Ch04 ppt. business communications

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  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04 Figure 4.2: Process of Selecting an Outline for a Spoken or Written Message, page 72
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • BCOM Chapter 04
  • Ch04 ppt. business communications

    1. 1. Planning Written and Spoken Messages © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 4 Lecture Slides
    2. 2. Learning Objective 1 <ul><li>Identify the purposes and type of message </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 1
    3. 3. Planning Written and Spoken Messages © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Deter-mine the purpose and select the channel Envision the audience Consider the context Choose a channel and the medium Adapt the message to audience needs and concerns Organize the message Prepare the first draft
    4. 4. The Purpose of the Message <ul><li>To Inform </li></ul><ul><li>To Persuade </li></ul><ul><li>To Convey Goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>To Establish Credibility </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1
    5. 5. Determine the Type of Message <ul><li>Good news messages : positive news, messages of appreciation or thank-you notes </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral messages : routine messages, requests and claims, customer orders and credit, procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Bad news messages : refusals of requests and claims, denials of credit, and problems with customer orders </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive messages : sales messages and persuasive requests </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1
    6. 6. Communicate Ethically & Responsibly <ul><li>State information as truthfully and fairly as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Do not exaggerate facts </li></ul><ul><li>Express ideas understandably </li></ul><ul><li>Support viewpoint with facts </li></ul><ul><li>State ideas with consideration that preserves receiver’s self-worth </li></ul><ul><li>Design honest graphics </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 1
    7. 7. Learning Objective 2 <ul><li>Develop clear perceptions of the audience to enhance the impact of the communication and human relations. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 2
    8. 8. Envision the Audience <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Economic level </li></ul><ul><li>Education and work background </li></ul><ul><li>Needs and concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. What should you learn about your audience? 2
    9. 9. Types of Workplace Audiences <ul><li>Managerial : look for the “big picture” and tend to ignore details </li></ul><ul><li>Non-expert : know little about a subject and need more details </li></ul><ul><li>Expert : know as much about the topic as you do </li></ul><ul><li>International/multicultural : may not speak English as a first language and may have differing cultural interpretations of symbols and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed : all of the above </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2
    10. 10. Audience Perceptions <ul><li>Previous experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude toward sender and ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude toward subject </li></ul><ul><li>Experience with channel, especially in electronic communication </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Audience perception is colored by: 2
    11. 11. Learning Objective 3 <ul><li>Consider the context of the message and any environmental influences that may affect its delivery. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 3
    12. 12. Step 3: Consider the Context <ul><li>CONTEXTUAL DIMENSIONS </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 <ul><li>Physical Context </li></ul><ul><li>Social Context </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological Context </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Context </li></ul>
    13. 13. Physical Context <ul><li>How would these settings change an interaction? </li></ul><ul><li>Office </li></ul><ul><li>Hallway </li></ul><ul><li>Company Picnic </li></ul><ul><li>Mall </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 Setting can influence the content and quality of interactions
    14. 14. Social Context <ul><li>How would these types of relationships change an interaction? </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Cordial </li></ul><ul><li>Contentious </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3 The nature of the relationship between communicators
    15. 15. Chronological Context <ul><li>The ways time influences interactions </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3
    16. 16. Cultural Context <ul><li>Includes the organizational culture as well as the cultural backgrounds of individual members. </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3
    17. 17. Remember This! <ul><li>Organizational Culture : a system of shared meanings and practices held by members that distinguish the organization from other organizations. </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3
    18. 18. Learning Objective 4 <ul><li>Determine the appropriate channel and media for communicating the message. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4
    19. 19. Things to Consider When Considering Channel and Media <ul><li>Richness vs. leanness </li></ul><ul><li>Need for interpretation (ambiguity) </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of establishing contact </li></ul><ul><li>Time required for feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of information conveyed </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent record </li></ul><ul><li>Control over the message </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4
    20. 20. Two-Way, Face-To-Face <ul><li>IN PERSON </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate an unpleasant or highly emotional message that may be subject to misinterpretation, a persuasive message, follow-up to a complex written message, or a personal message. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4
    21. 21. Two-Way, Face-To-Face <ul><li>TRADITIONAL GROUP MEETING </li></ul><ul><li>Provides an optimal communication environment for discussing and reaching consensus on critical issues. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4
    22. 22. Two-Way, Face-To-Face <ul><li>VIDEO OR </li></ul><ul><li>TELECONFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an optimal communication environment for discussing and reaching a consensus on critical issues when members are geographically dispersed. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4
    23. 23. Two-Way, Not Face-To-Face <ul><li>TELEPHONE CALL </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver or obtain pleasant or routine information instantly. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4
    24. 24. Two-Way, Not Face-To-Face <ul><li>VOICE MAIL MESSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Leave message the receiver can reply to when convenient, eliminating telephone tag. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4
    25. 25. Two-Way, Not Face-To-Face <ul><li>ELECTRONIC MAIL / INSTANT MESSAGING </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver the same message to a large, dispersed audience; inappropriate for personal, confidential, or highly sensitive messages because of privacy issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact colleagues while on the telephone or provide or seek general information. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4
    26. 26. One Way, Not Face-To-Face <ul><li>Letter or </li></ul><ul><li>memorandum </li></ul><ul><li>Report or </li></ul><ul><li>proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Web page or </li></ul><ul><li>blog </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver written record of information internally or externally. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide written record of procedures or policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate complex or lengthy information. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in a free-flowing dialog that ensures timely distribution and capture of knowledge about a topic of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Give immediate access to short, important messages that can be retrieved discreetly between events or detailed information that can be sent more accurately and easily than by voice mail. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4
    27. 27. Learning Objective 5 <ul><li>Apply techniques for adapting messages to the audience. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 5
    28. 28. Focus on Receiver’s View Point  © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. “ Me” Attitude “You” Attitude I want to congratulate you on your award. Congratulations! You are the Employee of the Year. I am interested in ordering . . . Please send me . . . (You is the understood subject.) I give you permission to take an extra day of vacation. You earned an extra day of vacation because of your performance. 5
    29. 29. When Compliments Go “Bad” <ul><li>Compliments can do more harm than good if paid at the wrong time , in the wrong setting , in the presence of the wrong people , or for the wrong reasons . </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 5
    30. 30. Learning Objective 6 <ul><li>Recognize the importance of organizing a message before writing the first draft and select the appropriate message outline (deductive or inductive) for developing messages to achieve the desired response. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 6
    31. 31. Sender Benefits from Outlining <ul><li>Encourages ________ and _______ </li></ul><ul><li>Permits _____________ on one phase at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Saves time in ___________ ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a ______________ lift </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates appropriate _________ of ideas </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. accuracy brevity concentration structuring psychological emphasis 6
    32. 32. Receiver Benefits from Outlining <ul><li>Makes messages more concise and accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Makes relationships between ideas easier to distinguish and remember </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes a positive reaction to the message and the sender </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 6
    33. 33. Select an Outline for Written and Spoken Messages © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 6
    34. 34. Learning Objective 7 <ul><li>Prepare the first draft. </li></ul>© 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 7
    35. 35. Get Ready, Set, Write! <ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Write rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Intend to write and rewrite </li></ul><ul><li>Revise until document is perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Consider using technological help </li></ul><ul><li>Create purposeful, effective, logical final draft </li></ul> © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7
    36. 36. Get Ready to Write © 2009 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 7 Message type and purpose Logical Sequence Begin composing message Channel and medium Context of message Audience needs & perspective Inductive or deductive

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