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Personal Selling: Chapter 9


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Personal Selling: Chapter 9

  1. 1. Making the Sales Calls Chapter 9
  2. 2. Important Questions Answered► How should the salesperson make the initial approach to make a good impression and gain the prospect’s attention?► How can the salesperson develop rapport and increase source credibility?► Why is discovering the prospect’s needs important and how can Salesperson get the information? Contd. 2
  3. 3. Important Questions Answered► How can the salesperson most effectively relate the product or service features to the prospect’s needs?► Why is it important for the salesperson to make adjustments during the call?► How does the salesperson recognise that adjustments are needed?► How can a salesperson effectively sell to groups? 3
  4. 4. PURPOSE OF AN EFFECTIVE APPROACH► To make a favorable or positive impression on the prospect.► To gain the prospects undivided attention.► To develop positive interest in your proposition.► To lead smoothly into the fact-finding or need discovery phase of the interview. 4
  5. 5. Essential elements of a Sales CallAdjustingAssessing the buyer’sreactions and makingadjustmentsMaking a good impressionIdentifying or reiterating needsOffering the solution to the buyer’s needs Outcomes 5 Credibility and trust
  6. 6. Making A Good Impression Very important for the Salesperson to know as how to doimpression management. If the salesperson fails to make a good impression it is very likely that he/she will also losethe interest of the buyer and building partnership will not be possible. 6
  7. 7. FIRST IMPRESSIONS► Four minutes is the average time that the prospects takes to decide about you► Not all buyers act upon their first impressionsWeaknesses of first impressions► Tend to be based on emotions► All behavior traits do not show up in first impressions► Behavior may be deliberately controlled by either party during initial contact. 7
  8. 8. Theres No Second Chance To Make a Good First Impression Visual Factors Organization, Professional Habits•Some details about you are adistraction •Car •Grooming •Be Prompt•Watch your body language •Have a clear agenda•Watch what you wear •State the purpose of your call right away•Dont advertise political, religious •Be prepared with pre approach informationor groupaffiliations that may evoke aresponse Building Rapport Actions•Pronounce the name correctly •Shake Hands•Use compliments carefully •Keep eye contact•Respect personal space •Warm greeting•Look for common ground •Dont smoke, chew gum, etcAttitude Enthusiasm, Enthusiasm 8
  9. 9. SURFACE LANGUAGE Includes All •grooming Aspects •clothing of •accessories Appearan •posture ce•Affects first impressions•even though they may actually provide limited or shallow insight into the true person.Dress the •Dress ConservativelyPart •Dress AttractivelyWe all •Choose Accessories Carefullywear a •Dress Appropriatelyuniform. •Give Attention to Grooming •Get the prospect to take you seriously •Work with your physical characteristicsProjecting an Image 9
  10. 10. Some Style Tips► Clothing should be professional and understated► Neutral colors like blue, taupe and gray► Wear suits to meetings. Jackets give the appearance of power.► Blue is the most powerful color► Keep your shoes shined► Match socks to clothing► Keep accessories simple► Take dress cues from the highest person in the company► Dress appropriately for your business 10
  11. 11. Waiting For The Prospect► Being in time leaves a good impression.► An average salesperson spends certain portion of each working day waiting for the sales interview.► It is important to make good use of this time.► It is also wise not to wait for too long for the prospect and convey it to them tactfully – some advise that the salesperson should not wait for more than 15 minutes for the meeting. 11
  12. 12. The Entrance► The first few minutes of every first meeting are important to make an impression.► The salesperson can adapt to the situation and make an effective entrance for that particular scenario 12
  13. 13. Very First Impressions► Not to forget that knowing the needs of the prospect and the product are not enough – poor first impression can stop the process of partnership building► May vary from culture to culture but it is said that selling to buyers of opposite sex brings in better results. One can’t change the gender but can definitely avoid making mistakes in the first meeting, especially the very first impression 13
  14. 14. Handshaking► It should be prospect’s choice.► Don’t extend your hand for shaking if the prospect is sitting.► Official handshaking is different from social (palm of women facing down) – again it depends upon culture if the women should extend their hand or not as well as if one should extend his hand to women or not? 14
  15. 15. THE PROPER GREETING Choice of •The Rule of Twelve - the first 12 words should include a form Greetin of thanks g•plan •Failure to prepare in advance could lead to stammering orahead faltering speech, either of which creates a negative impression.•kept •You must be ready to alter the prepared approach if thequite situation demands itsimple. TheHandsh ake 15
