Introduction to the Social Dimension of Education (gamilla, vinson, sabelo)


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Introduction to the Social Dimension of Education (gamilla, vinson, sabelo)

  1. 1. Social Dimension of Education Sociological Dimensions -Consensus Theory -Conflict Theory -Interactionist theory -Symbolic Interactionism -Functions a. Historical b. Sociological functions c. Socio- Cultural d. Socio-Political e. Socio-economic
  2. 2. Sociological Theory • Theories guide research and policy formulation in the sociology of education • They also provide logical explanations for why things happen the way they do. • Theories help sociologist understand educational systems • Educational theories change over time and (cultural) space. 2Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  3. 3. Origin of Sociology of Education • The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affects education and its outcome. • It is relatively a new branch and two great sociologist Émile Durkheim and Max Weber were the father of sociology of education. Émile Durkheim's work on moral education as a basis for social solidarity is considered the beginning of sociology of education. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 3
  4. 4. Sociologists see education as one of the major institutions that constitutes society. While theories guide research and policy formulation in the sociology of education. This theories help sociologists understand educational systems. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 4
  5. 5. Social System • Consist of plurality of individual actors interacting with each other with at least physical or environmental aspect. • Social system copes with the integration of function by controlling its component parts. • Cultural system performs the latency function by providing the norms and values that motivates them for action. 5Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  6. 6. Sociological Theory • Society has two faces (Dahrendorf; 1959,1968) • Sociological Theory should be divided into 2 parts. Conflict Theory and Consensus Theory. 6Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  7. 7. Sociology • The word Sociology originates from latin prefix :socius, "companion"; and the suffix - ology, "the study of", from Greek lógos, "knowledge" . • Sociology is the systematic study of society.Sociology encompasses all the elements of society ie social relation, social stratification, social interaction, culture. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 7
  8. 8. Society • : people in general thought of as living together in organized communities with shared laws, traditions, and values • : the people of a particular country, area, time, etc., thought of especially as an organized community 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 8
  9. 9. Education • Education is a broad concept, referring to all the experiences in which learners can learn something . • It is a social endeavour designed to get the maximum from the ability of each of the member of the society. Education is covers both the teaching, learning of knowledge and values. • Education consists of systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional teachers. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 9
  10. 10. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 10 According to some sociologist; society has two faces; the face of consensus and the face of conflict. Further, they emphasized that sociological theory should be divided into two parts between the consensus theory and the conflict theory.
  11. 11. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 11 The proponents of consensus and conflict sociological and social theories are:  Karl Marx  Emile Durkheim  Max Weber  Talcott Parsons & Robert Merton  Louis Althusser & Ralph Dahrendorf  Herbert Mead & Herbert Blumer
  12. 12. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 12 Karl Marx Marx's class theory rests on the premise that "the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." According to this view, ever since human society emerged from its primitive and relatively undifferentiated state it has remained fundamentally divided between classes who clash in the pursuit of class interests.
  13. 13. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 13 Emile Durkheim Durkheim discusses how modern society is held together by a division of labor that makes individuals dependent upon one another because they specialize in different types of work. Durkheim is particularly concerned about how the division of labor changes the way that individuals feel they are part of society as a whole.
  14. 14. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 14 Max Weber Max Weber believed that it was social actions that should be the focus of study in sociology. To Weber, a “social action’” was an action carried out by an individual to which an individual attached a meaning. Therefore, an action that a person does not think about cannot be a social action.
  15. 15. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 15
  16. 16. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 16 Louis Althusser Ralf Dharendorf
  17. 17. Conflict Theory • Emphasize the dominance of some social groups • Social order as based on manipulation and control by dominant groups • Social change is occurring rapidly in a disorderly fashion • Subordinate groups overthrow dominant groups 17Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  18. 18. • Examines conflict of interest and the coercion that holds society • Disagreement or clash between opposing sides, principles, or people • It can be overt or covert conflict • Focuses on the heterogeneous nature of society and the unequal distribution of political and social power. 18Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  19. 19. • Struggle between social classes • Asks how schools contribute to the unequal distribution of people into jobs in society • More powerful members of society maintain the best positions • Less powerful group (women, racial and ethnic group) are allocated to lower ranks 19Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  20. 20. • Education plays a big part in maintaining the prestige, power, and economic and social position of dominant group in the society • Social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tensions between competing groups. • It needs not to be violent 20Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  21. 21. • Emergence of conflict and what causes conflict • Conflict theory deals with the incompatible aspects of society and how they clash with one another • Interested in how society institutions (family, gov’t religion, education and media) helps to maintain the privileges of some groups. 21Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  22. 22. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 22 The conflict model is concerned with the stresses and conflicts that emerge in society because of competitions over scarce resources. It focuses on the inequalities that are built into social structures rather than on those that emerge because of personal characteristics. Social Structures produce patterns of inequality in the distribution of scarce resources. Conflict Reorganization and Change
  23. 23. Consensus Theory • Sees shared norms and values as fundamentals to society • Focuses on social order based on tacit agreements. • Social change occurs in a slow and orderly fashion 23Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  24. 24. • Examines value integration in society • Absence of conflict as the equilibrium state • A collection of theories in which social order and stability as the base of emphasis • Concerned with the maintenance or continuation of social order in relation to norms, values, rules and etc. 24Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  25. 25. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 25 Consensus Theories Conflict theories See shared norms and values as fundamental to society Emphasize the dominance of some social groups by others Focus on social order based on tacit agreements See social order as based on manipulation and control by dominant groups View social change as occurring in a slow and orderly fashion View social change as occurring rapidly in a disorderly fashion as subordinate groups overthrow dominant groups
  26. 26. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 26 Structural Functionalism Structural Functionalism states that society is made up of various institutions that work together in cooperation. Parsons’ structural functionalism has four functional imperatives also known as AGIL scheme.
