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Designing Participatory Smart Cities
@fredgarnett #cmircity Bristol 18th Dec 2015
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
City Histories
Web 2.0
Ambient Learning City
Context
Participatory City Futures
Discu...
City Histories
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
City Histories
The City in History – Lewis Mumford
from
Alleys
(medieval)
to
Squares
(modern)
to
Anarchists
(self-organise...
In 1666 the Great Fire of London
Burnt through alleys; requiring a new city
Fortunately Covent Garden was waiting
In 1649 Duke of Bedford had proposed Squares
Grids were rejected (Philadelphia)
Garden Squares accepted
In 1971 property development was planned
But residents objected, occupied, changed
Leaving the Covent Garden of today
Tourist Attraction, heart of the West End
In 1992 Deptford Creek faced Regeneration
But residents objected, occupied, changed
Instead of a high-end Marina
We kept the Creek tidal & an open public space
Creekside Centre Sustainable build…
Used in Olympics 2012 build (IOC standard)
Urban Ecology rools OK!
Crofton Fields (Riverways project)
Recently celebrated on BBC TV Culture Show
For Art Walks (SLAW) & cultural regeneration
Social action
Cultural regeneratio...
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
Anarchism and the City tomorrow Kropotkin Ealham
Garden Cities
Barcelona
Conclusion; interesting cityscapes come -
from sustained collaborative citizen action
Web 2.0
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
Web 2.0
from
Access
(internet)
to
Content
(WorldWideWeb)
to
Context
(Web2.0)
Web 2.0
I’m interested in social change
through technology use;
Technological Innovation Process TIP
1771-2021 (in 50yr cy...
Web 2.0
TIP Effects of technology use;
1st Order effects – planned use
-ve 1st Order Effects – side-effects
2nd Order Effe...
Web 2.0
Arguably in tech-enabled change;
Change is socially dialogical
rather than intellectually
dialectical
It comes fro...
So web 2.0 allows users to shape tech-use
Permanent beta, architectures of participation
So how can Web 2.0 help designers?
John Cook & I designed a social
network before social networks
Formed lastfridaymob; ar...
Web 2.0 & Learning
We formed Learner-Generated
Contexts group (2006)
“A coincidence of motivations
leading to agile config...
P A H
Teacher
School
Teacher/
Learner
Learner
Research
Cognition Epistemic
Cognition
Meta-
Cognition
Adult
Pedagogy Andragogy Heutagogy
From Andragogy to Heutagogy
Pedagogy Andragogy Heutagogy Continuum
Pedagogy the institutional...
Web 2.0 & Context shaping
If web 2.0 with user-generated
content & participative qualities
Allows for “context-shaping”
Ca...
Ambient Learning City
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
Ambient Learning City
from
Ambient
(environmental)
to
Smart
(wired)
to
Social
(collaborative)
Ambient Learning City
Being “insanely ambitious”
We decided to investigate how
A multiple-context Ambient
Learning City mi...
Ambient Learning City
In 2000 Proboscis created;
“Urban Tapestries” in Brighton
Enabling participative use of
mobile phone...
Ambient Learning City
2007 EU-IST 7 Future of Learning
For the “classroom of the future”
but learning context-responsive
2...
Ambient Learning City
1998 Lewisham Citizens Connect
Can the Internet be used to
stimulate “Active Citizenship”?
TaLENT Co...
Ambient Learning City
Question; can we use our
development framework to
Design interactive learning -
In multiple contexts...
Ambient Learning City; New Metaphors
Digital / Cabinets of Curiosities
Ambient Learning City; New Models
Aggregate then Curate; Social Media Participation Model
Social Cities of Tomorrow
Some Answers
New metaphors
New relationships
Object-centred sociality
Participative curatorial s...
Ambient Learning City
Answer;
1. New reframing metaphors
Digital Cabinets of Curiosity
2. New user-inclusive processes
Agg...
Ambient Learning City
Effectively we were getting our
hands dirty on 2nd order effects;
The problem was we were in an
indu...