  16. 16. Name Characteristics Tips Flabby Limp, Soft Paw •Pessimistic •need reassurance •Usually menThe Squeeze Squeeze like a vice •want to show strength and power •Possible inferiority complex •Meet needs with flattery "Next To Arm and elbow are bent and right hand stays close to the •Favored by politicians and others who are hesitant to take risks Body" side •Use caution Hand is thrusted forward and Impelling pumped vigorously •They seem insecure •Use more insistence Hand is thrust forward.Nongripping Fingers do not move. •Dont want involvement •Approach slowly Robot Quick and automatic •Indifferent and self interested •Show that you are indispensable to their needs •Lots of will powerJackhammer Handpumping •Tend to be inflexible •Be determined with them Hold your hand and wont Prison give it back. •Opportunists •Emphasize how fortunate you are to meet 16 Normal Open and honest Trust your instincts
  17. 17. Handshake helps determine personality style Driver firm may turn hand over yours Amiable may not make eye contact• The handshake is one of the first nonverbal signals you receive.• Be sure to make use of it to learn how to deal with a particular prospect. 17
  18. 18. Rules for an Effective Handshake► Stand► Maintain eye contact► Step or lean forward► Greet the other person, and repeat his or her name► Have a pleasant, animated face► Watch for people that do not like to be touched► Firm, consistent, pressure► For moist hands - carry a special handkerchief► Hands should meet equidistant 18
  19. 19. How to Make Hand Shake more memorable► As you approach someone, when you are about three feet away, extend your right arm out at a slight angle across chest, with your thumb pointing upward.► Lock hands, thumb joint to thumb joint.► Firmly clasp the other persons hand -- without any bone crushing or macho posturing.► Pump the other persons hand two to three times, and let go. 19
  20. 20. opportunities to Shake Hand► When you are introduced to someone and when you say good-bye► When a client, customer or any visitor from the outside enters your office► When you run into someone you havent seen in a long time► When you enter a meeting and are introduced to participants 20
  21. 21. International protocol1. Shake hands with everyone in a room2. Omissions are noticed, and are considered a rejection.► Women1. should initiate handshakes,2. and shake hands with other women and men.3. Not extending her hand to a European male will cause an American businesswoman to lose credibility.► Western and Eastern Europeans reshake hands whenever they’re apart for even a short period of time (for example, lunch).► French and Japanese business people shake hands with one firm gesture.► In Japan, the handshake may be combined with a slight bow, which should be returned.► In Arab countries, handshakes are a bit limp and last longer than typical American handshakes.► Latin Americans also tend to use a lighter, lingering handshake.► In all cases1. don’t pull your hand away too soon2. such a gesture will be interpreted as a rejection 21
  22. 22. Select a Seat► When selecting a seat better to keep the culture in mind and sit accordingly.► Usually asking for a permission to sit is unnecessary. 22
  23. 23. Getting The Customer’s Attention► The halo effect i.e. how and what you do in one thing changes a person’s perception about other things you do, seems to operate in many sales calls.► Some experts say that the customer’s name should be used in the opening statement – it indicates respect and a recognition to the person’s unique qualities. 23
  24. 24. Suggestions For Greetings Use of the Prospects Name "The sweetest and most important sound in any language." First Name? •Based on Relative ages or •Prevailing custom Formal Name? •Type of product or industry •Your conclusions about behavioral style Remembering the Buyers Name •Relationship tension is not uncommon in the beginning •The purpose of small talk. Small Talk? a.Gain an advantageous, positive beginning that will break the or ice and ease the tension. Get Down to b."Warm up" a cold environment Business? c.Provides additional information about the prospect. •Small talk can be negative if it conflicts with the prospects behavioral style. Suit the Approach to the Person •You must first estimate the personality style.Gaining Attention & •Appeal to the senses Capturing Interest •Introduce of a benefit 24
  25. 25. Ways to Gain attention of the customer► Introduction Approach► Referral Approach► Benefit Approach► Product Approach► Compliment Approach► Question Approach 25
  26. 26. Introduction ApproachHere the salespeople state their names and thenames of their companies and may hand theprospect a business card – simplest way to open asales call. 26
  27. 27. Referral ApproachAn effective and amiable way is to start with the names of the satisfied customers or friend of the prospect. 27
  28. 28. Benefit ApproachSaid to be the most widely used approach whereone starts with the benefits of theproduct/service. 28
  29. 29. Product ApproachOne could also start by showing the product and its features and benefits. 29
  30. 30. Compliment ApproachA very important approach that should be very carefully used is where one compliments the prospect; not to forget that it is both sincere and specific and not insincere and flattery. 30
