Ian Menzies of the Developing Global Citizens Team at Learning and Teaching Scotland gave this presentation on interdisciplinary learning to the Institute of Physics Scotland teacher meeting in June 2011
Physics connects us to the world and helps us make sense of the world. It also has had an enormous impact in the way it has transformed our communities, societies and way of life.
Here is an example of how physics and science has benefitted one community. The Cathcart area in Glasgow, which sits alongside the White Cart River, has been flooded on a regular basis for the last 100 years. Each incident of flooding causes £10 millions worth of damage and many residents are unable to get home insurance as a result – causing financial and economic hardship. The flooding is likely to become more severe due to the impact of climate change. Already parts of the West Coast of Scotland are 68% wetter during the winter months than they were in 1961. The Scottish Government has provided funding for one of Scotland’s biggest flood defence schemes to be built on the White Cart – costing over £50 million.
The flood defence scheme involves a mixture of engineered solutions such as raised walls in built up areas but also has adopted a whole catchment approach using flood ponds and dams. Here is a typical cross section through the main control structure at each site. The key features are: Earth embankment across the river valley a vortex flow control to limit the flow of water passing downstream. I will talk about this in more detail shortly A large pipe to allow the controlled flow to pass back into the river downstream of the dam CLICK As rain falls on the catchment upstream and river levels rise, the Hydrobrakes throttle the flow causing water to be impounded and released at a slower rate. An analogy would be running your bath with the plug out. The net effect of these control structures are to release the flow of water to prevent sharp rises in river levels which can cause flood damage.
Flow control is achieved by the incorporation of vortex flow controls or Hydrobrakes. The Hydrobrake that has been installed in the flood defenses is the largest of its kind in the world and is relatively maintenance free. CLICK ON THE NEXT BUTTON. This animation illustrates how the hydrobrake flow control operates. Firstly we have the low flow or pre-initiation stage where the hydrobrake behaves like an orifice. CLICK ON THE NEXT BUTTON AGAIN. As the inflow increases and the hydrobrake becomes submerged we reach the post initiation phase where a vortex forms in the volute. This vortex creates a back pressure that limits the flow passing through the control.
As with most large engineering projects, the work necessitated that the scientists and engineers worked in partnership to complete the project. This involved working with many other disciplines including planners, hydrologists, ecologists and conservationists. Regulations relating to environmental impact assessments were adhered to and work had to stop for four weeks when a badger set up home in the area of the new control structure. This is just one example of how physics, and the sciences in general, have helped transform communities and livelihoods. PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
Given the enormous contribution of physics and sciences to our world, their importance in developing our children and young people as global citizens can not be underestimated. Developing our children and young people as global citizens is at the heart of Curriculum for Excellence and the outcome of their learning is that they should be empowered and motivated to take action to transform their communities, society and world. This slide shows just a few of the issues that are associated with global citizenship. Some are more relevant to the sciences... CLICK. ...such as appreciating and preserving biodiversity, learning about climate change & sustainable lifestyles etc. However, if we take the earlier case study from the White Cart as an example – issues relating to social justice and poverty are relevant to sciences too given the devastation caused to families by repeated flooding and the impact that science has had on improving quality of life and economic security. Culture and heritage is linked in the same way given that many of the problems associated with flooding were caused by drainage schemes and the canalisation of rivers introduced during the agricultural or industrial revolutions. While we’re not suggesting that every learner needs to become a scientist to be a global citizen, our ambition is that every learner becomes a scientifically-literate global citizen.
The media hysteria and controversy surrounding climate change illustrates why it is important that learners are scientifically-literate global citizens to enable them to navigate their way through the misinformation and develop informed views and opinions based on established scientific evidence.
Scientific discovery, research and progress is often controversial and can stray into areas that requires public debate and ethical considerations. This is part of the scientific process and it is important that we prepare learners for these moral decisions and choices that they will face, perhaps as future scientists, or in other roles and careers. The issues highlighted in this slide regularly appear in our media. Exploring this interface between sciences, society and technologies can be used as a vehicle for engaging learners in debate and for developing skills relating to ethics, reasoning and critical thinking. The image in the centre is of the Island of Tiree. The islanders already have their own community turbine but a feasibility study is being completed into the siting of the Argyll Array – 600 offshore wind turbines that will power up to a million homes to help Scotland meet its climate change and renewable energy targets. Should this be agreed it will bring hundreds of construction workers to the island and constant helicopter flights. This demonstrates the dilemmas often accompanying scientific and technological developments. When Curriculum for Excellence was being developed, climate change was hard-wired into the experiences and outcomes to provide an opportunity for interdisciplinary learning involving sciences, social studies and technologies.
