Martin. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in Manganese Bronze Holdings. General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) have two joint ventures in Shanghai General Motors andSAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. Hyundai Kia Automotive Group holds a 49.20% stake in Kia Motors (July 2011), that up from a previous 38,67%, but down from the 51% that it acquired in 1998. MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania. Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% stake in Volkswagen Group. Due to liquidity problems, Volkswagen Group is now in the process of acquiring Porsche. Renault and Nissan Motors have an alliance involving two global companies linked by cross-shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of (non-voting) Renault shares. The alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ and 20.5% of the voting stakes in Volvo Group. Toyota holds a 51% stake in Daihatsu, and 16.5% in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent company of Subaru. Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), and a 53.7% stake in MAN SE (55.9% voting rights). Volkswagen is integrating Scania, MAN and its own truck division into one division. Volkswagen Group has a 49.9% stake in Porsche AG. Volkswagen is in the process of acquiring Porsche, which will be completed in August 2012. Volkswagen Group has a 19.9% stake in Suzuki, and Suzuki has a 5% stake in Volkswagen.
Top vehicle manufacturing groups <by volume>The table below shows the worlds largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups,along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2010 end ofyear production figures from the International Organization of Motor VehicleManufacturers (OICA) for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque.Joint ventures are not reflected in this table. Production figures of joint venturesare typically included in OICA rankings, which can become a source ofcontroversy. Country of Marque Ownership Markets origin1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)Lexus Division GlobalScion Division North AmericaToyota Division Global Global, except North America andDaihatsu Subsidiary Australia Asia Pacific, North America and SouthHino Subsidiary America2. General Motors Company ( United States)Alpheon Division South Korea
Buick Division North America, China, Israel, Taiwan North America, Europe, Asia, MiddleCadillac Division East, AfricaChevrolet Division Global, except Australia, New ZealandGMC Division North America, Middle EastHolden Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand Global, except North America andOpel Subsidiary United KingdomVauxhall Subsidiary United Kingdom3. Volkswagen Group AG ( Germany)Audi Subsidiary GlobalBentley Subsidiary GlobalBugatti Subsidiary GlobalLamborghini Subsidiary GlobalMAN Subsidiary Europe, Asia, Africa, South AmericaScania Subsidiary Global
Europe, South America, Africa, Asia,SEAT Subsidiary MexicoŠkoda Subsidiary Global, except North AmericaVolkswagen Division GlobalVolkswagen Commercial Division Europe, Africa, Asia, AustraliaVehicles4. Hyundai Motor Group ( South Korea)Hyundai Division GlobalKia Subsidiary Global, except Mexico5. Ford Motor Company ( United States)Ford Division Global North America, Middle East, Japan,Lincoln Division South KoreaTroller Subsidiary Latin America, Africa6. Nissan ( Japan) Global, except Japan, South AmericaInfiniti Division and Africa
Nissan Division Global7. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)Acura Division North America, ChinaHonda Division Global8. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France) Global, except North America, SouthCitroën Subsidiary Asia Global, except USA, Canada, SouthPeugeot Division Asia9. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)Suzuki Division GlobalMaruti Suzuki Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America10. Renault ( France) Europe, Latin America, Africa, Asia,Dacia Subsidiary except Japan Global, except North America, SouthRenault Division Korea
South America, Asia, except Japan andRenault Samsung Subsidiary China11. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)Abarth Subsidiary GlobalAlfa Romeo Subsidiary Global, except North AmericaFerrari Subsidiary GlobalFiat Subsidiary Global Europe and Japan (except UK andLancia Subsidiary Republic of Ireland)Maserati Subsidiary Global12. Daimler AG ( Germany)BharatBenz Subsidiary India North America, South Africa,Freightliner Division Australia, New ZealandMaster Subsidiary PakistanMercedes-Benz Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso Subsidiary GlobalOrion Subsidiary North AmericaSetra Division Europe, Asia, USASmart Division GlobalThomas Built Subsidiary North America North America, Australia, NewWestern Star Subsidiary Zealand13. Chrysler Group, LLC ( United States) Global, UK and Republic of Ireland,Chrysler Division except EuropeDodge Division Global, except EuropeJeep Division Global North America, South America,Ram Division Middle East14. BMW AG ( Germany)BMW Division Global
