Departamento de
Biología y Geología
Natural Science 2nd grade ESO

UNIT 1

Living organisms
Departamento de
Biología y Geología
The Biosphere are all the living things
which inhabit the Earth

frog

mushroom

tulips
Science devoted to the study
of living things is BIOLOGY
Tasmania devil

mushroom
A living thing is an organism that is…
1 - able to perform the three vital
functions.
2 - made up of specific inorganic an...
1- performing the three vital functions:

• NUTRITION: consist of taking
substances from the environment and
using them fo...
1- performing the three vital functions:
• INTERACTION consists on perceiving
changes in the environment (stimuli) and
rea...
1- performing the three vital functions:
• REPRODUCTION is the capacity that
living things have to produce descendents
wit...
2- being made up of:
• Inorganic substances:
– water
– mineral salts

• Organic substances:
– glucids (like glucose or cel...
3- being organized in CELLS.
A cell is the BASIC UNIT OF LIFE that can
perform the three vital functions.

tissue
cell

or...
Unicellular & Multicellular
• Unicellular living
things have only one
cell.

• Multicellular living
things have many
diffe...
Multicellular organisms
• The cells work together as a whole.
• There are different levels of organisation,
depending on w...
THE FIVE KINGDOMS
•
•
•
•
•

MONERA kingdom
PROTOCTIST kingdom
FUNGI kingdom
PLANT kingdom
ANIMAL kingdom
CELL STRUCTURE
• Plasmatic membrane:
– is a thin and elastic external cover.
– is composed by lipids and proteins.
*Also c...
CELL STRUCTURE
• DNA:
– is the genetic material (it contains the genetic
information).

– is a nucleic acid (with attached...
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
DNA is placed in the cytoplasm
• They are very simple and very small
• They lack organelles (with the ex...
Smaller than eukaryotic cells (around 1μ
m )
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
• They are bacteria
• All of them belong to the MONERA kingdom
Vibrio cholerae
Escherichia coli
Lactobacillus casei
Spirulina sp.
*µm: micrometre or micron.
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
DNA is placed in the nucleus
• The NUCLEUS is a compartment with a
double cover: NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
• They...
Usual average of human cells is between 10 and 100 μ m
Nucleus

Endoplasmic reticulum
Vacuole

Mitochondrion

Golgi
apparatus

Cellular
wall
Plasma membrane

Chloroplast
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
• Ribosomes (they form proteins).
• Endoplasmic reticulum is related with the
ribosomes (they store the p...
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
• Chloroplasts (exclusive for plant cell) they
perform photosynthesis thanks to a green
molecule called c...
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
THE NUCLEUS
• The DNA is inside and could be condensed as
chromosomes.
• DNA could be not condensed as ch...
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
• There are some differences between the
eukaryotic cells of different organisms.
– Different organelles ...
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
• The main types of eukaryotic cells are:
– animal cells
– plant cells
Muscle cells

Bone cells

neuron

Red blood cells

Sperm cell
1632-1723

Anton van Leeuwenhoek
1635-1703

Robert Hooke

Cella
Schleiden

Schwann

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OpBylwH9DU

Virchow
The CELL THEORY
All organisms are composed by cells
Cells are the basic unit of structure
and function in organisms
All ce...
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
1852-1934