Within Standard Grade, the introduction of applications-led teaching was designed to make learning more relevant and meaningful for children and young people. Embedding learning relating to controversy, ethics and values has been embedded into the experiences and outcomes of Curriculum for Excellence - helping to make learning relevant, fun and challenging for learners and preparing them for life in the 21 st century.
The ethical and moral dilemmas associated with physics and science are real. Scientists for global responsibility is a network of scientists, architects, engineers and technologists who promote science relating to peace, social justice and sustainability.
Interdisciplinary learning is a key feature of Curriculum for Excellence and physics and sciences have an important role to play.
In addition to the above the guiding principles of interdisciplinary learning are: Clear focus on a small number of curriculum areas/aspects of a curriculum area (e.g. music and drama – expressive arts) Connections with literacy/numeracy and health and wellbeing across learning Focus on a few carefully selected and relevant experiences and outcomes Choice of theme or task which requires knowledge and skills from different curriculum areas/aspects of curriculum areas or subjects
Having rich and complex themes as a focus provides opportunities for study in depth, breadth and also ensures that adequate progression can be built in. Importantly, they also provide opportunities for a wide number of departments within secondary schools to engage with the issue and come together to support interdisciplinary activities.
This is perhaps the most compelling argument for interdisciplinary learning. In the modern workplace environment, interdisciplinary activities are the norm and people from many different disciplines will have to work effectively within a team approach to ensure the success of complex projects. It is therefore vital that young people have the opportunity to develop skills and gain experience in this way of working to prepare them for the world of work.
It is estimated that in the energy sector alone there will be 60,000 to 90,000 jobs created in the next 10 to 15 years but when supply chains and the transformation to a low carbon economy are taken into account then the jobs total will be nearer 130,000. This is seen as a top political priority and ensuring that we have the right people for the right jobs at the right time presents a serious challenge. Skills Development Scotland, the Scottish Government, FE/HE sectors are working with industry and many other partners to ensure clear career progression for young people into these jobs and promote sector attractiveness. Physics education within Curriculum for Excellence clearly has a vital role to play. PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
Physics has much to gain and give with regards to interdisciplinary learning. Participating in such activities, which allow study in greater depth and breadth, allows learners to further develop skills shown in this slide. Interdisciplinary learning, however, works most effectively when it draws on the strengths of the respective disciplines and in this respect physics has much to offer – as this slide shows.
The interdisciplinary wind farm project at Oban High ran for 6 weeks and included 7 lessons per week (3 physics, 3 geography and 1 PSE). It took the form of a team challenge which involved determining the location of a wind turbine, assessing its environmental impact, designing a turbine to a budget and building a working model. The project was supported by Skills Development Scotland and a wide range of external partners including STEM ambassadors, local MSP and Ali-Energy (a local renewables company). PSE input – developing career management skills, working in teams and developing positive attitudes for the workplace. Physics input – Electrical measurements, power calculations, design and build turbine Geography input – Renewable and non-renewable energy, climate change, wind speeds, land use conflicts and geographical information systems. PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
Campbeltown Grammar adopted a storyline approach to interdisciplinary learning about low carbon futures. The storyline approach adopts many features of storytelling and can involve the use of scenarios to guide learning. This approach provides opportunities for young people to explore characters, feelings and actions. The storyline approach culminates in a final celebration of learning. The book used as a focus was Carbon Diaries 2015 by Saci Lloyd – a teenage novel about life in 2015 which explores the imagined impact of carbon rationing in Britain on a teenage girl. Issues encountered during the reading of the book (e.g. rising sea levels announced on the news tonight) provided opportunities for further study in other curriculum areas. English – reading book, exploring characters, introduction of scenarios. Physics input – Carbon management, energy efficient homes kit, renewables Geography – Calculating carbon footprint, climate change, gulf stream, rising sea levels ICT/drama – final presentations and celebration of learning. The impact on learning was significant and learners enjoyed this project immensely – so much so, that many other students were asking why they were not allowed to take part. PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
In Monifieth High, the theme of Citizenship is used as a broad focus to deliver much of the curriculum with each term having a particular focus e.g. Individual to global citizenship.
To explore opportunities for interdisciplinary learning, one wall of the staff room was turned into a visual learning wall. Experiences and outcomes from the curriculum areas were added to the wall and staff then invited to group these around sub-themes which could potentially provide a focus for interdisciplinary learning.