Ambient Learning City
Question; how do we move from
context-responsive processes to
Context-shaping capabilities?
What new...
Context
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
Context-shaping
from
Representative
(19th century taxonomies)
to
Open
(access to hierarchy)
to
Participatory
(folksonomies)
Context
In 2010 Proboscis asked me to
critically review their work
I wrote “enabling consequences”
about shaping second-or...
Context
“Moving Criteria across
contexts”
Or what Steven Johnson calls
exaptation
Or what we call
#heutagogy or…
Context
Creativity! Playing with form
Creating platforms for change
BUT!!!
Are we using new technologies;
To e-enable exis...
Context
Manchester Historic knowledge context
1845 Museums Act
1850 Public Libraries Act
1871 Education Act
The 19th centu...
Context
In an Internet of People
@BenHammersley said that
“network society cannot be born”
Because people who grew up in
h...
Context
The Industrial Revolution threw a
bomb into community
Separating Home Work Leisure &
Markets from each other
Yet t...
Context (18th century)
Piece Hall, Halifax, Yorkshire; a user-owned “factory”
Participatory City Futures
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
Participatory City Futures
from
Subject
(monarchy)
to
Citizens
(constitutional monarchy)
to
CityZens
(who knows?)
Participatory City Futures
Post-war and post-modern urban plan solutions
Participatory City Futures
Why are we talking about Smart Cities?
…Social Cities, Hybrid Cities, Port Cities,
City 2.0, Gr...
Participatory City Futures
20 years ago I started teaching about
Information Systems in Society
As digital technology use ...
Participatory City Futures
Paradigm Shift (from Kuhn) features
A transformation process not an elaboration
of the existing...
Participatory City Futures
BUT!
As Hazel Henderson said
Technology is the essence of politics
Our technology choices creat...
Participatory City Futures
Cities are where the eternal human conflict
Between settlers and nomads is resolved
Settlement ...
“Technology is the essence of politics”
But are we e-enabling or transforming?
Participatory City Futures
So, how do we engage with this social
change process as it affects us day-by-day?
How do we fra...
Participatory City Futures
Some ideas from Origin of Spaces (EU)
ZAWP – Bilbao
Rolling process of hyper-local partnerships...
“from action
to process”
Lxfactory Lisboa
Participatory City Futures
On the design side we need…
Development Frameworks to help the
dialogical design of
The city we...
Context Engineering the Participatory CityMunicipality Smart City Participatory
City 2.0
City City Hall Real-time
City Hal...
Conclusions
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
1. CityZen action creates diverse city spaces
2. Web 2.0 allows dialogical user choic...
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
ThankYou
More information on this will be found in;
Digital Futures and the City of T...
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
Some Resources&Links
Unsmart Cities blog
The City in History – Lewis Mumford
Deptford...
Designing Participatory Smart Cities
@fredgarnett http://bit.ly/CityPeeps
WikiQuals “Yes You Can!”
Learning not Education
Liminal not Institutionalised
Bio-diversity not Monoculture
Learner-centri...
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Participatory City

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Designing Participatory Smart Cities. A Public Lecture given in Bristol at the Arnolfini Gallery. Looking at how Web 2.0 tools and techniques can help make the emerging smart city participative & help CityZens take centre-stage by context-shaping where they live with context-engineering tools. Looking at; the history of cities and neighbourhood actions, the history of technologically-enabled social change, Web 2.0 & context-shaping, Learner-generated contexts development frameworks, Context & social change, possible city futures, context-engineering & CityZens...