  27. 27. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 27 Structural Functionalism (AGIL) 1. Adaptation – a system must cope with external situational exigencies. It must adapt to its environment and adapt environment to its needs. 2. Goal attainment- a system must define and achieve its primary goals. 3. Integration- a system must regulate the interrelationship of its component parts. It must also manage the relationship among the other three functional imperatives (A,G,L) 4. Latency (pattern maintenance)- a system must furnish, maintain and renew both the motivation of individuals and the cultural patterns that create and sustain the motivation.
  28. 28. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 28
  29. 29. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 29 1. Social system must be structured so that they operate compatibly with other systems. 2. To survive, the social system must have requisite from other systems. 3. The system must meet a significant proportion of the needs of its actors. 4. The system must elicit adequate participation from its members. Functional Requisites of a Social System
  30. 30. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 30 5. It must have at least a minimum of control over potentially disruptive behavior. 6. If conflict becomes sufficiently disruptive, it must be controlled. 7. Finally, a social system requires a language in order to survive. -Talcott Parsons
  31. 31. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 31 Interaction Theory • Is the relation of school and society are critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives. • Interactionist theories are critiques and extensions of the functionalist and conflict perspectives.
  32. 32. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 32 This level of analysis helps us to understand education in the “ big picture”. Interactionist theories attempt to make the “commonplace strange” by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students and between students and teachers.
  33. 33. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello Basic forms of Social Interaction 33
  34. 34. SOCIAL INTERACTIONISM SYMBOLIC INTERACTION • Which require mental processes. NON-SYMBOLIC INTERACTION • Which does not involve thinking. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 34
  35. 35. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 35 • Symbolic interaction theory analyses society by addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on objects, events, and behaviours. • Has its own origin in the social psychology of early twentieth century sociologist George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley. • This school of thought, known as symbolic interactionism, views the self as socially constructed in relation to social forces and structures and the product of on going negotiations of meanings. Symbolic Interactionism
  36. 36. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 36 Principles of Symbolic Interactionism 1. Human beings are endowed with the capacity for thought. 2. The capacity for thought us shaped by social interaction 3. In social interaction, people learn the meanings and the symbols that allow them to exercise their distinctively human capacity for thought. 4. Meanings and symbols allow people to carry on distinctively human action and interaction.
  37. 37. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 37 5. People are able to modify or alter meanings and symbols that they use in action and interaction on the basis of their interpretation of the situation. 6. People are able to make these modifications and alterations because, in part, of their ability to interact with themselves, which allows them ton examine possible courses of action, assess their relative advantages and disadvantages, and then choose one. 7. The intertwined patterns of action and interaction make up groups and societies.
  38. 38. Important concept that has long been used by symbolic interactionist. •Looking-glass self a. developed by Charles Horton Cooley b. “We see ourselves as others see us” 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 38
  39. 39. The Functions/ Methods the field uniquely performs 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 39
  40. 40. Historical functions • Recognition and remembrance • Commemoration and celebration • Immortalization and solemnification • Honor-giving and posterity-making 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 40
  41. 41. Sociological Functions • It brings about the phenomenon of social grouping. • It differentiates human collectivities into various forms of interaction such as the villages, towns, provinces, cities, nations, and international communities. • It formalizes the different parts of the social system (society) into institutions with different functions, extent of duration, validities, and outcomes. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 41
  42. 42. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 42 Socio-Cultural Functions • Is a policy that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures, especially as they relate one another in receiving nations. • The regularization of common tasks and activities of collective life; this function gives rise to routines, norms, public behavior and standard operating procedures. • The atonement and instilment in the social members of the customary laws and values guide and direct the members towards enlightenment, ennoblement, and perfectibility.
  43. 43. • Field of study and an emerging discipline whose major aim is to create equal educational opportunities from racial, ethnic, social class and cultural groups • The veneration of all that are beneficent to the human race and society through the collective acts of celebration, recognition and commemoration of the people. 43Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  44. 44. 44Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  45. 45. Advantages of Socio-Cultural Lead cultural exchanges Add variety in the life of all citizens Bridges the chasm of ignorance and arrogance 45Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  46. 46. Lead Cultural Exchanges BACK 46Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  47. 47. Add variety in the life of all Citizens BACK 47Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  48. 48. Bridges the Chasm of Ignorance and Arrogance 48Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014
  49. 49. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 49 Socio-Economic Functions • Promotion of self-sufficiency for the populace by both the government and the private sectors. • Strengthening the agricultural and industrial economies of the country. • Intervention of government in anti- social business practices. • Balancing people’s needs with the country’s export business
  50. 50. 7/7/2014 Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello 50 Socio-Political Functions Political governance, legislation, arbitration, social service, social assistance, security and protection, punitive sanctions, implementation of social justice through laws, and social development.
  51. 51. References/Sources • Sociological Theories and the • Sociological Theories and the Education System By: Emmanuela M. Licayan Educ 3 • Cultural Changes ( • Multiculturalism ( 51Gamilla, Vinson, Sabello7/7/2014