From the learning wall activity, staff in Sciences, Geography and RME decided to use climate change as a focus for interdisciplinary learning. The controversial Channel 4 documentary, The Great Global Warming Swindle , was used as a basis for investigation and discussion and as a route into the public debate on climate change. Sciences input - gases, combustion, greenhouse effect, experiments about the warming effect of CO2. Geography input - effects of global warming RME - moral implications of global warming PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
Millburn Academy is one of a number of schools that has received funding from the Scottish Government’s Climate Challenge Fund to take forward carbon reduction activities in their own communities. Over £27 million has been distributed to local communities through this fund over the last few years. Millburn Sciences Department has used this funding to support a transition/cluster approach to energy management and has been supported by the Highland One World Group. The activities were launched in November 2009 to coincide with the UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen. Baseline studies of current energy use were conducted through surveys and through the issuing of SMART meters to the homes of learners. Practical energy reduction activities were promoted widely and the impact of these measures has been monitored and reported on. Other schools benefitting from this funding include Grange Academy, Inverness High, Grantown Grammar and Currie Community High (through its association with the PIPER group). These schools have also used funds to support associated activities such as encouraging cycling to school, community events to promote energy awareness and pupil-led campaigns to install more efficient heating systems within schools. PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
Deans Community High has weaved global citizenship education into its Science Award Programmes. Pupils are given a range of activities to undertake as part of their elective time on a Friday and have a degree of choice about what activities they will do and how they will present their work. Each task is rated in terms of the number of hours of work that would be involved to complete it and learners can achieve the award at bronze, silver or gold level. A certificate is issued by the school upon completion of the award programme.
LTS has launched a new glow blog to share ideas and best practice. Please get in touch if you have an idea you are willing to share.
LTS has worked hard to provide resources to support the embedding of global citizenship education in Curriculum for Learning.
STEM Central is an exciting, and significant, online resource launched by LTS in June 2011. It provides information, guidance, resources, videos and learning journeys to support the use of engineering challenges as themes for interdisciplinary learning for Third and Fourth Levels. The learning contexts have a strong focus on sustainability including flooding/water management, electric transport and renewables.
This resource launched in March 2011 provides ideas and guidance on how global citizenship can be embedded within learning and through a successful whole school approach. It is available in print form and online.
These pages on LTS Online provide information, guidance and videos to support the embedding of sustainability and global citizenship within the curriculum and life of the school. The videos and PPT can be downloaded and used for individual or collective CPD.
LTS’ weather and climate change website has been developed for primary practitioners and contains over 50 videos. Many secondary schools are making use of this within S1 and S2.
Schools Global Footprint, on LTS online, features an online calculator that enables schools to measure their carbon and ecological footprints. Over 50% of emissions from local authorities come from the school estate and schools have a vital role to play in helping local authorities meet their carbon reduction targets. Many schools have engaged learners in developing strategies for reducing carbon emissions and linking these to learning within the curriculum. Their is also a strong link between global footprinting and Eco-Schools activities.
Exploring Climate Change is an LTS Online resource targeted at Third and Fourth Level. A new section on the controversy of climate change has recently been added.
Developing higher order thinking skills is a key feature of Curriculum for Excellence. Using Low Carbon Futures as a theme provides a rich context for learning that can help develop such skills. LTS has been working in partnership with Keir Bloomer, Chair of the Higher Order Thinking Excellence Group, and his associates to develop these ideas. Follow the link to access resources that have been produced to support this. PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
SEPA, LTS and other organisations have established a Citizen Science Pilot programme involving 8 schools – two from East Renfrewshire, two from Glasgow and four from the Scottish Borders. The aim of the pilot is to develop approaches to engage learners in monitoring actual environmental data that will be used by scientists and key environmental bodies such as SEPA. The initial pilot will last for one year with a view to a national roll out in 2012/2013.
For more information about the SLF seminar programme follow the link in the above slide. PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
For more information about the SLF seminar programme follow the link in the above slide.
PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
PLEASE NOTE: if the glow link does not work in your version of PowerPoint then please cut and paste the Glow URL provided into your browser.
Lts iop pres 8 june 2011
Ian Menzies Development Officer Developing Global Citizens Physics - connecting us to the world
Millbrae Crescent Physics - transforming society
Typical cross section through control structure Vortex flow control Culvert Embankment dam Spillway protection Water level sensors
Sciences and technology Conservation Environmental sciences Geography and planning Consultation and communication Website and video>> Download from Glow at http://glo.li/kzsLmf
Global citizens - transforming society biodiversity Peace and conflict Sustainable lifestyles Climate change Cultural exchange Holocaust education Children’s rights Equality and diversity Social justice International development Identity Scotland’s culture and heritage Racism and sectarianism Intergenerational understanding Poverty and exclusion Stereotypes and bias Low carbon future Learners must be scientifically literate global citizens contexts
Call to reopen powerline public enquiry Climategate whitewashers squirm like maggots Climate camp protestors to target RBS Science, media and society Science enables learners to develop informed views
Tech fixes to climate change Because we can, does that mean we should? science technology society Nano-technology Mega dams GM crops Cloning Beauly to Denny Powerline Controversy, values and ethics Energy security
Standard Grade Controversy, values and ethics Applications-led Credits: Beige Alert & James Cridland/Flickr Creative Commons Curriculum for Excellence Was the TV report accurate? What do you think? Making learning relevant, challenging and fun
Task How has your department been involved in interdisciplinary learning activities? What was the theme/focus of these activities? Which departments were involved?