Published in: Education

Participatory City

  1. 1. Designing Participatory Smart Cities @fredgarnett #cmircity Bristol 18th Dec 2015
  2. 2. Designing Participatory Smart Cities City Histories Web 2.0 Ambient Learning City Context Participatory City Futures Discussion; CityZens in Network Society
  3. 3. City Histories Designing Participatory Smart Cities
  4. 4. City Histories The City in History – Lewis Mumford from Alleys (medieval) to Squares (modern) to Anarchists (self-organised)
  5. 5. In 1666 the Great Fire of London Burnt through alleys; requiring a new city
  6. 6. Fortunately Covent Garden was waiting In 1649 Duke of Bedford had proposed Squares
  7. 7. Grids were rejected (Philadelphia) Garden Squares accepted
  8. 8. In 1971 property development was planned But residents objected, occupied, changed
  9. 9. Leaving the Covent Garden of today Tourist Attraction, heart of the West End
  10. 10. In 1992 Deptford Creek faced Regeneration But residents objected, occupied, changed
  11. 11. Instead of a high-end Marina We kept the Creek tidal & an open public space
  12. 12. Creekside Centre Sustainable build… Used in Olympics 2012 build (IOC standard)
  13. 13. Urban Ecology rools OK! Crofton Fields (Riverways project)
  14. 14. Recently celebrated on BBC TV Culture Show For Art Walks (SLAW) & cultural regeneration Social action Cultural regeneration Property speculation
  15. 15. Designing Participatory Smart Cities Anarchism and the City tomorrow Kropotkin Ealham Garden Cities Barcelona
  16. 16. Conclusion; interesting cityscapes come - from sustained collaborative citizen action
  17. 17. Web 2.0 Designing Participatory Smart Cities
  18. 18. Web 2.0 from Access (internet) to Content (WorldWideWeb) to Context (Web2.0)
  19. 19. Web 2.0 I’m interested in social change through technology use; Technological Innovation Process TIP 1771-2021 (in 50yr cycles) Kondratieff long-wave cycles of meta-technologies; microprocessor Networks, Services, Users model
  20. 20. Web 2.0 TIP Effects of technology use; 1st Order effects – planned use -ve 1st Order Effects – side-effects 2nd Order Effects – unanticipated -ve 2nd Order effects – crises… Social change comes through 2nd Order Effects; Trains > Metroland
  21. 21. Web 2.0 Arguably in tech-enabled change; Change is socially dialogical rather than intellectually dialectical It comes from users modifying designers’ original intentions
  22. 22. So web 2.0 allows users to shape tech-use Permanent beta, architectures of participation
  23. 23. So how can Web 2.0 help designers? John Cook & I designed a social network before social networks Formed lastfridaymob; argued Public technology must be; Creative, interactive, participative…
  24. 24. Web 2.0 & Learning We formed Learner-Generated Contexts group (2006) “A coincidence of motivations leading to agile configurations” Open Context Model of Learning Using a “development framework” the PAH Continuum
  25. 25. P A H Teacher School Teacher/ Learner Learner Research Cognition Epistemic Cognition Meta- Cognition Adult
  26. 26. Pedagogy Andragogy Heutagogy From Andragogy to Heutagogy Pedagogy Andragogy Heutagogy Continuum Pedagogy the institutionalisation of learning around facts, resource scarcity, subject disciplines; education as a delivery system (cognition) Andragogy negotiated, collaborative, interest-driven learning brokered into ‘open’ spaces – at best the community is the curriculum (meta-cognition) Heutagogy self-determined learning where learner creativity enables innovation (epistemic cognition)
  27. 27. Web 2.0 & Context shaping If web 2.0 with user-generated content & participative qualities Allows for “context-shaping” Can we design a development framework That allows us to shape learning contexts?