MINI Division GlobalRolls-Royce Subsidiary Global15. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)Mazda Division Global16. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)Mitsubishi Division Global17. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( Peoples Republic of China)Chana Division China, South Africa, Europe18. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India)Hispano Subsidiary EuropeJaguar Subsidiary GlobalLand Rover Subsidiary GlobalTata Division Global, except North AmericaTata Daewoo Subsidiary South Korea
19. First Automotive Group Corporation ( Peoples Republic of China)Besturn Division ChinaFreewind Subsidiary ChinaHaima Subsidiary ChinaHongqi Division ChinaJiaxing Subsidiary ChinaVita Subsidiary ChinaXiali Subsidiary China20. Geely Automobile ( Peoples Republic of China)Geely Division China, Russia, North AfricaMaple Division ChinaVolvo (Cars) Subsidiary Global21. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( Peoples Republic of China)Chery Division China, Africa, South East Asia, Russia
Riich Division ChinaRely Division China22. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan)Subaru Division Global23. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( Peoples Republic of China)Dongfeng Division China24. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( Peoples Republic of China)BAW Division ChinaFoton Subsidiary China25. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia) Global, except North America andLada Division Portugal26. BYD Auto ( Peoples Republic of China)BYD Division China, Russia27. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan)
Isuzu Division Global, except North America28. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( Peoples Republic of China)JAC Division China29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( Peoples Republic of China)Brilliance Division China, North AfricaJinbei Subsidiary China30. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( Peoples Republic of China) China, South Africa, Russia, NorthGreat Wall Division Africa, Australia31. SAIC Motor ( Peoples Republic of China) China, United Kingdom, SouthMG Motor Subsidiary AmericaRoewe Division ChinaSoyat Division ChinaYuejin Division China32. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India)
India, South East Asia, Europe, NorthMahindra Division Africa, North America, AustraliaSsangYong Subsidiary GlobalMahindra Reva Electric Division IndiaVehicles Private LimitedMahindra Navistar Division IndiaAutomotives Ltd33. Hafei Motor ( China)Hafei Subsidiary China34. AB Volvo ( Sweden)Mack Subsidiary GlobalNissan Diesel Subsidiary GlobalNovaBus Subsidiary North AmericaPrevost Subsidiary North AmericaRenault Trucks Subsidiary Global, except JapanVolvo Trucks Division Global
35. Jiangxi Changhe Automobile ( China)Changhe Division China36. Qingling Motors Company Ltd. ( China)Qingling Division China37. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia) Asia Pacific (except Japan and SouthProton Division Africa), United Kingdom, Middle EastLotus Subsidiary Global38. Hunan Jiangnan Automobile ( Peoples Republic of China)Jiangnan Division China39. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( Peoples Republic of China)Lifan Division China40. Fujian Motor Industry Group Company ( Peoples Republic of China)Soueast Division China41. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)
Kuozui Subsidiary Taiwan42. Shandong Kaima ( China)Kaima Division ChinaJubao Division ChinaAofeng Division China43. Porsche Automobil Holding SE ( Germany)Porsche Division Global44. Chenzhou Gonow Nanyan Chifeng Vehicle ( Peoples Republic of China)Gonow Division China45. Ziyang Nanjun Automobile Co., Ltd. ( Peoples Republic of China)Nanjun Division China46. Rongcheng Huatai Motor ( Peoples Republic of China)Huatai Division China
By total productionCounting the total production of all manufactures, from they beginning is hardtask, because of the often changes, dividing and buying. However some producers,and independent sources give the stats: Toyota 200 000 000 vehicles as of July 2012 (after 77 years from beginning.Minor automotive manufacturersMain article: Minor automotive manufacturing groupsThere are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies.They are mostly regional or operating in niche markets.