About interdisciplinary learning <ul><li>To allow children and young people to make genuine and relevant connections across learning. </li></ul><ul><li>To give them the opportunity to experience breadth, depth, challenge and application in their study of particular topics. </li></ul>Find out more about interdisciplinary learning >>
Sustainable design & technology Global footprinting Renewable energy Engineering challenges Climate change Global citizenship & IDL Low carbon future Global citizenship issues offer rich and complex themes for learning across many curriculum areas
Investment specialists The world of work Scientists Hydraulics engineers Flow dynamics researchers Computer modellers Ecologists Applied mathematicians Materials specialists Deep sea welders Interdisciplinary approaches are an essential feature of workplace environments
Green careers Image credit: Ocean Power Delivery Ltd There will be an estimated 130,000 green jobs created in the next 10 - 15 yrs as Scotland makes the transformation to a low carbon economy. STEM skills will be in the greatest demand. The Path is Green >> Glow meet video http://glo.li/kzsLmf
Develop informed, ethical views of complex issues Working collaboratively Evaluate environmental, scientific and technological issues Solve problems Research, handle & process information Analyse, think critically & logically Skills Investigate and explore Interdisciplinary activities help develop essential skills
Oban High Wind Farm S1 Interdisciplinary Challenge Geography/Physics/PSE/SDS Download from Glow at http://glo.li/kzsLmf
Campbeltown Grammar S2 - Using storyline approach English (and literacy) Geography (Social studies) Sciences ICT (Technologies) Drama (Expressive Arts) Download from Glow at http://glo.li/kzsLmf
Citizenship Individual Term 1 Local/Community Term 2 National Term 3 Global Term 4 SMT provided a broad theme to each term Monifieth High
The planning wall provided space for all of the outcomes across all curricular areas
Monifieth High Science, Geography and RME A Channel 4 documentary "The Great Global Warming Swindle" claims that man-made global warming is "a lie" and "the biggest scam of modern times." The documentary says the Earth has warmed and cooled throughout history . The recent climate changes are natural , it claims. Download from Glow at http://glo.li/kzsLmf
Getting closer to real-life energy conservation (P7- S2) Millburn Academy Download from Glow at http://glo.li/kzsLmf
Deans Community High S1 Excellence Awards in Sciences >> Climate change Energy Engineering Topical Science Rating Exercise ** Collect 10 newspaper articles about current scientific news. Write a brief summary of what they say. *** Make a 3D model of how the UK might look if global warming makes the sea levels rise by 1meter. ** What are ethics? Find out and give an example of where ethics are important in science. ** Make a presentation about global warming and explain what scientists can do to stop it. Include carbon capture/sequestering in your presentation.
Partnership with Keir Bloomer, Roger Talbot and Jim Goodall To use the theme of Low carbon futures to develop high order thinking skills and promote a deep approach to interdisciplinary learning Low Carbon Future - Pilot Interested in becoming a pilot school? Download from Glow at http://glo.li/kzsLmf
Aims: To engage young people in measuring environmental data To develop understanding about flooding and adaptation to climate change To use local rivers as a focus to promote interdisciplinary learning and skills development Eight pilot schools – Glasgow and Peebles Citizen Science - Pilot OPAL website >>
Scottish Learning Festival - 21 st – 22 nd Sept 2011 Deep learning in an IDL context – Keir Bloomer Richard Milne, University of Edinburgh Climate Change: Truth, Controversy and Evidence (Watch video on Glow at http://glo.li/kzsLmf ) Oban High: Interdisciplinary approach to renewables Coming up... View SLF Programme >>
Scottish Learning Festival - 21 st – 22 nd Sept 2011 STEM Central Global citizenship at Grange Academy Renewable energy education: Western Isles and Glasgow Climate change and forests: Royal Highland Edn. Trust Coming up... View SLF Programme >>
National SDE Glow group at http://glo.li/kzsLmf Twitter - SusDevEd Read the global citizenship blog Keeping you in the loop SIGN UP to our ebulletin
Ian Menzies Development Officer Developing global citizens Email: [email_address] www.ltscotland.org.uk/globalcitizens Please share your ideas with us Download this presentation from Glow at http:// glo.li/kzsLmf