1906 Nobel Prize
Neuron theory
-Nervous system
is composed also
by cells called
neurons.
-Cell theory was
proven also with
the case of
nerv...
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  1. 1. Departamento de Biología y Geología
  2. 2. Natural Science 2nd grade ESO UNIT 1 Living organisms Departamento de Biología y Geología
  3. 3. The Biosphere are all the living things which inhabit the Earth frog mushroom tulips
  4. 4. Science devoted to the study of living things is BIOLOGY Tasmania devil mushroom
  5. 5. A living thing is an organism that is… 1 - able to perform the three vital functions. 2 - made up of specific inorganic and organic substances (certain chemical composition). 3 - organized in CELLS.
  6. 6. 1- performing the three vital functions: • NUTRITION: consist of taking substances from the environment and using them for growth, energy, repair and waste elimination. (Autotrophs vs heterotrophs)
  7. 7. 1- performing the three vital functions: • INTERACTION consists on perceiving changes in the environment (stimuli) and reacting to them.
  8. 8. 1- performing the three vital functions: • REPRODUCTION is the capacity that living things have to produce descendents with the same characteristics.
  9. 9. 2- being made up of: • Inorganic substances: – water – mineral salts • Organic substances: – glucids (like glucose or cellulose), – lipids (fatty acids and cholesterol), – proteins (hemoglobin) – nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
  10. 10. 3- being organized in CELLS. A cell is the BASIC UNIT OF LIFE that can perform the three vital functions. tissue cell organism
  11. 11. Unicellular & Multicellular • Unicellular living things have only one cell. • Multicellular living things have many different cells.
  12. 12. Multicellular organisms • The cells work together as a whole. • There are different levels of organisation, depending on whether they have tissues, organs or systems.
  13. 13. THE FIVE KINGDOMS • • • • • MONERA kingdom PROTOCTIST kingdom FUNGI kingdom PLANT kingdom ANIMAL kingdom
  14. 14. CELL STRUCTURE • Plasmatic membrane: – is a thin and elastic external cover. – is composed by lipids and proteins. *Also called plasma membrane. • Cytoplasm: – is a liquid substance that fills cell’s interior. – is a jelly-like substance with water and different molecules (glucids, lipids, proteins). – is where take place the chemical reactions, necessary for CELLULAR FUNCTIONING. – is where there are some structures, ORGANELLES (they perform many specific functions).
  15. 15. CELL STRUCTURE • DNA: – is the genetic material (it contains the genetic information). – is a nucleic acid (with attached proteins): it is divided in units called chromosomes. – depending on the placement of DNA, cells can be classified into: _ prokaryotic cells and, _ eukaryotic cells.
  16. 16. PROKARYOTIC CELLS DNA is placed in the cytoplasm • They are very simple and very small • They lack organelles (with the exception of RIBOSOMES) • They have another external cover outside the plasmatic membrane: the CELLULAR WALL • Some use flagellum or pili to move • There are differences in the type of nutrition: there are autotrophs and heterotrophs
  17. 17. Smaller than eukaryotic cells (around 1μ m )
  18. 18. PROKARYOTIC CELLS • They are bacteria • All of them belong to the MONERA kingdom
  19. 19. Vibrio cholerae
  20. 20. Escherichia coli
  21. 21. Lactobacillus casei
  22. 22. Spirulina sp.
  23. 23. *µm: micrometre or micron.
  24. 24. EUKARYOTIC CELLS DNA is placed in the nucleus • The NUCLEUS is a compartment with a double cover: NUCLEAR MEMBRANE. • They are more complex cells and bigger than prokaryotic cells. • They have a great variety of organelles.
  25. 25. Usual average of human cells is between 10 and 100 μ m
  26. 26. Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Vacuole Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Cellular wall Plasma membrane Chloroplast
  27. 27. EUKARYOTIC CELLS • Ribosomes (they form proteins). • Endoplasmic reticulum is related with the ribosomes (they store the proteins). • Golgi apparatus packages proteins inside the cell before they are sent to their destination. • Mitochondria (it produces energy). • Centrioles (exclusive for animal cell) they take part in cell division and they control the movement of cilia and flagella. • Lysosomes (they digest food).
  28. 28. EUKARYOTIC CELLS • Chloroplasts (exclusive for plant cell) they perform photosynthesis thanks to a green molecule called chlorophyll. • The vacuoles (very common in plant cells) usually are use for the storage of different substances. • The cellular wall is exclusive for plant cells and it contains cellulose.
  29. 29. EUKARYOTIC CELLS THE NUCLEUS • The DNA is inside and could be condensed as chromosomes. • DNA could be not condensed as chromatin. • The nucleolus is related with the formation of ribosomes. • The nucleus has a double membrane with pores. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9kQpYdCnU14
  30. 30. EUKARYOTIC CELLS • There are some differences between the eukaryotic cells of different organisms. – Different organelles that they have. – Different types of nutrition. • This is the cell of the remaining four Kingdoms: – PROTOCTIST, – FUNGI, – ANIMALS and – PLANTS
  31. 31. EUKARYOTIC CELLS • The main types of eukaryotic cells are: – animal cells – plant cells
  32. 32. Muscle cells Bone cells neuron Red blood cells Sperm cell
  33. 33. 1632-1723 Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  34. 34. 1635-1703 Robert Hooke Cella
  35. 35. Schleiden Schwann https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OpBylwH9DU Virchow
  36. 36. The CELL THEORY All organisms are composed by cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms All cells come from preexisting cells Omnis cellula e cellula
  37. 37. Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1852-1934 1906 Nobel Prize
  38. 38. Neuron theory -Nervous system is composed also by cells called neurons. -Cell theory was proven also with the case of nervous tissues.

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