  28. 28. Ambient Learning City Designing Participatory Smart Cities
  29. 29. Ambient Learning City from Ambient (environmental) to Smart (wired) to Social (collaborative)
  30. 30. Ambient Learning City Being “insanely ambitious” We decided to investigate how A multiple-context Ambient Learning City might work We had Emergent Learning Model …Well! How did I get here? Emergent Learning Model
  31. 31. Ambient Learning City In 2000 Proboscis created; “Urban Tapestries” in Brighton Enabling participative use of mobile phones in urban contexts In 2005 Mudlarking in Deptford 2006 Ealing Northala Ambient Learning Park then Kew Gardens
  32. 32. Ambient Learning City 2007 EU-IST 7 Future of Learning For the “classroom of the future” but learning context-responsive 2010 Ambient Learning City>> 2011 MOSI-ALONG Ambient Learning Open Network Group Ambient Learning City
  33. 33. Ambient Learning City 1998 Lewisham Citizens Connect Can the Internet be used to stimulate “Active Citizenship”? TaLENT Community Grid for Learning (CGfL) (CoP model) but Best CGfL in Manchester… learners.org
  34. 34. Ambient Learning City Question; can we use our development framework to Design interactive learning - In multiple contexts in Manchester 1 Participative curatorial strategies 2 Object-centred sociality History of Manchester in 100 objects
  35. 35. Ambient Learning City; New Metaphors Digital / Cabinets of Curiosities
  36. 36. Ambient Learning City; New Models Aggregate then Curate; Social Media Participation Model
  37. 37. Social Cities of Tomorrow Some Answers New metaphors New relationships Object-centred sociality Participative curatorial strategies Aggregate then Curate Post-institutional thinking Participatory Cities Social cities not smart cities
  38. 38. Ambient Learning City Answer; 1. New reframing metaphors Digital Cabinets of Curiosity 2. New user-inclusive processes Aggregate then Curate No Taxonomies – interest-driven
  39. 39. Ambient Learning City Effectively we were getting our hands dirty on 2nd order effects; The problem was we were in an industrial city with 150 years experience of doing that… We were learning about contexts but we weren’t context-shaping…
  40. 40. Ambient Learning City Question; how do we move from context-responsive processes to Context-shaping capabilities? What new problems do we need to solve… So that we can create a dialogical development process?
  41. 41. Context Designing Participatory Smart Cities
  42. 42. Context-shaping from Representative (19th century taxonomies) to Open (access to hierarchy) to Participatory (folksonomies)
  43. 43. Context In 2010 Proboscis asked me to critically review their work I wrote “enabling consequences” about shaping second-order effects As generative innovations / platforms Giles Lane, as an artist & cultural broker, argued that they were… Enabling Consequences
  44. 44. Context “Moving Criteria across contexts” Or what Steven Johnson calls exaptation Or what we call #heutagogy or…
  45. 45. Context Creativity! Playing with form Creating platforms for change BUT!!! Are we using new technologies; To e-enable existing processes Or to Transform them?
  46. 46. Context Manchester Historic knowledge context 1845 Museums Act 1850 Public Libraries Act 1871 Education Act The 19th century created a context where taxonomic hierarchies were The basis of institutional organisation Still in that form in the 21st century
  47. 47. Context In an Internet of People @BenHammersley said that “network society cannot be born” Because people who grew up in hierarchies are still in POWER How do we move from hierarchies to a participatory network society? An Internet of People British Council Lecture 2011
  48. 48. Context The Industrial Revolution threw a bomb into community Separating Home Work Leisure & Markets from each other Yet the digital revolution has the potential to… Re-integrate all our daily lives (If you want it)…
  49. 49. Context (18th century) Piece Hall, Halifax, Yorkshire; a user-owned “factory”
  50. 50. Participatory City Futures Designing Participatory Smart Cities
  51. 51. Participatory City Futures from Subject (monarchy) to Citizens (constitutional monarchy) to CityZens (who knows?)
