The english in north america


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The english in north america

  1. 1. The English in North America<br />Victoria Herrera<br />History 140<br />Online <br />
  2. 2. American ColoniesChapter 6Virginia<br /><ul><li>In the 16th century, Spanish and French mariners explored the long cost of Florida and South Acadia
  3. 3. Newfoundland was too cold and barren for year-round inhabitation
  4. 4. Tobacco created an explosive growth in population, territory, and wealth</li></ul>PROMOTERS<br /><ul><li>The English queen lacked the means to finance and govern an overseas colony
  5. 5. In England, the common people made up about 95% of the population
  6. 6. England was the wealthiest and most populous kingdom
  7. 7. Most English folk lived in country villages and tended livestock or cultivated grains
  8. 8. London became notorious for filth, poverty, plagues, fired, crime, and executions
  9. 9. In Ireland the English considered the resisting peoples as dirty, lazy, treacherous, murderous , and pagan savages</li></li></ul><li>American ColoniesChapter 6Virginia<br />ROANOKE<br /><ul><li>In 1585 one hundred colonists were sent across the Atlantic to settle on Roanoke
  10. 10. The soil on Roanoke was infertile thus making it hard to produce crops</li></ul>POWHATAN<br /><ul><li>The English tried again at Chesapeake Bay which offered more fertile land
  11. 11. Virginia Indians divided tasks almost exclusively along gender lines
  12. 12. Powhatan led the largest and most powerful chiefdom</li></ul>ENCOUNTER<br /><ul><li>The English were poorly prepared to understand and accept a culture so different from their own
  13. 13. The English considered the Indians lazy and benighted
  14. 14. The Algonquians recoiled in horror at the prospect of adopting a European way of life</li></ul>JAMESTOWN<br /><ul><li>In 1604 a peace treaty with Spain reduced the danger of Spanish attack on a new colony
  15. 15. The Virginia Company barley kept ahead of the continuing deaths at Jamestown
  16. 16. More and more colonists moved to Jamestown but disease and hunger kept killing them
  17. 17. Virginia’s nickname became “slaughterhouse”
  18. 18. Colonists were more interested in searching for ore than planting crops</li></li></ul><li>American ColoniesChapter 6Virginia<br />VIOLENCE<br /><ul><li>The colonists preferred to explore for gold and expected the Indians to feed them but the Indians has little surplus to shear with them
  19. 19. Smith tried to bully the Indians into giving them corn
  20. 20. The English thought that only pain and terror could motivate the poor
  21. 21. The English captured Pocahontas and accepted Christian conversion and married a colonist</li></ul>TOBACCO<br /><ul><li>As private property owners rather than company employees, the colonists showed much greater initiative and effort cultivating their crops
  22. 22. Planters learned to raise tobacco in 1616
  23. 23. Tabaco's profits increased the value of indentured servants, which stimulated the flow of emigrants to Virginia
  24. 24. As tobacco cultivation expanded and the population grew, the planter needed more land which they obtained at the Indians expense</li></li></ul><li>American ColoniesChapter 7Chesapeake Colonies<br /><ul><li>The ownership of productive land endowed men with the coveted condition of “independence”
  25. 25. In 1676 Virginia erupted in rebellion
  26. 26. Planters switched their labor force from white indentured servants to enslaved Africans</li></ul>COMMONWEALTHS<br /><ul><li>The wealthiest planters dominated the county system of local government
  27. 27. By 1668 Virginia had 62 Anglican churches
  28. 28. Many men never found the wives they needed to form family households. Men 74% to Women were only 10% with children being the other 16%</li></ul>LABOR<br /><ul><li>In 1650 enslaved African only made up a mere 2% of the Chesapeake population
  29. 29. When tobacco sold low and English wages rose, servant emigration declined
  30. 30. Chesapeake emigrants were a subset of the many poor people moving around England in search of food and work
  31. 31. Most indentured servants endured harsh but short lives in the Chesapeake</li></li></ul><li>American ColoniesChapter 7Chesapeake Colonies<br />PROSPERITY<br /><ul><li>The “seasoned” acquired a higher level of immunity, which they passed on to their offspring
  32. 32. At mid-century freed servants more easily obtained farms because the 1646 victory over the Indians
  33. 33. The Chesapeake farms did not impress English visitors</li></ul>REBELLION<br /><ul><li>After 1665 Virginia’s hard times with declining income and rising taxes
  34. 34. The pay lavished on the elite came from taxes heaped upon the common planter
  35. 35. Rather than pay rent, many freedmen moved to the frontier, where they violently competed with the Indians
  36. 36. In 1675 war erupted between the settlers and the Susquehannock
  37. 37. “Bacon’s Rebellion” represented a division within the planter elite</li></li></ul><li>American ColoniesChapter 7Chesapeake Colonies<br />GREAT PLANTERS<br /><ul><li>The assembly dramatically reduced the poll tax seeking popularity
  38. 38. By reducing taxes, the Virginia gentry reinvented themselves and Virginia politics</li></ul>SLAVES<br /><ul><li>At the end of the 17th century tensions between the common whites and the great planters diminished
  39. 39. Chesapeake planter increasingly turned to African slaves for their plantation labor
  40. 40. Anthony Johnson was the most successful and conspicuous black freedman
  41. 41. As slaves became more numerous and more conspicuously African, masters became convinced that only pain and fear could motivate them </li></li></ul><li>American ColoniesChapter 8New England<br />This different set of colonists adapted to a colder, less abundant, but far healthier environment<br />Puritan values helped the colonists prosper in a demanding land <br />In England labor with plentiful and cheap, but land was scarce and expensive<br />ENGLISH PURITANS<br />Law demanded that everyone support the official church of England with taxes and regular attendance<br />Puritans urged every believer to seek God by reading the Bible<br />Faced with the growing power of the king and his bishops, some despairing Puritans considered emigrated across Atlantic to a New England <br />
  42. 42. American ColoniesChapter 8New England<br />THE GREAT MIGRATION<br />Puritan emigrants followed French and English mariners, fishermen, and fur traders who had visited the New England coast<br />In 1630 a large Puritan emigration, subsequently called the “Great Migration” began under the leadership of John Winthrop<br />Later in the century, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire secured their own charters of government from the crown<br />RELIGION AND PROFIT<br />Many Puritans sought a distant refuge, where they could live apart from sinners<br />Most English who had migrated across the Atlantic were already dead in Chesapeake or West Indian graves<br />New England attracted an unusual set of emigrants <br />New England lacked a profitable plantation crop <br />
  43. 43. American ColoniesChapter 8New England<br />LAND AND LABOR<br />New England colonies granted land to men who banded together as a corporate group to found a town<br />New England’s diversified farms were less prone to disrupt by the boom-and-bust price cycle<br />The New English couldn’t afford servants or slaves so they depended on family labor<br />FAMILY LIFE<br />It took a family to cope with the diverse and constant demands of building and maintaining a farm in New England<br />The New English thought of marriage as both romantic and economic<br />Women played a leading role in oral circulation of news and opinion<br />COMMERCE<br />Termination of the Great Migration in 1640 produced an economic depression<br />By developing the fishing trade the Puritans rescued the region’s economy<br />Shipbuilding was a powerful engine of economic development and diversification <br />