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The Toulmin Model of Argument


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The Toulmin Model of Argument

  1. 1. The Toulmin Model of Argument White and Billings
  2. 2. Toulmin Basics <ul><li>Toulmin’s model is systematic in its reasoning; at the same time, it demands that this reasoning be scrutinized for its ethical underpinnings. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. Toulmin Model <ul><li>Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant </li></ul><ul><li>Backing </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifier </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuttal </li></ul>
  4. 4. Claim The assertion I shall try to persuade you to accept as true with or without qualifiers Data/Grounds The facts and/or logical reasons that demonstrate the truth of my claim Warrant Assurance that the data is based on solid principles, thus contributing to the validity & trustworthiness of the claim Backing Assurance that the warrant is sound
  5. 5. Claim <ul><li>Suggests a thesis or assertion is particularly open to challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot dispute taste </li></ul><ul><li>Objective claim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assert that something actually exists and present evidence that is demonstrably factual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjective Claim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assert that something should exist and present evidence derived from ethical, moral, or aesthetic convictions. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Data (grounds) <ul><li>The supporting evidence fully validates the claim </li></ul><ul><li>Five kinds of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testimonial or experiential (clear demonstrations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholarly or documentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Warrant and its Backing <ul><li>The assurance that the evidence brought in to support the claim is completely reliable and that it rests on sound principles or values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical or scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical or forensic-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional or artistic based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The backing is the assurance that the warrant is sound </li></ul><ul><li>Even if the warrant remains unstated, the writer should know what it is, in order to determine if the reader shares those values </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Qualifier <ul><li>Claim may be valid in many circumstances but not all </li></ul><ul><li>used so that all readers would understand how the writer is limiting its range </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuttal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to Refutation, except </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims not to invalidate the claim but to show that the claim may not be valid in certain situations </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Example <ul><li>Claim: Carol should be elected class president </li></ul><ul><li>Grounds: Carol is an honor student </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant: A person who is an honor student is honorable and hard-working. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Exercise 4.1 <ul><li>Question 1 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exercise 4.2 <ul><li>Questions 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 qualifier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two kinds of evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 warrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterclaim, Counterdata, and counter warrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3, 4, 5 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Exercise 4.3 <ul><li>Claim: </li></ul><ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant: </li></ul><ul><li>Backing: </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifier? </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuttal? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Exercise 4.3 Answers (In a nutshell) <ul><li>Claim: King George III deserves no loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Data: King George III is a tyrannical ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant: Tyrannical Rulers deserve no loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Backing: </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifier? </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuttal? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Toulmin Essay Format <ul><li>I. Introduction: </li></ul><ul><li>a. First Example </li></ul><ul><li>b. Second Example </li></ul><ul><li>c. Claim, with allusions to underlying warrants. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Data in support of the claim </li></ul><ul><li>a. Scientific Data </li></ul><ul><li>b. Testimonial Data </li></ul><ul><li>III. Deeper Considerations (warrants & backing) behind claim </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Concluding Remarks </li></ul>