  52. 52. Participatory City Futures Post-war and post-modern urban plan solutions
  53. 53. Participatory City Futures Why are we talking about Smart Cities? …Social Cities, Hybrid Cities, Port Cities, City 2.0, Green Cities, Happy Cities, Future Cities, Messy Cities, Invisible Cities Transition Towns, Planet of Slums? We are facing a “paradigm shift” in our thinking about cities… Against the Smart City Adam Greenfield
  54. 54. Participatory City Futures 20 years ago I started teaching about Information Systems in Society As digital technology use developed beyond business organisations then… Their impact would be felt in our social lives This would create a Kondratieff long-wave change process in our society (1971-2021) And we have a choice in what that means because we are the USERS of new tech
  55. 55. Participatory City Futures Paradigm Shift (from Kuhn) features A transformation process not an elaboration of the existing (19th century) paradigm With “debates about fundamentals” (or types of cities – as in this presentation) No need for “consensus-forming” around existing City Hall paradigm… “Smart Cities” approach by Intel Cisco IBM Siemens is exactly this “consensus-forming”
  56. 56. Participatory City Futures BUT! As Hazel Henderson said Technology is the essence of politics Our technology choices create The kind of society we live in
  57. 57. Participatory City Futures Cities are where the eternal human conflict Between settlers and nomads is resolved Settlement requires ownership Nomads need to share But ownership & mobility are challenged by collaborative economy & smart phones Tetrad (Digital McLuhan) shows new tech; enhances^, >retrieves, <reverses, removes∨ AND we have a choice IF we are informed
  58. 58. “Technology is the essence of politics” But are we e-enabling or transforming?
  59. 59. Participatory City Futures So, how do we engage with this social change process as it affects us day-by-day? How do we frame our thoughts on the kind of cities we want to live in? Web 2.0 holds potential for participation But existing organisations want more of the same (same as <the past only more intense) Transition Cities or privatised Municipalities?
  60. 60. Participatory City Futures Some ideas from Origin of Spaces (EU) ZAWP – Bilbao Rolling process of hyper-local partnerships, permanently debating w/the council “from action to process” LX Factory – Lisboa Hyper-cool Coworking hub, designing in a social mix. “Hoxton in a factory” a “post-welfare state” solution ROJC – Pula Rebuilding Civil Society (post Civil-War) through NGOs Darwin – Bordeaux Ecological transitions to a sustainable economy Co-creating Coworking Spaces
  61. 61. “from action to process”
  62. 62. Lxfactory Lisboa
  63. 63. Participatory City Futures On the design side we need… Development Frameworks to help the dialogical design of The city we choose to live in! Both for Network Society & City 2.0 or… CityZens Context Engineering Development Framework for Network Society
  64. 64. Context Engineering the Participatory CityMunicipality Smart City Participatory City 2.0 City City Hall Real-time City Hall Distributed City Hall Institution Bricks & Mortar Clicks & Mortar Arch of Participation Street Tarmac Wifi/Digital Context Engineering Strategy Urban Plan Urban Vision Collaborative Vision
  65. 65. Conclusions Designing Participatory Smart Cities
  66. 66. Designing Participatory Smart Cities 1. CityZen action creates diverse city spaces 2. Web 2.0 allows dialogical user choices 3. Social change needs new framing devices 4. We can shape the contexts we live in 5. Mashups maketh new – we need dialogical development frameworks that are CityZens-centric 6. CollaborativeVisioning…
  67. 67. Designing Participatory Smart Cities ThankYou More information on this will be found in; Digital Futures and the City of Today (forthcoming 2016) Chapter with Context Engineer Dr. Carl Smith entitled… Context Shaping City 2.0; how to use Hybrid Technologies and Techniques to make the Smart City 2.0 participatory & Cityzen-centric
  68. 68. Designing Participatory Smart Cities Some Resources&Links Unsmart Cities blog The City in History – Lewis Mumford Deptford Creekside Centre What is Web 2.0? Open Context Model of Learning Emergent Learning Model Ambient Learning City Aggregate then Curate Everything is a Metaphor Social Cities of Tomorrow Where Good Ideas come from Enabling Consequences Against the Smart City
  69. 69. Designing Participatory Smart Cities @fredgarnett http://bit.ly/CityPeeps
  70. 70. WikiQuals “Yes You Can!” Learning not Education Liminal not Institutionalised Bio-diversity not Monoculture Learner-centric not Student-centred Learner-generated not Course-defined Community as Curriculum not Syllabus defined Community of Sqolars not Community of Practice Personal Learning Networks not Content-delivery Quality Assured not Quality Controlled Dynamic Quality not Static Quaity Affinity not Supervision Emergent not Linear Trust the learner to be themselves; Identity…

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