Ning site posting #1


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Ning site posting #1

  1. 1. History 141 Online Victoria Herrera Ning Site Posting #1
  2. 2. The Americas in the 19 th Century <ul><li>Chinese migrants increased the ethnic diversity of American populations and stimulated economic development in the western hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>In the 18 th and 19 th centuries almost all the lands of the western hemisphere won independence from European Colonial powers </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas from the Declaration of independence changed over time to become more equal to “all men” </li></ul><ul><li>The United States doubled in size by purchasing France's Louisiana Territory </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Army relocated indigenous people of North America, the most important of these was the forced removal of Cherokees from the eastern woodlands </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Americas in the 19 th Century <ul><li>Abolition didn’t bring full equality for blacks in northern states but it did help to distinguish between slave and free states </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln thought that slavery was immoral </li></ul><ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation had little immediate effect on slaves' status </li></ul><ul><li>The victory of the northern states ended slavery in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>John A. MacDonald became the first prime minister of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America was very interested in Enlightenment values and republican ideals but leaders had little experience with self government </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>In 1645 glaciers started moving slowly and engulfed farms and crushed entire villages </li></ul><ul><li>In parts of Europe and North America temperatures plummeted and harsh weather set in </li></ul><ul><li>The Little Ice Age was abundantly documented by human observers </li></ul><ul><li>On average the world was 1 to 2 degrees cooler than it is today </li></ul><ul><li>Many scientists have different theories about the temperature drop </li></ul><ul><li>Some popular ideas as to what caused these bitter years include a decrease in solar activity, an increase in volcanic activity or a change in ocean circulation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>Jefferson decided to purchase Louisiana because he felt uneasy about France and Spain having the power to block American trade access to the port of New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>The American government used $3 million in gold as a down payment, and issued bonds for the balance </li></ul><ul><li>The Haitian Revolution was a period of brutal conflict in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, leading to the elimination of slavery and the establishment of Haiti as the first republic ruled by people of African ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1730's Saint-Domingue together with Jamaica had become the main supplier of the world's sugar </li></ul><ul><li>The Haitian Revolution was influential in slave rebellions in the United States and British colonies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Frontiers of the Americas <ul><li>Prince Alexander traveled around the world and studied different tribes and collected insects and plants from each area </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Bodmer was a Swiss painter of the American West. He was hired by Maximilian to record images of the different tribes along the way as they traveled </li></ul><ul><li>Bodmer's pieces of art are recognized as the most accurate painted images ever made of Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>A public recognition of valor was extremely important to these men </li></ul><ul><li>The honor of men depended on how well they upheld the standards of the groups in which they sought recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Even when the law was ineffective, killing to make a point was always defined by the authorities as a crime </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>To “win” the war the South needed only to defend with it already possessed by repelling enemy invasions and wearing out the wall of the Northern people </li></ul><ul><li>The soldiers' affection for McClellan became legendary </li></ul><ul><li>Robert E. Lee was a great risk-taker </li></ul><ul><li>April 6 th the confederates attacked, they caught Grant by surprise and drove his army back toward the river </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan insisted that Johnston outnumbered his army 2 to 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln relieved McClellan of his post as general </li></ul><ul><li>The Confederates pulled out of Norfolk thus yielding the most important naval yard in the South to the Yankees </li></ul>
  8. 8. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Jackson became the most renowned commander in the South and most feared in the North </li></ul><ul><li>The Seven Days Battle produced 20,000 Confederate causalities </li></ul><ul><li>During the Seven Days Lincoln took several actions to revitalize the Union was effort </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed a militia act that authorized the president to call state militia into federal service for 9 months and to draft them if a state failed to fulfill its quota </li></ul><ul><li>Other than events on the battlefield and the worsening cotton famine, the slavery issue influenced European attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of slaves worked as army laborers, teamsters, cooks, musicians, servants, and in other capacities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>The Union became embarrassed when they failed to capture Chattanooga. They must develop effective cavalry of their own. </li></ul><ul><li>The Union decided to combine the two armies in order to take on Lee's army of 200,000 men </li></ul><ul><li>No one was more aware of the army's demoralization than Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Four of Lincoln's Cabinet members signed a memorandum urging the president to dismiss McClellan </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln decided to keep McClellan and actually put him in charge of the whole army. And it turned out to be a good idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans favored a prolongation of the was and Democrats wished to bring it to a termination </li></ul><ul><li>Great events awaited the outcome of Lee's decision to cross the Potomac </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>Pope had been outgeneralled, but he hoped to turn this embarrassment into an opportunity to “bag Jackson” </li></ul><ul><li>Lee launched the invasion with 55,000 men and ended up making up for his losses at Second Manassas </li></ul><ul><li>The hardest fighting outfit was commanded by John Bell Hood </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan would take no initiative without “absolute assurance of success” </li></ul><ul><li>The Army of Northern Virginia was not utterly beaten as McClellan claimed </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln had a draft of a proclamation of emancipation in his desk for almost 2 months while he waited for the military situation to improve </li></ul><ul><li>“ Without slavery the rebellion could never have existed; without slavery it could not continue” </li></ul><ul><li>No other campaign and battle in the war had such momentous, multiple consequences as Antietam </li></ul>