  31. 31. Question ApproachHere a question is asked or an interesting fact isstated in the form of a question to open theintroduction/meeting. 31
  32. 32. APPROACH OBJECTIVES Objectives of a "statement" or "demonstration" approach•To capture the attention of the prospect.•To stimulate the prospects interest.•To provide a transition into the sales presentation. Objectives in opening with questions•To uncover the needs or problems important to theprospect.•To determine if the prospect wishes to fulfill these needs orsolve these problems.•To have the prospect tell you about these needs orproblems, and the intention to do something about them. 32
  33. 33. TYPES OF APPROACHES SelfIntroductio •Addresses the prospect by name (pronouncing it correctly), n •States your name and company Approach •Presents your business card.Consumer Benefit •Gives the prospect a reason for listeningApproach •Suggests a risk for failure to listen. Curiosity •You should know something about the prospect Approach •Ask questions whose answers will respond favorably to your product/service. Question •Quickly establishes two-way communication. Approach •Enables you to investigate the prospects needs and apply the benefits of your product or service to those expressed needs.Complime nt •Signals your sincere interest in the prospect.Approach Referral •Helps the salesperson establish leverage by borrowing the influence of Approach someone the prospect trusts and respects. Shock •presents a shocking statement of what could possibly happen if the prospect Approach 33 does not buy your product.
  34. 34. TYPES OF APPROACHES •actually hand the product, or some physical representation of it, to a prospect to produce a positive reaction. stirs interest •permits a demonstration •makes a multiple sense appeal •Creates in the prospect a feeling of commitment to listen and to participate Product actively in the presentation. •If bringing the actual product is not feasible, you must use other devicesApproach a.A piece of literature b.A sample of the output of the machine c.A small working model d.A picture e.Any other visual tool to simulate the actual product that the prospect can hold and look at. •This serves to help the prospect focus and hold attention on your productShowmans hip •doing something unusual to capture the prospects attention (example, Approach dropping a "new, unbreakable china" platter to demonstrate durability). Curiosity Approach •make the prospect curious about your product. Opinion Approach •ask the prospect for his opinion on your products. Premium 34 Approach •giving the prospect a sample of your product or a small gift.
  35. 35. Developing Rapport► Rapport (with reference to selling) is defined as a close harmonious relationship founded on mutual trust.► Very important to complete the homework before meeting the prospect as a long term relationship requires a rapport. 35
  36. 36. When Things Go WrongIt is in human nature to make mistakes, in casesomething goes wrong:► Don’t faint, scream or lose control► Try to maintain the proper perspective and a sense of humour► Also not bad to apologise if something comes out of the mouth that is embarrassingBe careful about the meaning of gestures indifferent cultures 36
  37. 37. Identifying The Prospect’s Needs► The moment attention is caught, the needs could be identified.► With buyer’s permission, the salesperson can also ask about the needs. Need discovery is very important 37
  38. 38. Finding The Need Behind The Need Need behind the need More strategic Our competition is going on us, “need behind and we need to be more responsive the need” than they are Need behind the need We need to improve our sales performance Need We need to equip our sales force with laptop computersInitial need expressed 38
  39. 39. Remember To Communicate Effectively► Better to maintain the human aspect in the meeting► Ask for permission before asking questionsFollowing are two common ways of askingquestions:1. Asking open and closed questions2. Spin technique 39
  40. 40. Asking Open And Closed Questions► Open questions require the prospect to say something more than a simple yes or no► Closed questions could simply be answered by a yes or no or a fill-in-the-blank kind of reply 40
  41. 41. Using Questions Results in Sales Success Ask Questions to•Obtain information from prospect.•Develop two-way communication.•Increase prospect participation. Direct Requires a short answer – Question usually "yes" or "no". •whoNondirecti •what ve Open end questions •where Question •when •how •why.Rephrasin Allows the salesperson to g better clarify Are you saying that ..........?" Question what the prospect means. Redirect Redirect prospect to points of We agree that having a supplier that Question agreement. Often used as a backup opening can reduce your costs is vital. Dont we? statement 41
  42. 42. Three Rules for Using Questions► Use only those questions to which you can anticipate the answer (those that wont put you between a rock and a hard place).1. Wait for an answer to your question.2. Just listen.► IS THE PROSPECT STILL NOT LISTENING?1. Quickly Hand or Show the Prospect the Product.2. Ask A Question.► BE FLEXIBLE IN YOUR APPROACH1. Be Prepared To Make Changes in Your Approach and Overall Presentation 42
  43. 43. Spin Techniquea. This method was developed by Huthwaite Inc. and works with major salesb. In this method the salespersons go through a logical needs identification sequence known as SPIN i. Situation question ii. Problem questions iii. Implication questions iv. Needs payoff questions Cont. 43
  44. 44. Situation QuestionsBroad questions to gather general information and current facts. Usually asked early in the sales call.  General data-gathering questions  Many situation-type questions can be answered through precall information gathering and planning 44
  45. 45. Problem QuestionsThese questions are asked to find out about major problems/dissatisfactions etc.  Questions about specific difficulties, problems, or dissatisfactions 45
  46. 46. Implication QuestionsTo help the prospect find out the real ramification of the problem, question are asked in a logical sequence.  Help the prospect recognize the true ramifications of the problem  Motivate the prospect to search for a solution to the problem 46
  47. 47. Need Payoff QuestionsThese questions are asked by the salespersons about the usefulness of solving the problem. Salespersons urge the prospect to resolve the problem rather than thinking about the problem only  Questions about the usefulness of solving a problem  Solution centered 47
  48. 48. Conclusions About SpinThe problem is that the prospect takes thesalesperson as a consultant rather than someonetrying to sell a product. This is why selling usingthe Spin technique is fairly difficult  Encourages the prospect to define the need  Prospect views the salesperson more as a consultant trying to help than as someone pushing a product 48
  49. 49. Reiterating Needs You Identified Before The MeetingKnowing the problem is one while being at the same levelof understanding with the prospect is another. It is good toreiterate the problem to the prospect to be sure that thesalesperson and the prospect look at the same problem inthe same manner. 49
  50. 50. Additional Considerations► Fairly difficult to say how many questions to ask to understand the problem/situation. It varies from problem to problem.► Sometimes the prospect cannot reply due to lack of knowledge.► Rare that the prospect does not respond to the question as they wish to get a solution to the problem. 50
  51. 51. Developing a Strategy For The Presentation► Based on the needs identified, salesperson develop a strategy to proceed.► Prospects make the decision about the product/service as well as if the asking price is ok or not.► More important is to emphasise on the product/service and its features in relation to the solution to the problem(s) identified in the presentation. 51
  52. 52. Offering The Solution To The Buyer’s NeedsThis step is very important as the salesperson throughpresentation or whatever means presents a solution to theproblem as well as here salesperson relates the solution ofthe problem to the features of the product/service. 52
  53. 53. Relating Features To Benefits► Each product/service has several features i.e. qualities/characteristic► Benefit is the way in which the feature(s) will resolve the problem.Sometimes it is important to sell the features and benefitsof the seller’s firm rather than those of the product. 53
  54. 54. Assessing ReactionsVery important to assess the reactions of the prospectduring the presentation. Actually the prospect should agreeto be able to make a decision to buy a particularproduct/service.This could be done in several ways and listening is one ofthem► Using Nonverbal Cues► Verbal Probing► Making Adjustments 54
  55. 55. Using nonverbal cuesobserve the five channels of prospect’s nonverbal communication and make adjustments to the presentation. 55
  56. 56. Verbal probingTake the pulse of the situation i.e. trial close. Askquestions to be sure that the prospect also thinkspositively about the product/ service being offered. 56
  57. 57. Making adjustmentsThe salesperson should be alert during the presentation and should make adjustments e.g. if the prospect doesn’t believe then redirect the efforts towards establishing the credibility 57
  58. 58. Building Credibility During The Call► The prospect should believe that the salesperson it credible i.e. believable and reliable.► Offer concrete statements to back up verbal statements to be credible.► Do not give statements that are not true and/or what don’t sound true and/or what could not be proven as true ones. 58
  59. 59. Selling To Groups► Fairly difficult as one has to deal with several persons at a time.► Could be frustrating if the group is difficult but it could be very rewarding too.► The needs and concerns of each group member should be collected.► Salesperson should also be clear about the status of each of the prospect’s group member. 59
  60. 60. After the interview► The prospect should remember you in subjective terms.► Your goal in managing your overall appearance is to get the prospect to take you seriously.► If you project an attitude and look of authority and power, you are more likely to gain an audience with the prospect.► When you achieve that hearing, you are more likely to close the sale if you project confidence, success and experience. 60
  61. 61. End of Chapter 9
  62. 62. Thank you